FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Compressed natural gas
Energy Portal
Typical North America vehicles carry this diamond shape symbol, meaning it is running on compressed natural gas fuel.

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a substitute for gasoline (petrol) or diesel fuel. It is considered to be an environmentally "clean" alternative to those fuels. It is made by compressing natural gas (which is mainly composed by methane (CH4), in a percantage range of 70% to 98%). It is stored and distributed in hard containers, at a normal pressure of 200/220 bar, usually in cylindrical or spherical shapes to maintain equal pressure on the walls of the containers. Image File history File links Crystal_128_energy. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Petrol redirects here. ... This article is about the fuel. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... The bar (symbol bar), decibar (symbol dbar) and the millibar (symbol mbar, also mb) are units of pressure. ...


In response to high fuel prices and environmental concerns, compressed natural gas is starting to be used in light-duty passenger vehicles and pickup trucks, medium-duty delivery trucks, and in transit and school buses.

Contents

Technology

A CNG powered high-floor Neoplan AN440A, operated by ABQ RIDE in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

CNG can be used in Otto-cycle (gasoline) and modified Diesel cycle engines. Lean-burn Otto-cycle engines can achieve higher thermal efficiencies when compared with stoichiometric Otto-cycle engines at the expense of higher NOx and hydrocarbon emissions. Electronically-controlled stoichiometric engines offer the lowest emissions across the board and the highest possible power output, especially when combined with EGR, turbocharging and intercooling, and three way catalytic converters, but suffer in terms of heat rejection and fuel consumption. A suitably designed natural gas engine may have a higher output compared with a petrol engine because the octane number of natural gas is higher than that of petrol. Image File history File linksMetadata ABQ_RIDE_332_Montgomery_Albuquerque. ... Image File history File linksMetadata ABQ_RIDE_332_Montgomery_Albuquerque. ... The Neoplan AN440 is a mass transit bus model introduced by Neoplan USA in 1981. ... ABQ RIDE is the local transit agency in Albuquerque, New Mexico. ... “Albuquerque” redirects here. ... The four-stroke cycle (or Otto cycle) of an internal combustion engine is the cycle most commonly used for automotive and industrial purposes today (cars and trucks, generators, etc). ... This article is about the fuel. ... Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was an early and primitive automobile emissions-control device that was used from the late 1960s through the early 1980s. ...


CNG may be refuelled from low-pressure ("slow-fill") or high-pressure ("fast-fill") systems. The difference lies in the cost of the station vs. the refuelling time. There are also some implementations to refuel out of a residential gas line during the night, but this is forbidden in some countries.


CNG cylinders can be made of steel, aluminium, or plastic. Lightweight composite (fibre-wrapped plastic) cylinders are especially beneficial for vehicular use because they offer significant weight reductions when compared with earlier generation steel and aluminium cylinders, which leads to lower fuel consumption.


The equipment required for CNG to be delivered to an Otto-cycle engine includes a pressure regulator (a device that converts the natural gas from storage pressure to metering pressure) and a gas mixer or gas injectors (fuel metering devices). Earlier-generation CNG conversion kits featured venturi-type gas mixers that metered fuel using the Venturi effect. Often assisting the gas mixer was a metering valve actuated by a stepper motor relying on feedback from an exhaust gas oxygen sensor. Newer CNG conversion kits feature electronic multi-point gas injection, similar to petrol injection systems found in most of today's cars. A Venturi meter is shown in a diagram, the pressure in 1 conditions is higher than 2, and the relationship between the fluid speed in 2 and 1 respectively, is the same as for pressure. ... A Venturi meter is shown in a diagram, the pressure in 1 conditions is higher than 2, and the relationship between the fluid speed in 2 and 1 respectively, is the same as for pressure. ... Because of induction of the windings, power requirements, and temperature management some glue circuitry is necessary between digital controller and motor. ...


Drawbacks

Compressed natural gas vehicles require a greater amount of space for fuel storage than convention gasoline power vehicles. Since it is a compressed gas, rather than a liquid like gasoline, CNG takes up more space for each GGE (Gallon of Gas Equivalent). This makes it difficult to design smaller vehicles that look and operate like the vehicles that people are accustomed to.


Furthermore, using CNG does not escape paying higher fuel prices, as CNG price increases are a derivative of gasoline price increases, still nowadays is absolutely more convenient than traditional fuels, as its price is in a range of 1/3 to 1/2 compared to benzine, in Europe. Benzine, also known as petroleum ether, is a group of various volatile, highly flammable, liquid hydrocarbon mixtures used chiefly as nonpolar solvents. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


CNG compared to LNG

CNG is often confused with liquefied natural gas (LNG). While both are stored forms of natural gas, the key difference is that CNG is in compressed form, while LNG is in liquefied form. CNG has a lower cost of production and storage compared to LNG as it does not require an expensive cooling process and cryogenic tanks. CNG requires a much larger volume to store the same mass of natural gas and the use of very high pressures (3000 to 4000 lbf/inĀ², or 205 to 275 bar). Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been processed to remove either valuable components e. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... A pressure gauge reading in PSI (red scale) and kPa (black scale) The pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/in2) is a non-SI unit of pressure based on avoirdupois units. ... The bar (symbol bar), decibar (symbol dbar) and the millibar (symbol mbar, also mb) are units of pressure. ...


Worldwide

Europe

In Germany, CNG-generated vehicles are expected to increase to two million units of motor-transport by the year 2020. The cost for CNG fuel is between 1/3 and 1/2 compared to other fossil fuels in Europe.[citation needed] CNG can mean: Compressed natural gas Comfort Noise Generator used in Speech Codecs to insert artificial noise during silent intervals of speech. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


South America

Argentina and Brazil, in the Southern Cone of Latin America, are the two countries with the largest fleets of CNG vehicles. Conversion has been facilitated by a substantial price differential with liquid fuels, locally-produced conversion equipment and a growing CNG-delivery infrastructure. A 'Blue-network' of CNG stations is being developed on the major highways of the Southern Cone (including Chile and Bolivia) to allow for long-haul transportation fuelled by CNG.


Asia

One of the many CNG propelled autorickshaws on the streets of New Delhi, Delhi. A fleet of twelve also operates in Brighton, England.
A CNG powered Volvo B10BLE bus, operated by SBS Transit in Singapore.
A CNG powered Volvo B10BLE bus, operated by SBS Transit in Singapore.

In Asian Developing Economies such as India, CNG costs are at Rupees 19.20(USD $ 0.50 Cents) per kg compared with Rs.43.9 (US$ 1.15) per liter of petrol. The cost saving is immense along with reduced emissions and environmentally friendlier cars. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2358 KB) Description: A street in Delhi Source: photo taken by User:Deepak Date: 26th December 2005 Permission: User:Deepak released it on 26th December 2005 under CC-BY-SA-2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2358 KB) Description: A street in Delhi Source: photo taken by User:Deepak Date: 26th December 2005 Permission: User:Deepak released it on 26th December 2005 under CC-BY-SA-2. ... Passengers and drivers meet at this auto rickshaw stand in Chennai. ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... For other places with the same name, see Brighton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,280 × 960 pixels, file size: 456 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A SBS Transit Volvo B10BLE (CNG) bus on Route 243 in Boon Lay Int Img by Calvin Teo, June 2006 File historyClick on a... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,280 × 960 pixels, file size: 456 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A SBS Transit Volvo B10BLE (CNG) bus on Route 243 in Boon Lay Int Img by Calvin Teo, June 2006 File historyClick on a... A Volvo B10BLE bus in Singapore with Volgren bodywork. ... SBS Transit Limited (simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: , SGX: S61) is a public transport operator in Singapore. ...


CNG has been made mandatory for all public transport in the Indian capital city of New Delhi.


CNG has grown into one of the major fuel sources used in car engines in Pakistan, Bangladesh and India. The use of CNG is mandated for the public transport system of India's capital New Delhi as well as for the city of Ahmedabad in the state of Gujarat. The Delhi Transport Corporation operates the world's largest fleet of CNG buses. The government of Punjab, Pakistan, the most populous province of that country, has mandated that all public-transport vehicles will use CNG by 2007. Today many rickshaws as well as personal vehicles in India and Bangladesh are being converted to CNG powered technology, the cost of which is in the range of $800-$1000. In the Bangladesh capital of Dhaka not a single auto rickshaw without CNG has been permitted since 2003. As of July 2007 Pakistan is the largest user of CNG in Asia, and second largest user in the world.[1] , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... , Ahmedabad (Gujarati: , Hindi: अहमदाबाद ) is the largest city in the state of Gujarat and the seventh-largest urban agglomeration in India, with a population of almost 51 lakhs (5. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) is the main public transport operator of Delhi. ... The Punjab/ پنجاب province of Pakistan is part of the larger Punjab region. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


According to the International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles, Pakistan has the second-largest number of natural gas vehicles.[1] In the Middle East and Africa, Egypt is a top ten country in the world with more than 63000 CNG vehicles and 95 fuelling stations nationwide. Egypt was also the first nation in Africa and the Middle East to open a public CNG fuelling station in January 1996.[2] A Natural gas vehicle or NGV is a vehicle that uses compressed natural gas (CNG) or, less commonly, liquified natural gas (LNG)) as a clean alternative to other automobile fuels. ...


Oceania

During the 1970s and 1980s, CNG was commonly used in New Zealand in the wake of the oil crises, but fell into decline after petrol prices receded. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ...


Brisbane Transport and Transperth in Australia have both adopted a policy of only purchasing CNG buses in future. Transperth is purchasing 451 Mercedes-Benz OC500LE buses, including 58 articulated buses, while Brisbane Transport has purchased 216 Scania L94UB and 180 MAN 18.310 models as well as ordering up to 30 articulated CNG buses on MAN chassis'. Brisbane Transport is a division of the Brisbane City Council. ... The new B Series trains delivered from 2004 service the popular Northern Suburbs Line and will run on the under construction Mandurah Line Transperth is the brand name of the public transport system in Perth, Western Australia. ... Transperth OC500LE (Volgren) serving as the Blue CAT. The Mercedes-Benz OC 500 LE is a modular, heavy-duty, twin-axle bus chassis produced by Mercedes-Benz/EvoBus in Sámano, Spain. ... A Mississauga Transit bus in Mississauga Ontario. ... Scania L94UB bus serving Tallinn city line The Scania L94 is a longitudinal inclined-engined bus built by Scania which was a direct replacement of Scania L113. ... MAN AG (German: Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg AG, ISIN: DE0005937007) is a German transportation company. ...


In the 1990s Benders Buslines of Geelong, Victoria trialled CNG buses for the Energy Research and Development Corporation.[3] Benders low floor bus in service in Geelong Benders Busways is a privately owned transport company in Geelong, Victoria. ... This article is about the Victorian city; the name may also refer to City of Geelong or Geelong city centre. ... VIC redirects here. ...


See also

45 kg LPG cylinders Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, LP Gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer. ...

References

  1. ^ a b NGV Statistics. International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles. Retrieved on 2007-11-14.
  2. ^ Allen, Robin. "New fuel cleans up: CNG: Compressed natural gas is rapidly gaining popularity with drivers; Surveys edition", Financial Times, May 11, 1999, p. 17. 
  3. ^ NGV Bus Demonstration - H Bender - December 1993. Retrieved on 2007-7-26.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • CNG Forum.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Iqara - Compressed Natural Gas (312 words)
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is natural gas, which is then compressed for use as a vehicle fuel.
CNG is taken from the existing gas supply, put through a series of compressors, systematically compressing, filtering and drying the gas, before storing it ready for use in a storage bank for immediate dispensing when required.
CNG is a flexible fuel fitting most of your vehicle requirements, be it large or small vehicles.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m