FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Compuserve" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Compuserve
CompuServe
Type Subsidiary of AOL
Founded 1969
Headquarters Columbus, Ohio, USA
Industry Internet & Communications
Products ISP
Website www.compuserve.com

CompuServe, (in full, CompuServe Information Services, or CIS), was the first major commercial online service in the United States. It dominated the field during the 1980s and remained a major player through the mid-1990s, when it was sidelined by the rise of information services such as AOL that charged monthly subscriptions rather than hourly rates. Today the CompuServe Information Service operates as an Internet service provider (ISP), owned by AOL. Image File history File links Logo_cs40. ... For other uses, see AOL (disambiguation). ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country State Counties Franklin, Delaware, and Fairfield Government  - Mayor Michael B. Coleman (D) Area  - City  212. ... Copy of the original phone of Alexander Graham Bell at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris Telecommunication is the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... “ISP” redirects here. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... An online service provider is an entity which provides a service online. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... For other uses, see AOL (disambiguation). ... “ISP” redirects here. ...

Contents

History

CompuServe was founded in 1969 as Compu-Serv Network, Inc. (the earliest advertising show the name with initial caps) in Columbus, Ohio as a subsidiary of Golden United Corporation. While Jeffrey Wilkins, the son-in-law of Golden United founder Harry Gard, is widely recognized as the first president of CompuServe, the initial president was actually Dr. John R. Goltz. Goltz and Wilkins were both graduate students in Electrical Engineering at the University of Arizona. Other early employees were also recruited from the University of Arizona, including Sandy Trevor (inventor of the CompuServe CB Simulator chat system), Doug Chinnock, and Larry Shelley. Wilkins replaced Goltz as CEO within the first year of operation.


CompuServe's origin was concurrent with that of The Source. Both services can lay claim to being the "first" service, as both were operating in early 1979. The Source was the name of an early on-line service. ...


The objectives of the new company were two-fold: to provide in-house computer processing support to Golden United Life Insurance Co.; and to develop as an independent business in the computer time-sharing industry, by renting time on its PDP-10 mainframe computers during business hours. It was spun off as a separate company in 1975, trading on the NASDAQ under the symbol CMPU. Alternate uses: see Timesharing Time-sharing is an approach to interactive computing in which a single computer is used to provide apparently simultaneous interactive general-purpose computing to multiple users by sharing processor time. ... The PDP-10 was a computer manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from the late 1960s on; the name stands for Programmed Data Processor model 10. It was the machine that made time-sharing common; it looms large in hacker folklore because of its adoption in the 1970s by many... For other uses, see Mainframe. ... Business hours are the hours during the day in which business is commonly conducted. ... NASDAQ in Times Square, New York City. ...


At the same time, the company recruited a number of executives who shifted the focus from offering raw timesharing services, in which customers wrote their own applications, to one that was focused on packaged applications. The first of these new executives was Robert Tillson, who left Service Bureau Corporation (then a subsidiary of Control Data, but originally formed as a division of IBM) to become CompuServe's Executive Vice President of Marketing. He in turn recruited Charles McCall (who followed Jeff Wilkins as CEO, and later became CEO of HBOC), Maury Cox (who became CEO after the departure of McCall), and Robert Massey (who was the last CEO of CompuServe). Barry Berkov was recruited from Xerox to head the product development and product marketing function. Control Data Corporation, or CDC, was one of the pioneering supercomputer firms. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) (name pronounced ) is a global document management company, which manufactures and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. ...


In 1977, Comp-Serv's board changed the company's name to CompuServe Incorporated. In 1980, H&R Block acquired CompuServe. The purchase by H&R Block gave the company cash to expand operations, and helped H&R Block diversify their tax-season biased earnings. CompuServe associates fondly called H&R Block's founder and chairman Henry W. Bloch, "Uncle Henry". [citation needed] H&R Block (NYSE: HRB) is the leading tax preparation company in the United States, and claims more than 22 million customers worldwide, with offices in Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. ... Henry W. Bloch (b. ...


The original, 1969 dial-up technology was fairly simple — the local phone number in Cleveland, for example, was merely a line connected to a time-division multiplexer which connected via a leased line to a matched multiplexer in Columbus, which was in turn connected to a particular timesharing host system. Later, the central multiplexers in Columbus were replaced with PDP-8 minicomputers, and the PDP-8s were connected to a DEC PDP-15 minicomputer that acted as switches so a phone number was not tied to a particular destination host. Finally, CompuServe developed its own packet switching network, implemented on DEC PDP-11 minicomputers acting as network nodes that were installed throughout the US (and later, in other countries) and interconnected. Over time, the CompuServe network evolved into a sophisticated multi-tiered network incorporating Asynchronous Transfer Mode, Frame relay, Internet Protocol and X.25 technologies. A PDP-8 on display at the Smithsonians National Museum of American History in Washington, D.C.. This example is from the first generation of PDP-8s, built with discrete transistors and later known as the Straight 8. ... PDP is also used as an acronym for Plasma Display Panel. ... In computer networking and telecommunications, packet switching is a communications paradigm in which packets (messages or fragments of messages) are individually routed between nodes, with no previously established communication path. ... The PDP-11 was a 16-bit minicomputer sold by Digital Equipment Corp. ... Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a cell relay, packet switching network and data link layer protocol which encodes data traffic into small (53 bytes; 48 bytes of data and 5 bytes of header information) fixed-sized cells. ... In the context of computer networking, frame relay consists of an efficient data transmission technique used to send digital information quickly and cheaply in a relay of frames to one or many destinations from one or many end-points. ... The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ... X.25 is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for wide area networks using leased lines, the phone or ISDN system as the networking hardware. ...


While best known for its consumer services division, the CompuServe Information Service, CompuServe was also a world leader in other commercial services. One of these was the Financial Services group, which collected and consolidated financial data from a myriad of data feeds, including CompuStat, Disclosure, I/B/E/S as well as the price/quote feeds from the major exchanges. CompuServe developed extensive screening and reporting tools that were used by every investment bank on Wall Street. Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ...


Another major unit of CompuServe, the CompuServe Network Services, was formed in 1982 to generate revenue by selling connectivity on the nationwide packet network CompuServe had built to support its timesharing service. CompuServe designed and manufactured its own network processors, based on the DEC PDP-11, and wrote all the software that ran in the network. Often (and erroneously) called an 'X.25 network, the CompuServe network implemented a mixture of standardized and proprietary layers throughout the network. One of the proprietary layers was called 'Adaptive Routing.' The Adaptive Routing system implemented two powerful features. One is that network operated entirely in a self-discovery mode. When a new switch was added to the network by connecting it to a neighbor via a leased telephone circuit, the new switch was discovered and absorbed into the network without any explicit configuration. To change the network configuration, all that had to be done was add or remove connections, and the network would automatically reconfigure. The second feature implemented by Adaptive Routing was often talked about in network engineering circles, but was implemented only by CNS - establishing connection paths on the basis of real-time performance measurements. As one circuit became busy, traffic was diverted to alternative paths to prevent overloading and poor performance for users. The PDP-11 was a 16-bit minicomputer sold by Digital Equipment Corp. ... X.25 is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for wide area networks using leased lines, the phone or ISDN system as the networking hardware. ...


While the CNS network was not itself based on the X.25 protocol, the network presented a standard X.25 interface to the outside world, providing dialup connectivity to corporate hosts, and allowing CompuServe to form alliances with private networks Tymnet and Telenet, among others, giving CompuServe the largest selection of local dialup phone connections in the world. Other networks permitted CompuServe access to still more locations, including international locations, usually with substantial connect-time surcharges. It was not unusual in the early 1980s to have to pay a $30-per-hour charge to connect to CompuServe, which at the time cost $5 to $6 per hour. This resulted in the company being nicknamed CompuSpend , Compu$erve or CI$ . Italic textTymnet was an international data communications network headquartered in San Jose, CA that utilized circuit switched technology and used X.25, SNA/SDLC, BSC interfaces to connect host computers (servers)at thousands of large companies, educational institutions, and government agencies. ... Telenet is the largest provider of broadband cable services in Belgium. ... In telecommunication, the term dial-up has the following meanings: Dial-up access, typically to the Internet A service feature in which a user initiates service on a previously arranged trunk or transfers, without human intervention, from an active trunk to a standby trunk. ...


CNS has been the primary supplier of dial-up communications for credit-card authorizations for over twenty years, a competence developed through its long relationship with Visa International. At the peak of this line of business, CompuServe carried millions of authorization transactions each month, representing several billion dollars of consumer purchase transactions. There are still many businesses for which an always-on connection is an extravagance, and a dialup option makes better sense. Today this service remains in operation, deeply embedded within Verizon (see below). There are no other competitors remaining in this market. VISA is a brand of credit card operated by the VISA International Service Association of San Francisco, California, USA owned by 21,000 financial institutions that issues and markets its own Visa products. ... This article or section should include material from Bell Atlantic This article or section should include material from GTE Verizon Communications (NYSE: VZ) is a local exchange telephone company formed by the merger of Bell Atlantic, a former Bell Operating Company, and GTE, which was the largest independant local exchange...


The company was notable for introducing a number of online services to personal computer users. CompuServe began offering electronic mail capabilities and technical support to commercial customers in 1978 under the name Infoplex, and was also a pioneer in the real-time chat market with its CB Simulator service introduced in 1980. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chat room. ... The first online chat service was developed by a CompuServe executive, Alexander Trevor, and released by CompuServe in 1980 under the name CompuServe CB Simulator. ...


Around 1981, CompuServe introduced their CompuServe B protocol, a file transfer protocol, allowing users to send files to each other. This was later expanded to the higher-performance B+ version, intended for downloads from CIS itself. Although the B+ protocol was not widely supported by other software, it was used by default for some time on CIS itself. The B+ protocol was later extended to include the Host Management Protocol (HMI) a mechanism for communicating commands and transaction requests to a server application running on the mainframes. HMI could be used by "front end" client software to present a GUI-based interface to CIS, without having to use the error-prone CLI to route commands. CompuServe B protocol, also known as CIS B, is a file transfer protocol developed by the commercial online service CompuServe (CIS) in 1981. ... This article is about the File Transfer Protocol standardised by the IETF. For other file transfer protocols, see File transfer protocol (disambiguation). ... GUI can refer to the following: GUI is short for graphical user interface, a term used to describe a type of interface in computing. ...


Reaching the peak

By the mid-1980s CompuServe was one of the largest information and networking services companies in existence, and it was the largest consumer information service in the world. It operated commercial branches in more than 30 US cities, selling primarily network services to major corporations throughout the United States. Consumer accounts could be bought in most computer stores (a box with an instruction manual and a trial account login) and awareness of this service was extremely high. The service continued to improve in terms of user interface and offerings, and in 1989 CompuServe purchased and dismantled one of its main competitors, The Source. The Source was the name of an early on-line service. ...


The consumer information service had been developed almost clandestinely, in 1979, and marketed as MicroNet through Radio Shack. Many within the company did not favor the project; it was called schlock timesharing by the commercial timesharing sales force. It was allowed to exist initially because consumers used the computers during evening hours, when the CompuServe computers were otherwise idle. As it became evident that it would be a hit, CompuServe dropped the MicroNet name in favor of their own, and by 1987, CompuServe Information Service would be 50% of CompuServe revenues.


The corporate culture was entrepreneurial, encouraging "skunkwork" projects. Alexander "Sandy" Trevor holed himself up for a weekend, writing the "CB Simulator", a chat system that soon became one of CIS's most popular features. Instead of hiring employees to manage the forums, they contracted with sysops, who received compensation based on the success of their own forum's boards, libraries, and chat areas. A modern Skunk Works project leverages an older: LASRE atop the SR-71 Blackbird. ...


CompuServe also began to expand its reach outside the United States. It entered the international arena in Japan in 1986 with Fujitsu and Nissho Iwai, and developed a Japanese language version of CompuServe called NIFTYSERVE in 1989. Fujitsu and CompuServe also co-developed WorldsAway, a prototype interactive community featuring a virtual world now called VZones with newHorizones and Dreamscape worlds complete with avatars representing the participants. In the late 1980s, it was possible to log into CompuServe via worldwide X.25 packet switching networks, but gradually it introduced its own direct dialup access network in many countries, a more economical solution. With its network expansion, CompuServe also extended the marketing of its commercial services, opening branches in London and Munich. For the district in Saga, Japan, see Fujitsu, Saga. ... Not to be confused with the Javanese language. ... WorldsAway was an 2D virtual community in which users were represented as avatars. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An avatar (abbreviations include AV, ava, avie, avy, avi, avvie, avis, and avvy) is an Internet users representation of himself or herself, whether in the form of a three-dimensional model used in computer games,[1] a two-dimensional icon (picture) used on Internet forums and other communities,[2... X.25 is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for wide area networks using leased lines, the phone or ISDN system as the networking hardware. ... In computer networking and telecommunications, packet switching is a communications paradigm in which packets (messages or fragments of messages) are individually routed between nodes, with no previously established communication path. ... In telecommunication, the term dial-up has the following meanings: Dial-up access, typically to the Internet A service feature in which a user initiates service on a previously arranged trunk or transfers, without human intervention, from an active trunk to a standby trunk. ...


In the early years of the 1990s, CompuServe was enormously popular, with hundreds of thousands of users visiting its thousands of moderated Forums, forerunners to the endless variety of discussion sites on the Web today. (Like the Web, many Forums were managed by independent producers who then administered the Forum and recruited moderators, called "sysops".) Among these were many where hardware and software companies offered customer support. This broadened the audience from primarily business users to the technical "geek" crowd, some of which migrated over from the Byte Magazine's Bix online service. Over time, CompuServe also attracted a broad general public with a wide spectrum of Forums devoted to interests such as show business, including Entertainment Drive, CompuServe's sole content investment, founded by Michael Bolanos, current events, sports, politics, and more. In 1992, CompuServe and Eliot Stein's ShowBiz Forum hosted the industry's first electronic movie press kit, for the Universal computer-themed feature film Sneakers; the film's director, Phil Alden Robinson, participated in online chats with ShowBiz Forum members to promote the picture.[1] Graphic representation of the world wide web around Wikipedia The World Wide Web (WWW, or simply Web) is an information space in which the items of interest, referred to as resources, are identified by global identifiers called Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI). ... SysOp (pronounced /ˈsɪs. ... For other uses, see Hardware (disambiguation). ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... Tech Support is the modern term for assistance with electronics or software, usually computer related. ... In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... The word geek is defined by Merriam-Webster dictionary as 1: a carnival performer often billed as a wild man whose act usually includes biting the head off a live chicken, bat or snake 2: a person often of an intellectual bent who is disliked 3: an enthusiast or expert... The front cover of the April 1981 issue of BYTE (Vol 6. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long or excessively detailed compared to the rest of the article. ... Phil Alden Robinson (born March 1, 1950) in Long Beach, New York, is an American film director and screenwriter whose films include Field of Dreams, Sneakers, and The Sum of All Fears. ...


In 1992 CompuServe hosted the first known WYSIWYG e-mail content and forum posts. Fonts, colors and emoticons were encoded into 7-bit text-based messages via the CompuServe navigation software NavCIS, covering DOS and early Windows 3.1 systems. Introduction of a Windows-based WinCIM (or Windows CompuServe Information Manager) allowed point-and-click interaction with the service via an accelerated HMI communications protocol. For some areas of the service which didn't support HMI, the older, text-based interface could be reverted to. WinCIM also allowed caching of Forum messages, news articles and e-mail, so that reading and posting could be performed off-line, without incurring hourly connect costs. Previously, this was a luxury of the NavCIS, AutoSIG and TapCIS applications for power users. The first WYSIWYG e-mail and online messaging system was CompuServe in the early 1990s. ... NavCIS was a client program which was used to connect to the CompuServe Information Service. ... WinCIM was Compuserve Information Services client software for Microsoft Windows. ... 1. ... Point and click describes the simple action of a computer user moving a cursor to a certain location on a screen (point) and then clicking a mouse button, usually the left one (click), or other pointing device. ... NavCIS was a client program which was used to connect to the CompuServe Information Service. ... A power user is a user of a personal computer who can utilize advanced functions and programs which are outside the reach of normal users due to the complexity and advanced knowledge required to perform these specialized tasks. ...


During the early 1990s the hourly rate fell from over $10 an hour to $1.95 an hour. In April 1995, CompuServe topped three million members and launched its NetLauncher service, providing WWW access capability via the Spry Mosaic browser. AOL, however, introduced a far cheaper flat-rate, unlimited-time, advertisement-supported price plan in the U.S. to compete with CompuServe's hourly charges. In conjunction with AOL's marketing campaigns, this caused a significant loss of customers until CompuServe responded with a similar plan of its own at $24.95 per month in late 1997. Graphic representation of the world wide web around Wikipedia The World Wide Web (WWW, or simply Web) is an information space in which the items of interest, referred to as resources, are identified by global identifiers called Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI). ... Internet In A Box software Internet in a Box (IBox) was one of the first commercially available Internet connection software packages available for sale to the public. ... Mosaic was the first popular World Wide Web browser and Gopher client. ...


As the World Wide Web grew in popularity with the general public, company after company closed their once-busy CompuServe customer support forums to offer customer support to a larger audience directly through company websites, an area which the CompuServe forums of the time could not address because they had not yet introduced universal WWW access. A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML...


WOW! and the decline

In the mid-1990s, CEO Maury Cox launched the WOW! initiative within CompuServe. The objective was to create a new generation of consumer information services which could be built on the revenue models brought to the market by AOL and to offer consumers a new rich visual experience. The WOW! service would also implement a parental control technology so that parents could limit and monitor the online activities of their children. A key component of this was a 'white list' of web sites that had been vetted by a team of CompuServe editors to ensure that the sites had content appropriate for children. The WOW! team was designed to be a 'skunk works,' with its core marketing and technology teams housed at a location away from the CompuServe corporate headquarters. Most of the leadership and team was recruited from outside the company.


To fund WOW!, Cox convinced H&R Block that the equity capital market should be tapped through a public stock offering. Block agreed, and subsequently 20% of CompuServe was sold via an Initial Public Offering (IPO), raising nearly $200 million for the company.


WOW! was not successful. CompuServe's traditional customers were not enthusiastic about the new user interface. The battle for customers between AOL and CompuServe became one of handing customers back and forth, using free hours and other enticements. There were technical problems in both the WOW! software and the network (the thousands of new generation U.S. Robotics dialup modems deployed in the network would crash under high call volumes). For the first time in decades, CompuServe began losing money, and at a prodigious rate. An effort, codenamed 'Red-Dog', was initiated to convert CompuServe's long-time PDP-10 based technologies over to servers based on Intel x86 architectures and the Microsoft Windows NT operating system. U.S. Robotics (popularly referred to by its acronym USR) is a company that makes computer modems and related technologies. ...


H&R Block was going through its own management changes at the same time. Henry Bloch retired as CEO, and his son, Tom Bloch, was named as his successor. When Tom Bloch resigned to become a public school teacher, he was replaced by Richard Brown, who had formerly been one of the top executives of Ameritech. Dick Brown soon left to take the job as CEO of EDS, and the H&R Block Board of Directors appointed Frank Salizzoni, a member of the HRB Board, to serve as CEO of H&R Block. It was during Salizzoni's tenure as CEO that H&R Block's Board of Directors made the decision to divest CompuServe. Maury Cox left the helm as CompuServe's CEO, to be replaced by Bob Massey. Massey had a short tenure in this role, and was relieved in 1997. Frank Salizzoni became the acting CEO of CompuServe from this time until its sale. Ameritech (American Information Technologies) is a U.S. telecommunications company that arose out of the 1984 AT&T divestiture. ... EDS may refer to: Ed. ...


Deal-Making by Worldcom

In 1997, H&R Block announced its intention to divest itself of CompuServe. A number of potential buyers came to the forefront, but the terms they offered were unacceptable to H&R Block management. One would have involved a leveraged buyout which would have saddled the CompuServe shareholders with substantial debt. AOL, the most likely buyer, made several offers to purchase CompuServe using AOL stock, but H&R Block management sought cash, or at least a higher quality stock.


In February 1998, John W. Sidgmore, then the vice-chairman of Worldcom, and the former CEO of UUNET, devised a complex transaction which ultimately met the goals of all parties. Step one was that Worldcom purchased all the shares of CompuServe with $1.2 billion of WCOM stock. Literally the next day, Worldcom sold the CompuServe Information Service portion of the company to AOL, retaining the CompuServe Network Services portion. AOL in turn sold its networking division, Advanced Network Services (ANS), to Worldcom. Sidgmore said that at this point the world was in balance: the accountants were doing taxes, AOL was doing information services, and Worldcom was doing networks. John W. Sidgmore became the Chief Executive Officer of UUNET Technologies in June of 1994. ... For a time, WorldCom (WCOM) was the United States second largest long distance phone company (AT&T was the largest). ... UUNET Technologies Logo Post-WorldCom UUNET Logo Original UUNET Logo UUNET is one of the oldest and largest Internet service providers and one of the nine Tier 1 networks. ...


The only reason the H&R Block management team agreed to accept WCOM stock in exchange for the ownership of Compuserve was because they had been able to work out a deal to sell the WCOM stock for $1.2 billion in cash immediately after the transaction. In the end, H&R Block received $1.2 billion for a company it had paid $20 million for eighteen years earlier, during which it also generated substantial profits.


After the Worldcom acquisition, CompuServe Network Services was renamed Worldcom Advanced Networks, and continued to operate as a discrete company within Worldcom after being combined with AOL's network subsidiary, ANS, and an existing Worldcom networking company called Gridnet. In 1999, Worldcom acquired MCI and became MCI Worldcom, Worldcom Advanced Networks briefly became MCI Worldcom Advanced Networks. Worldcom was later unsuccessful in its bid to purchase Sprint. MCI Worldcom Advanced Networks was ultimately absorbed into UUNET. Soon thereafter, Worldcom began its spiral to bankruptcy, re-emerging as MCI. In 2006, MCI was sold to Verizon. As a result, the organization that had once been the networking business within CompuServe is now part of Verizon. MCI logo MCI, Inc. ...


In the process of splitting CompuServe into its two major business, CompuServe Information Services and CompuServe Network Services, Worldcom and AOL both desired to make use of the CompuServe name and trademarks. Consequently, a jointly owned holding company was formed for no other purpose than to hold title to various trademarks, patents and other intellectual property, and to license that intellectual property at no cost to both Worldcom (now Verizon) and AOL.


CompuServe Information Services After the AOL Acquisition

In September 2003 CompuServe Information Service, now a division of AOL, added CompuServe Basic to its product lines, selling via Netscape.com. AOL offered it to AOL members leaving that service, possibly in response to reports earlier that year that AOL was losing significant business to low-cost competitors.


CompuServe Information Services is now positioned as the value market provider for several million customers, as part of the AOL Web Products Group. Recent U.S. versions of the CompuServe client software — essentially an enhanced web browser — use the Gecko layout engine developed for Mozilla, within a derivative of the AOL client and using the AOL dialup network. The previous CompuServe service offering, referred to as "CompuServe Classic", remains available in the US and also in other countries where CompuServe 2000 is not offered, such as the UK. In Germany, CompuServe 2000 was introduced in 1999 and abolished in 2001 because of failure on the German market, but the CompuServe Classic product also remains available. However, since then CompuServe Germany has introduced its own products for dialup and DSL internet access, and its own client software. (called Compuserve 4.5 light). In computing, a client is a system that accesses a (remote) service on another computer by some kind of network. ... An example of a Web browser (Mozilla Firefox) A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ... Epiphany using Gecko to render the Wikipedia main page Gecko is the open source, free software web browser layout engine used in all Mozilla-branded software and its derivatives, including later Netscape releases. ... Mozilla was the official, public, original name of Mozilla Application Suite by the Mozilla Foundation, nowadays called SeaMonkey suite. ...


In the Pacific region (Australia, New Zealand, etc.) Fujitsu Australia ran the CompuServe Pacific franchise, which in 1998 had 35,000 customers. Towards the end of its operations in that area, it was thought to have far fewer because of CompuServe Pacific's pricing plans, which have not been changed since 1998 (e.g., A$14.95 for 2 hours per month). For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... ISO 4217 Code AUD User(s) Australia, Kiribati, Nauru, Tuvalu, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island Inflation 2. ...


CompuServe forums today are more tightly linked to CompuServe channels.


In January 2007 the CompuServe brand managers at AOL sent an e-mail to members stating that it had no plans for compatibility with the Windows Vista operating system, and suggested to its members who wished to use Vista switch to their AOL branded service. Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ...


Compuserve.com currently runs a slightly trimmed-down version of the now-defunct Netscape.com Web portal, the latter of which was shut down in 2006. Netscape Communications (formally known as Netscape Communications Corporation and commonly known as Netscape), is an American computer services company, best known for its web browser. ...


Technology and law

One popular use of CompuServe in the 1980s was file exchange, particularly pictures. Indeed, from 1986 it hosted perhaps the first online comic in the world, T.H.E. Fox.[2] CompuServe introduced a simple black-and-white image format known as RLE (run-length-encoding) to standardize the images so they could be shared among different microcomputer platforms. With the introduction of more powerful machines, universally supporting color, CompuServe introduced the much more capable GIF format, invented by Steve Wilhite. GIF went on to become the de facto standard for 8-bit images on the Internet. Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Web comics are comics that are available on the web. ... Run-length encoding (RLE) is a very simple form of data compression in which runs of data (that is, sequences in which the same data value occurs in many consecutive data elements) are stored as a single data value and count, rather than as the original run. ... GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) is a bitmap image format that is widely used on the World Wide Web, both for still images and for animations. ... Steve Whilhite of CompuServe Invented the GIF Format which went on to become the de facto standard for 8-bit images on the Internet. ...


CompuServe, and its outside telecommunications attorney, Randy May, led the appeals before the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to exempt data networks from having to pay the Common Carrier Access Charge (CCAC) which was levied by the telephone Local Exchange Carriers (primarily the Baby Bell companies) on long distance carriers. The primary argument was that data networking was a brand new industry, and the country would be better served by not exposing this important new industry to the aberrations of the voice telephone economics (the CCAC is the mechanism used to subsidize the cost of local telephone service from long distance revenue). The FCC agreed with CompuServe's position, and the consequence is that all dial-up networking in the United States, whether on private networks or the public Internet, is much less expensive that it otherwise would have been. The FCCs official seal. ... Local exchange carrier is a regulatory term in telecommunications for so-called local telephone company. ... Prior to the divestiture of AT&T in 1984, a Baby Bell was one of the 22 Bell Operating Companies owned by AT&T. Collectively, along with AT&T Long Lines, Western Electric and Bell Telephone Laboratories, these companies were considered the Bell System There were: New England Telephone (ME...


In 1995 CompuServe set what privacy advocates argued was a bad precedent by blocking access to sex-oriented newsgroups after being pressured by conservative Bavarian prosecutors. In 1997, after CompuServe reopened the newsfeeds, Felix Somm, the former managing director for CompuServe Germany, was charged with violating German child pornography laws because of the material CompuServe's network was carrying into Germany. He was convicted and sentenced to two years probation on May 28, 1998 [3] [4]. He was cleared on appeal on November 17, 1999 [5] [6]. The requirement for censorship in Germany caused some loss of German members. Privacy has no definite boundaries and it has different meanings for different people. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A newsgroup is a repository usually within the Usenet system, for messages posted from many users at different locations. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Child pornography refers to pornographic material depicting children. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... This article is about the year. ... For other uses, see Censor. ...


User IDs and E-mail Addresses

The original CompuServe user IDs consisted of 7 octal digits in the form 7xxxx,xx - a legacy of PDP10 architecture - (later 9 octal digits in the form 7xxxx,xxxx and finally 10 octal digits in the form 1xxxxx,xxxx) that were generated in advance and issued on printed "Snap Paks." The Internet e-mail address of a CompuServe user was their user ID in the form [email protected] where the comma in the original ID was replaced with a period. In 1996, users were allowed to create an alias for their Internet e-mail address, which could also be used for a personal webpage. In 1998, users were offered the option of switching their mailbox to a newer system that provided POP3 access via the Internet, so that any Internet mail program could be used.


CompuServe Phone Card

In 1996, CompuServe introduced a long distance phone card known as the CompuServe E-mail Message Center. More than just a long-distance calling card, it offered text-to-speech synthesis of messages in the user's inbox, fax, news and concierge services. It appears that the service offered by the long distance partner is still in existence today. The toll-free access number is 1-800-848-0680. [citation needed]


Closing down of services

In July 2007 it was announced [1] that CompuServe Pacific would close down its operations on 31 August 2007.


In September 2007 it was announced [2] that CompuServe France would close down its operations on 30 November 2007.


See also

  • PC-Serve

External links

References

  1. ^ http://computerworld.co.nz/news.nsf/netw/6A4613B0357B49C0CC25731E00030129?Opendocument&HighLight=2,Compuserve
  2. ^ http://community.compuserve.com/n/pfx/forum.aspx?tsn=1&nav=messages&webtag=ws-cssoftware&tid=44463&redirCnt=1

  Results from FactBites:
 
CompuServe (529 words)
Since its acquisition by AOL in 1998, CompuServe has continued to enhance its core service to meet the needs of one of the fastest-growing segments of the Internet: value-driven adults who are going online for the first time.
CompuServe's Main Menu offers fast and direct access to a variety of service features, including access to stock quotes, Channels, Search, a continuously updated news ticker, daily convenience features and special Shopping convenience links.
CompuServe's Web site, CompuServe.com serves the important role of expanding its services to members onto the Web and providing an easy-to-navigate Web where Members can access CompuServe Channels and E-Mail while away from their home PCs.
The Internet Law Page: Cubby v. Compuserve (3896 words)
CompuServe further contends that, as a distributor of Rumorville, it cannot be held liable on the libel claim because it neither knew nor had reason to know of the allegedly defamatory statements.
CompuServe contends that it is undisputed that it had neither knowledge nor reason to know of the allegedly defamatory Rumorville statements, especially given the large number of publications it carries and the speed with which DFA uploads Rumorville into its computer banks and makes the publication available to CIS subscribers.
CompuServe contends that the undisputed facts demonstrate that, at most, DFA is an independent contractor of CCI and CCI is an independent contractor of CompuServe, so that it may not be held vicariously liable for the statements that appeared in Rumorville.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m