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Encyclopedia > Computational Biology

Computational biology is an interdisciplinary field that applies the techniques of computer science and applied mathematics to problems inspired by biology. Major fields that use computational biology techniques include: Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Applied mathematics is a branch of mathematics that concerns itself with the mathematical techniques typically used in the application of mathematical knowledge to other domains. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ... In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a procedure (a finite set of well-defined instructions) for accomplishing some task which, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state. ... Template:Otherusescccc A graph of a bell curve in a normal distribution showing statistics used in educational assessment, comparing various grading methods. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... In bioinformatics, a sequence alignment is a way of arranging the primary sequences of DNA, RNA, or protein to identify regions of similarity that may be a consequence of functional, structural, or evolutionary relationships between the sequences. ... In biology, two or more structures are said to be homologous if they are alike because of shared ancestry. ... Gene finding is the area of computational biology that is concerned with algorithmically identifying stretches of sequence, usually genomic DNA, that are biologically functional. ... Gene expression, or simply expression, is the process by which a genes DNA sequence is converted into the structures and functions of a cell. ... Modern genomics has been deined in many ways: * The study of genomes. ... Genomics is the study of an organisms entire genome. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (or primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer. ... Genome assembly refers to the process of taking a large number of short DNA sequences, all of which were generated by a shotgun sequencing project, and putting them back together to create a representation of the original chromosomes from which the DNA originated. ... Example of an approximately 40,000 probe spotted oligo microarray with enlarged inset to show detail. ... Molecular modelling is a collection of techniques to model or mimic the behaviour of molecules. ... An abstract model (or conceptual model) is a theoretical construct that represents physical, biological or social processes, with a set of variables and a set of logical and quantitative relationships between them. ... In chemistry, a molecule is an aggregate of two or more atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]. Chemical substances are not infinitely divisible into smaller fractions of the same substance: a molecule is generally considered the smallest particle of a pure... Systems biology is the study of the interactions between the components of a biological system, and how these interactions give rise to the function and behaviour of that system (for example, the enzymes and metabolites in a metabolic pathway)[1][2]. Typically, a cellular network is modelled mathematically. ... Interactome is the whole set of molecular interactions in cells. ... An illustration of a differential equation. ... Protein structure prediction is one of the most significant technologies pursued by computational structural biology and theoretical chemistry. ... Structural genomics or structural bioinformatics refers to the analysis of macromolecular structure particularly proteins. ... Proteins are an important class of biological macromolecules present in all biological organisms, made up of such elements as carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... Biophysics (also biological physics) is an interdisciplinary science that applies the theories and methods of physics, to questions of biology. ... Molecular dynamics (MD) is a form of computer simulation where atoms and molecules are allowed to interact for a period of time under known laws of physics. ... Monte Carlo is a very wealthy section of the city-state of Monaco known for its casino, gambling, beaches, glamour, and sightings of famous people. ... In physics, the Boltzmann distribution predicts the distribution function for the fractional number of particles Ni / N occupying a set of states i which each has energy Ei: where is the Boltzmann constant, T is temperature (assumed to be a sharply well-defined quantity), is the degeneracy, or number of... Kinetics refers to two different areas of science: Chemical kinetics studies reaction rates. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek thermos meaning heat and dynamics meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ...

Publications

  • Journal of Computational Biology, a peer-reviewed journal providing a forum for the communication of technical issues associated with the analysis, management, and visualization of cellular information at the molecular level.
  • Bioinformatics The leading peer-rewived journal of the field, by Oxford University Press. State of the art advances in the promising and rapid developing field of Bioinformatics. (Former title CABIOS, Comptuter Applications in BIOsciences)

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Computational Biology (947 words)
Researchers in the computer science department are engaged in a wide range of computational biology projects, from genetic mapping, to advanced sequence analysis, fold prediction, structure comparison algorithms, protein classification, comparative genomics, and long-time simulation of protein molecules.
Another key element of the computational biology initiative is the Computational Genomics Institute that combines faculty from all over campus who do active research in computational biology and statistical genomics.
Computational biology is also a crucial part of the recently announced $160M collaboration between Cornell and the Rockefeller and Sloan-Kettering institutes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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