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Encyclopedia > Computer animation

See also: Computer-generated imagery Computer-generated imagery (commonly abbreviated as CGI) is the application of the field of computer graphics (or more specifically, 3D computer graphics) to special effects in films, television programs, commercials, simulators and simulation generally, and printed media. ...

Computer animation is the art of creating moving images via the use of computers. It is a subfield of computer graphics and animation. Increasingly it is created by means of 3D computer graphics, though 2D computer graphics are still widely used for low bandwidth and faster real-time rendering needs. Sometimes the target of the animation is the computer itself, but it sometimes the target is another medium, such as film. It is also referred to as CGI (Computer-generated imagery or computer-generated imaging), especially when used in films. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... This article is about the machine. ... This article is about the scientific discipline of computer graphics. ... The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... This article is about process of creating 3D computer graphics. ... 2D computer graphics is the computer-based generation of digital images—mostly from two-dimensional models (such as 2D geometric models, text, and digital images) and by techniques specific to them. ... A recording medium is a physical material that holds information expressed in any of the existing recording formats. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Computer-generated imagery (commonly abbreviated as CGI) is the application of the field of computer graphics (or more specifically, 3D computer graphics) to special effects in films, television programs, commercials, simulators and simulation generally, and printed media. ...


To create the illusion of movement, an image is displayed on the computer screen then quickly replaced by a new image that is similar to the previous image, but shifted slightly. This technique is identical to how the illusion of movement is achieved with television and motion pictures. A computer display monitor, usually called simply a monitor, is a piece of electrical equipment which displays viewable images generated by a computer without producing a permanent record. ... This article is about motion pictures. ...


Computer animation is essentially a digital successor to the art of stop motion animation of 3D models and frame-by-frame animation of 2D illustrations. For 3D animations, objects (models) are built on the computer monitor (modeled) and 3D figures are rigged with a virtual skeleton. For 2D figure animations, separate objects (illustrations) and separate transparent layers are used, with or without a virtual skeleton. Then the limbs, eyes, mouth, clothes, etc. of the figure are moved by the animator on key frames. The differences in appearance between key frames are automatically calculated by the computer in a process known as tweening or morphing. Finally, the animation is rendered. Stop motion is an animation technique which makes things that are static appear to be moving. ... For key frames in video compression, see I-frame and video compression picture types. ... This animated GIF demonstrates the effects of Adobe Flash shape, motion and color tweening. ... 3 Frames from a morph from George W. Bush to Arnold Schwarzenegger showing the mid-point between the two extremes Morphing is a special effect in motion pictures and animations that changes (or morphs) one image into another through a seamless transition. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


For 3D animations, all frames must be rendered after modeling is complete. For 2D vector animations, the rendering process is the key frame illustration process, while tweened frames are rendered as needed. For pre-recorded presentations, the rendered frames are transferred to a different format or medium such as film or digital video. The frames may also be rendered in real time as they are presented to the end-user audience. Low bandwidth animations transmitted via the internet (e.g. 2D Flash, X3D) often use software on the end-users computer to render in real time as an alternative to streaming or pre-loaded high bandwidth animations. Adobe Flash, or simply Flash, refers to both the Adobe Flash Player, and to the Adobe Flash Professional multimedia authoring program. ... X3D is the ISO standard for real-time 3D computer graphics, the successor to Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). ... Streaming may mean: Streaming media, multimedia data transferred in a stream of packets that are interpreted and rendered, in real time, by a software application as the packets arrive. ...

Contents

A simple example

Computer animation example
Computer animation example

The screen is blanked to a background color, such as black. Then a goat is drawn on the right of the screen. Next the screen is blanked, but the goat is re-drawn or duplicated slightly to the left of its original position. This process is repeated, each time moving the goat a bit to the left. If this process is repeated fast enough the goat will appear to move smoothly to the left. This basic procedure is used for all moving pictures in films and television. Example of computer animation (animated GIF) Photo of toy goat taken, and animated GIF made, by iMeowbot. ...


The moving goat is an example of shifting the location of an object. More complex transformations of object properties such as size, shape, lighting effects and color often require calculations and computer rendering instead of simple re-drawing or duplication. Traditionally, to render is to purify animal fats. ...


Explanation

To trick the eye and brain into thinking they are seeing a smoothly moving object, the pictures should be drawn at around 12 frames per second or faster (a frame is one complete image). With rates above 70 frames/s no improvement in realism or smoothness is perceivable due to the way the eye and brain process images. At rates below 12 frames/s most people can detect jerkiness associated with the drawing of new images which detracts from the illusion of realistic movement. Conventional hand-drawn cartoon animation often uses 15 frames/s in order to save on the number of drawings needed, but this is usually accepted because of the stylized nature of cartoons. Because it produces more realistic imagery computer animation demands higher frame rates to reinforce this realism. For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... Frame rate, or frame frequency, is the measurement of the frequency (rate) at which an imaging device produces unique consecutive images called frames. ... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... Jerkiness: In a video display, the perception, by human vision faculties, of originally continuous motion as a sequence of distinct snapshots. ...


The reason no jerkiness is seen at higher speeds is due to “persistence of vision.” From moment to moment, the eye and brain working together actually store whatever you look at for a fraction of a second, and automatically "smooth out" minor jumps. Movie film seen in theaters in the United States runs at 24 frames per second, which is sufficient to create this illusion of continuous movement. According to the theory of persistence of vision, the perceptual processes of the brain or the retina of the human eye retains an image for a brief moment. ...


Methods of animating virtual characters

In this 2D Flash animation, each 'stick' of the figure is keyframed over time to create motion.
In this 2D Flash animation, each 'stick' of the figure is keyframed over time to create motion.
In motion capture, the positions of the white dots on the actor's face and body are recorded in 3D.
In motion capture, the positions of the white dots on the actor's face and body are recorded in 3D.

In most 3D computer animation systems, an animator creates a simplified representation of a character's anatomy, analogous to a skeleton or stick figure. The position of each segment of the skeletal model is defined by animation variables, or Avars. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Adobe Flash, or simply Flash, refers to both the Adobe Flash Player, and to the Adobe Flash Professional multimedia authoring program. ... In animation, a key frame is a frame in an animated sequence of frames that was drawn or otherwise constructed directly by the user. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (550x918, 64 KB) Summary Composited screenshot to illustrate the steps in how Bill Nighy portrays the supernatural pirate Davy Jones. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (550x918, 64 KB) Summary Composited screenshot to illustrate the steps in how Bill Nighy portrays the supernatural pirate Davy Jones. ... Motion capture, or mocap, is a technique of digitally recording the movements of real things — usually humans — it originally developed as an analysis tool in biomechanics research, but has grown increasingly important as a source of motion data for computer animation. ... For other uses, see Skeleton (disambiguation). ... A stick figure. ... See also Avars (Race of people) An Avar or Animation Variable is a variable controlling the position of part of an animated object, such as a character. ...


In human and animal characters, many parts of the skeletal model correspond to actual bones, but skeletal animation is also used to animate other things, such as facial features (though other methods for facial animation exist). The character "Woody" in Toy Story, for example, uses 700 Avars, including 100 Avars in the face. The computer does not usually render the skeletal model directly (it is invisible), but uses the skeletal model to compute the exact position and orientation of the character, which is eventually rendered into an image. Thus by changing the values of Avars over time, the animator creates motion by making the character move from frame to frame. A technique in computer animation, particularly the animation of vertebrates, where a character is represented in two parts: a surface representation used to draw the character (called the skin) and a hierarchical set of bones used for animation only (called the skeleton). ... Cartoonish and realistic talking heads. ... Toy Story is an Academy-award-winning CGI animated feature film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures and Buena Vista Distribution in the United States on November 22, 1995, and Australia on December 7, 1995, as well as in the United Kingdom on 22 March... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


There are several methods for generating the Avar values to obtain realistic motion. Traditionally, animators manipulate the Avars directly. Rather than set Avars for every frame, they usually set Avars at strategic points (frames) in time and let the computer interpolate or 'tween' between them, a process called keyframing. Keyframing puts control in the hands of the animator, and has roots in hand-drawn traditional animation. This animated GIF demonstrates the effects of Adobe Flash shape, motion and color tweening. ... In animation, a key frame is a frame in an animated sequence of frames that was drawn or otherwise constructed directly by the user. ... Traditional animation, also referred to as classical animation, cel animation, or hand-drawn animation, is the oldest and historically the most popular form of animation. ...


In contrast, a newer method called motion capture makes use of live action. When computer animation is driven by motion capture, a real performer acts out the scene as if they were the character to be animated. His or her motion is recorded to a computer using video cameras and markers, and that performance is then applied to the animated character. Motion capture, or mocap, is a technique of digitally recording the movements of real things — usually humans — it originally developed as an analysis tool in biomechanics research, but has grown increasingly important as a source of motion data for computer animation. ... In film and video, live action refers to works that are acted out by flesh-and-blood actors, as opposed to animation. ... Video cameras are used primarily in two modes. ...


Each method has their advantages, and as of 2007, games and films are using either or both of these methods in productions. Keyframe animation can produce motions that would be difficult or impossible to act out, while motion capture can reproduce the subtleties of a particular actor. For example, in the 2006 film Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest, actor Bill Nighy provided the performance for the character Davy Jones. Even though Nighy himself doesn't appear in the film, the movie benefited from his performance by recording the nuances of his body language, posture, facial expressions, etc. Thus motion capture is appropriate in situations where believable, realistic behavior and action is required, but the types of characters required exceed what can be done through conventional costuming. 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bill Nighy (IPA: ; born December 12, 1949) is a Golden Globe and BAFTA-award winning English actor. ... For other uses, see Davy Jones Locker. ...


Computer animation development equipment

Computer animation can be created with a computer and animation software. Some examples of animation software are: Amorphium, Art of Illusion, Poser, Ray Dream Studio, Bryce, Maya, Blender, TrueSpace, Lightwave, 3D Studio Max, SoftImage XSI, Alice, and Adobe Flash (2D). There are many more. Prices will vary greatly depending on target market. Some impressive animation can be achieved even with basic programs; however, the rendering can take a lot of time on an ordinary home computer. Because of this, video game animators tend to use low resolution, low polygon count renders, such that the graphics can be rendered in real time on a home computer. Photorealistic animation would be impractical in this context. Art of Illusion is an software package used for 3D modeling, texturing, ray tracing, and otherwise rendering computer generated imagery stills or animations (movies). ... Dharma Juggler, by Gunther Berkus, 1997. ... Bryce is a texture-based rendering and ray tracing program ideal for creating 3D landscapes, space scenes, buildings and other objects. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Blender is a free software 3D animation program. ... trueSpace is 3D computer graphics and animation software developed by Caligari Corporation. ... This article is about the computer program. ... 3D Studio Max (name changed to 3DS Max, also sometimes called 3dsm, or just Max) is a 3D modeler developed by Autodesk Media & Entertainment (formerly known as Discreet and Kinetix). ... A Canadian 46¢ stamp honoring Softimage. ... Alice is a free open source[1] object-oriented educational programming language with an associated development environment. ... Adobe Flash, or simply Flash, refers to both the Adobe Flash Player, and to the Adobe Flash Professional multimedia authoring program. ... Render may refer to: Rendering (computer graphics), generating the pixels of an image based on a high-level description of its components XRender, or Render, an X Window System rendering extension Industrial rendering, the processing of waste animal parts to separate the fat from the bone and protein Kitchen rendering...


Professional animators of movies, television, and video sequences on computer games make photorealistic animation with high detail. This level of quality for movie animation would take tens to hundreds of years to create on a home computer. Many powerful workstation computers are used instead. Graphics workstation computers use two to four processors, and thus are a lot more powerful than a home computer, and are specialized for rendering. A large number of workstations (known as a render farm) are networked together to effectively act as a giant computer. The result is a computer animated movie that can be completed in about one to five years (this process is not comprised solely of rendering, however). A workstation typically costs $2,000 to $16,000, with the more expensive stations being able to render much faster, due to the more technologically advanced hardware that they contain. Pixar's Renderman is rendering software which is widely used as the movie animation industry standard, in competition with Mental Ray. It can be bought at the official Pixar website for about $5,000 to $8,000. It will work on Linux, Mac OS X, and Microsoft Windows based graphics workstations along with an animation program such as Maya and Softimage XSI. Professionals also use digital movie cameras, motion capture or performance capture, bluescreens, film editing software, props, and other tools for movie animation. Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ... Render may refer to: Rendering (computer graphics), generating the pixels of an image based on a high-level description of its components XRender, or Render, an X Window System rendering extension Industrial rendering, the processing of waste animal parts to separate the fat from the bone and protein Kitchen rendering... A render farm (also termed a render wall)[1] is a computer cluster to render computer generated imagery (CGI), typically for film and television visual effects. ... Pixars studio lot in Emeryville Pixar Animation Studios is an American computer animation studio based in Emeryville, California (USA) notable for its seven Academy Awards. ... The name RenderMan can cause confusion because it has been used to refer to different things developed by Pixar: The RenderMan Interface Specification (RISpec), Pixars technical specification for a standard communications protocol (or interface) between 3D computer graphics programs and rendering programs. ... mental ray is a production quality rendering application developed by mental images (Berlin, Germany). ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... Windows redirects here. ... The Arricam ST, a popular 35 mm film camera currently used on major productions. ... Motion capture, or mocap, is a technique of digitally recording the movements of real things — usually humans — it originally developed as an analysis tool in biomechanics research, but has grown increasingly important as a source of motion data for computer animation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Motion capture. ... The bluescreen setup. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Hardware animation display technology

An example of computer-rendered animation
An example of computer-rendered animation

When an image is rendered to the screen, it is normally rendered to something called a back buffer. There the computer can draw the image, making any necessary changes to it before it is done. While the computer is rendering, the screen is showing the contents of what is called the primary or active buffer. Image File history File links Pyramid_of_35_spheres_animation. ... Image File history File links Pyramid_of_35_spheres_animation. ... In computer graphics, double buffering (sometimes called ping-pong buffering) is a technique used to reduce or remove visible artifacts from the drawing process. ...


When the image is completed, the computer tells the screen to draw from the back buffer. This can be done in one of two ways: the contents of the back buffer can be copied to the primary buffer (or active buffer—the buffer which is currently being shown) or the computer can switch where it is drawing from and make the back buffer the new primary buffer. In this case, the primary buffer becomes the back buffer. John MacArthur is the one that thought up this process. This process is usually called double buffering or, informally, "flipping," because the computer is flipping its use of primary and back buffers. In computer graphics, double buffering (sometimes called ping-pong buffering) is a technique used to reduce or remove visible artifacts from the drawing process. ...


This switching should be carried out when it is imperceptible to the user. Therefore it needs to take place during what is called the "v-sync" or vertical retrace. The v-sync, in CRTs, takes place when the electron guns reach the bottom right of the screen and need to reposition the beam to the top left of the screen. This happens very quickly and the image the guns had just projected remain on the screen as they are moving back to their starting position. While the guns are repositioning themselves, the computer has enough time to flip buffers and the new image will be rendered on the screen on the next pass of the guns. The new image will continued to be displayed until the buffers are flipped once more. The vertical blanking interval (VBI) or vertical interval for short is a video signal between the last line of one frame or field and the beginning of the next. ... Cathode ray tube employing electromagnetic focus and deflection Cutaway rendering of a color CRT: 1. ... Electron gun from a cathode ray tube An electron gun is a component that produces an electron stream that has a precise kinetic energy, being used in all TVs and monitors which use cathode ray tube technology, and in other instruments, eg. ...


When the computer fails to wait for the v-sync, a condition called sprite breakup or image breakup is perceptible. This is highly undesirable and should always be avoided when possible to maintain the illusion of movement.


The future

One open challenge in computer animation is a photorealistic animation of humans. Currently, most computer-animated movies show animal characters (Finding Nemo), fantasy characters (Shrek, Monsters Inc.), anthropomorphic machines (Cars, Robots) or cartoon-like humans (The Incredibles). The movie Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within is often cited as the first computer-generated movie to attempt to show realistic-looking humans. However, due to the enormous complexity of the human body, human motion, and human biomechanics, realistic simulation of humans remains largely an open problem. (Of course, all animals have great complexity, but as humans, we are more aware of the nuances in representations of humans.) It is one of the "holy grails" of computer animation. Eventually, the goal is to create software where the animator can generate a movie sequence showing a photorealistic human character, undergoing physically-plausible motion, together with clothes, photorealistic hair, a complicated natural background, and possibly interacting with other simulated human characters. This could be done in a way that the viewer is no longer able to tell if a particular movie sequence is computer-generated, or created using real actors in front of movie cameras. Complete human realism is not likely to happen very soon, however such concepts obviously bear certain philosophical implications for the future of the film industry. Finding Nemo is an Academy Award-winning computer-animated film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released to theaters by Walt Disney Pictures and Buena Vista Distribution. ... For other uses, see Shrek (disambiguation). ... Monsters, Inc. ... Anthropomorphism, also referred to as personification or prosopopeia, is the attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, forces of nature, and others. ... Lightning McQueen and Mater in a screenshot from the upcoming film Cars will be the seventh Pixar film and is scheduled for release June 9, 2006. ... Promotional poster for Robots Robots is a computer-animated movie released March 11, 2005. ... The Incredibles is a 2004 American Academy Award-winning computer-animated feature film produced by Pixar Animation Studios for Walt Disney Pictures, centering around a family of superheroes. ... Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within is a science fiction movie by Hironobu Sakaguchi, the creator of the Final Fantasy series of video games. ...


For the moment it looks like three dimensional computer animation can be divided into two main directions; photorealistic and non-photorealistic rendering. Photorealistic computer animation can itself be divided into two subcategories; real photorealism (where performance capture is used in the creation of the virtual human characters) and stylized photorealism. Real photorealism is what Final Fantasy tried to achieve and will in the future most likely have the ability to give us live action fantasy features as The Dark Crystal without having to use advanced puppetry and animatronics, while Antz is an example on stylistic photorealism (in the future stylized photorealism will be able to replace traditional stop motion animation as in Corpse Bride). None of them are as mentioned perfected yet, but the progress continues. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Motion capture. ... The Dark Crystal is a 1982 fantasy film directed by Jim Henson and Frank Oz. ... Antz is a computer-animated film produced by DreamWorks. ... Tim Burtons Corpse Bride is a 2005 Academy Award-nominated stop-motion-animation film based loosely on a 19th century Russian-Jewish folktale version of an older Jewish story and set in a fictional Victorian era England. ...


The non-photorealistic/cartoonish direction is more like an extension of traditional animation, an attempt to make the animation look like a three dimensional version of a cartoon, still using and perfecting the main principles of animation articulated by the Nine Old Men, such as squash and stretch. Disneys Nine Old Men were the core animators (some of whom later became directors) that created the Disney studios most famous work, from Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs onward to Snow White and the Seven DwarfsThe Rescuers. ...


While a single frame from a photorealistic computer animated feature will look like a photo if done right, a single frame vector from a cartoonish computer animated feature will look like a painting (not to be confused with cel shading, which produces an ever simpler look). Categories: Computer and video game stubs | Computer graphics ...


Detailed examples and pseudocode

In 2D computer animation, moving objects are often referred to as “sprites.” A sprite is an image that has a location associated with it. The location of the sprite is changed slightly, between each displayed frame, to make the sprite appear to move. The following pseudocode makes a sprite move from left to right: In computer graphics, a sprite (also known by other names; see Synonyms below) is a two-dimensional/three-dimensional image or animation that is integrated into a larger scene. ...

 var int x := 0, y := screenHeight &div; 2; while x < screenWidth drawBackground() drawSpriteAtXY (x, y) // draw on top of the background x := x + 5 // move to the right 

Modern (2001) computer animation uses different techniques to produce animations. Most frequently, sophisticated mathematics is used to manipulate complex three dimensional polygons, apply “textures”, lighting and other effects to the polygons and finally rendering the complete image. A sophisticated graphical user interface may be used to create the animation and arrange its choreography. Another technique called constructive solid geometry defines objects by conducting boolean operations on regular shapes, and has the advantage that animations may be accurately produced at any resolution. Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Look up polygon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Spherical texture mapping Texture mapping is a method, pioneered by Edwin Catmull, of adding detail, surface texture, or colour to a computer-generated graphic or 3D model. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... GUI redirects here. ... Constructive solid geometry (CSG) is a technique used in solid modeling. ...


Let's step through the rendering of a simple image of a room with flat wood walls with a grey pyramid in the center of the room. The pyramid will have a spotlight shining on it. Each wall, the floor and the ceiling is a simple polygon, in this case, a rectangle. Each corner of the rectangles is defined by three values referred to as X, Y and Z. X is how far left and right the point is. Y is how far up and down the point is, and Z is far in and out of the screen the point is. The wall nearest us would be defined by four points: (in the order x, y, z). Below is a representation of how the wall is defined.

 (0, 10, 0) (10, 10, 0) (0,0,0) (10, 0, 0) 

The far wall would be:

 (0, 10, 20) (10, 10, 20) (0, 0, 20) (10, 0, 20) 

The pyramid is made up of five polygons: the rectangular base, and four triangular sides. To draw this image the computer uses math to calculate how to project this image, defined by three dimensional data, onto a two dimensional computer screen.


First we must also define where our view point is, that is, from what vantage point will the scene be drawn. Our view point is inside the room a bit above the floor, directly in front of the pyramid. First the computer will calculate which polygons are visible. The near wall will not be displayed at all, as it is behind our view point. The far side of the pyramid will also not be drawn as it is hidden by the front of the pyramid.


Next each point is perspective projected onto the screen. The portions of the walls ‘farthest’ from the view point will appear to be shorter than the nearer areas due to perspective. To make the walls look like wood, a wood pattern, called a texture, will be drawn on them. To accomplish this, a technique called “texture mapping” is often used. A small drawing of wood that can be repeatedly drawn in a matching tiled pattern (like wallpaper) is stretched and drawn onto the walls' final shape. The pyramid is solid grey so sp its surfaces can just be rendered as grey. But we also have a spotlight. Where its light falls we lighten colors, where objects blocks the light we darken colors. Spherical texture mapping Texture mapping is a method, pioneered by Edwin Catmull, of adding detail, surface texture, or colour to a computer-generated graphic or 3D model. ... Mary Cassatts painting of two ladies drinking tea in a room with red-blue striped wallpapers. ...


Next we render the complete scene on the computer screen. If the numbers describing the position of the pyramid were changed and this process repeated, the pyramid would appear to move.


Movies

CGI short films have been produced as independent animation since 1976, though the popularity of computer animation (especially in the field of special effects) skyrocketed during the modern era of U.S. animation. The first completely computer-generated animated movie was Toy Story. See List of computer animated films for more. Independent animation is a term used to describe animated short cartoons and feature films produced outside the professional Hollywood animation industry. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Special effects (also called SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to realize scenes that cannot be achieved by live action or normal means. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Toy Story is an Academy-award-winning CGI animated feature film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures and Buena Vista Distribution in the United States on November 22, 1995, and Australia on December 7, 1995, as well as in the United Kingdom on 22 March... This is a list of feature-length films that are entirely computer-animated. ...


Amateur animation

The popularity of sites such as YouTube, which allows members to upload their own movies for others to view, has created a growing number of what is often considered amateur computer animators. With many free utilities available and programs such as Windows Movie Maker, anyone with the tools can have their animation viewed by thousands. One way to create amateur animation is using the GIF format, which can be uploaded and seen on the web easily. GIF animating software include Beneton Movie GIF, GIF Movie Gear, Ulead GIF Animator, and more. YouTube is a popular video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. ... For the 1994 film, see Amateur (film). ... “Movie maker” redirects here. ...


Architectural animation

Architects use services from animation companies to create a 3-dimensional models for both the customers and builders. It can be more accurate than traditional drawings. Architectural animation can also be used to see the possible relationship the building will have in relation to the environment and its surrounding buildings. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


See also

The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... Computer-generated imagery (commonly abbreviated as CGI) is the application of the field of computer graphics (or more specifically, 3D computer graphics) to special effects in films, television programs, commercials, simulators and simulation generally, and printed media. ... The Computer Graphics Lab was a computer lab located at the New York Institute of Technology (NYIT) back in the late 1970s. ... DreamWorks Animation - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The National Centre for Computer Animation is located in Bournemouth, UK. Founded in 1989, it is often regarded as one of the best UK courses available for study in the field of computer graphics. ... A wire frame model is a visual presentation of an electronic representation of a three dimensional or physical object used in 3D computer graphics. ... A Virtual artifact (VA) is an immaterial object that exists in the human mind or in a digital environment, for example the Internet, intranet, virtual reality, etc. ... An open surface with u- and v-flow lines and Z-contours shown. ... Motion capture, or mocap, is a technique of digitally recording the movements of real things &#8212; usually humans &#8212; it originally developed as an analysis tool in biomechanics research, but has grown increasingly important as a source of motion data for computer animation. ... See also Avars (Race of people) An Avar or Animation Variable is a variable controlling the position of part of an animated object, such as a character. ... Pixars studio lot in Emeryville Pixar Animation Studios is an American computer animation studio based in Emeryville, California (USA) notable for its seven Academy Awards. ... Rhythm & Hues Studios is an Academy Award winning visual effects studio, founded in 1987 by six former employees of Robert Abel and Associates. ... A technique in computer animation, particularly the animation of vertebrates, where a character is represented in two parts: a surface representation used to draw the character (called the skin) and a hierarchical set of bones used for animation only (called the skeleton). ... Morph target animation (or per-vertex animation) is a method of 3D computer animation that is sometimes used in alternative to skeletal animation. ... This is a chronological list of films and television programs that have been recognised as being pioneering in their use of computer-generated imagery. ... A computer-animated film commonly refers to feature films that have been computer-animated to appear three dimensional on a movie screen. ...

Animated images in the Wikipedia

Example of computer animation (animated GIF) Photo of toy goat taken, and animated GIF made, by iMeowbot. ... Spinning pentakis dodecahedron, made by Cyp me using POV-Ray, see image:poly. ... Made from an fMRI scan I had done. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Computer animation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2566 words)
Computer animation is the art of creating moving images via the use of computers.
Sometimes the target of the animation is the computer itself, sometimes the target is another medium, such as film.
In 2D computer animation, moving objects are often referred to as “sprites.” A sprite is an image that has a location associated with it.
Animation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1013 words)
These frames may be generated by computers, or by photographing a drawn or painted image, or by repeatedly making small changes to a model unit (see claymation and stop motion), and then photographing the result with a special animation camera.
Computer animation has advanced rapidly, to the current stage where movies can be created with characters so life-like as to approach indistinguishability from live-action actors.
The use of computer animation as a way of achieving the otherwise impossible in conventionally shot movies has led to the term "computer generated imagery" being used, though the term has become hard to distinguish from computer animation as it is now used in referring to 3D movies that are entirely animated.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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