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Encyclopedia > Composting
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Composting is the aerobic decomposition of biodegradable organic matter, producing compost. (Or in a simpler form: Composting is the decaying of food, mostly vegetables.) The decomposition is performed primarily by facultative and obligate aerobic bacteria, yeasts and fungi, helped in the cooler initial and ending phases by a number of larger organisms, such as ils, and other families representing ants, nematodes and oligochaete worms. Image File history File links Sustainable_development. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Biodegradation is the decomposition of material by microorganisms. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A handful of compost A double-wide bin with compost at different stages of decomposition Compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials. ... Bacteria that require oxygen for respiration. ... ILS can refer to any of the following: New Israeli sheqel, the currency of Israel. ... For other uses, see Ant (disambiguation). ... Classes Adenophorea    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria    Subclass Tylenchia The nematodes or roundworms (Phylum nematoda from Greek (nema): thread + -ode like) are one of the most common phyla of animals, with over 80,000 different described species (over 15,000 are parasitic). ... Orders Arhynchobdellida Haplotaxida Rhynchobdellida The Oligochaeta or few-bristled worms (singular Oligochaete, IPA /ˈɒlɪgoʊˌkit/) are well-segmented Annelids, most with a spacious coelom that is used as a hydroskeleton. ...


Composting can be divided into home composting and industrial composting. Essentially the same biological processes are involved in both scales of composting, however techniques and different factors must be taken into account. The following page contains a list of different composting systems: Home composting Bokashi A fermentation alternative to compost. ... The following page contains a list of different composting systems: Home composting Bokashi A fermentation alternative to compost. ...

Contents

Importance

Composting recycles or "downcycles" organic household and yard waste and manures into an extremely useful humus-like, soil end-product called compost. Ultimately this permits the return of needed organic matter and nutrients into the foodchain and reduces the amount of "green" waste going into landfills. Composting is widely believed to speed up the natural process of decomposition appreciably as a result of the raised temperatures that often accompany it. The elevated heat results from exothermic processes, and the heat in turn reduces the generational time of microorganisms and thereby speeds the energy and nutrient exchanges taking place. It is a very popular misnomer that composting is a "controlled" process; if the right environmental circumstances are present the process virtually runs itself. Hence a popular expression, "compost happens". It is nonetheless very necessary to provide as optimal circumstances as possible for large amounts of organic waste to break down properly. This is especially so when it is accompanied by heating, since at elevated temperatures oxygen within the piles is consumed more rapidly, and if not controlled, will lead to malodor.-1... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... A nutrient is a substance used in an organisms metabolism which must be taken in from the environment. ... Look up landfill in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ...


Decomposition similar to composting occurs throughout nature as garbage dissolves in the absence of all the conditions that modern composters talk about; however, the process can be slow. For example, in the forest bark, wood and leaves break down into humus over 3-7 years. In restricted environments, for example, vegetables in a plastic trash container, decomposition with a lack of air encourages growth of anaerobic microbes, which produce disagreeable odors. Another form of degradation practiced deliberately in absence of oxygen is called anaerobic digestion- an increasingly popular companion to composting as it enables capture of residual energy in the form of biogas, whereas composting releases the majority of bound carbon-energy as excess heat (which helps sanitize the material) as well as copious amounts of biogenic CO2 to the atmosphere. This article is about the physical universe. ... For other uses, see Bark (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Leaves are an Icelandic five-piece alternative rock band who came to prominence in 2002 with their debut album, Breathe, drawing comparisons to groups such as Coldplay and Doves. ... A year (from Old English gēr) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anaerobic is a technical word which literally means without air (where air is generally used to mean oxygen), as opposed to aerobic. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Aroma redirects here. ... Anaerobic digestion component of Lübeck mechanical biological treatment plant in Germany, 2007 Anaerobic digestion is a process in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. ... Biogas-bus in Bern, Switzerland Biogas typically refers to a (biofuel) gas produced by the anaerobic digestion or fermentation of organic matter including manure, sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, biodegradable waste or any other biodegradable feedstock, under anaerobic conditions. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Atmospheres redirects here. ...


It is important to distinguish between terms such as "biodegradable", "compostable", and "compost-compatible".

  • A biodegradable material is capable of being broken down completely under the action of microorganisms into carbon dioxide, water and biomass. It may take a very long time for a material to biodegrade depending on its environment (e.g. hardwood in an arid area), but it ultimately breaks down completely.
  • A compostable material biodegrades substantially under composting conditions, into carbon dioxide, methane, water and compost biomass. Compost biomass refers to the portion of the material that is metabolized by the microorganisms and which is incorporated into the cellular structure of the organisms or converted into humic acids etc. Compost biomass residues from a compostable material are fully biodegradable. "Compostable" is thus a subset of "biodegradable". The size of the material is a factor in determining compostability because it affects the rate of degradation. Large pieces of hardwood may not be compostable under a specific set of composting conditions, whereas sawdust of the same type of wood may be.
  • A compost-compatible material does not have to be compostable or even biodegradable. It may biodegrade too slowly to be compostable itself, or it may not biodegrade at all. However, it is not readily distinguishable from the compost on a macroscopic scale and does not have a deleterious effect on the compost (e.g. it is not a biocide). Compost-compatible materials are generally inert and are present in compost at relatively low levels. Examples of compost-compatible materials include sand particles and inert particles of plastic.

Materials

Many different materials are suitable for composting organisms. Composters often refer to "C:N" requirements; some materials contain high amounts of carbon in the form of cellulose which the bacteria need for their energy. Other materials contain nitrogen in the form of protein, which provide nutrients for the energy exchanges. It would however be an over-simplification to describe composting as about carbon and nitrogen, as is often portrayed in popular literature. Elemental carbon - such as charcoal - is not compostable nor is a pure form of nitrogen, even in combination with carbon. Not only this, but a great variety of man-made, carbon-containing products, including many textiles and polyethylene, are not compostable - hence the push for biodegradable plastics. Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... This article is about the type of fabric. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bioplastics are a form of plastics derived from plant sources such as hemp oil, soy bean oil and corn starch rather than traditional plastics which are derived from petroleum. ...


Suitable ingredients with relatively high carbon content include:

Ingredients with relatively high nitrogen content include: Sawdust is composed of fine particles of wood. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Cardboard is a generic non-specific term for a heavy duty paper based product. ... Soy ink is a kind of ink made from soybeans. ...

  • Green plant material (fresh or wilted) such as crop residues, hay, grass clippings, weeds
  • Manure of poultry and herbivorous animals such as horses, cows and llamas
  • Fruit and vegetable trimmings

The most efficient composting occurs by seeking to obtain an initial C:N mix of 25/30 by dry chemical weight. Grass clippings have an average ratio of 10-19 to 1 and dry autumn leaves from 55-100 to 1. Mixing equal parts by volume approximates the ideal range. Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ... Ducks amongst other poultry The Poultry-dealer, after Cesare Vecellio Poultry is the category of domesticated birds kept for meat, eggs, and feathers. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... For other uses, see Llama (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Dry weight may refer to: the weight of an automobile or motorcycle with standard equipment, no motor oil, coolant or fuel and not loaded with either passengers or cargo. ... For other uses, see Volume (disambiguation). ...


Poultry manure provides much nitrogen but with a ratio to carbon that is imbalanced. If composted alone, this results in excessive N-loss in the form of ammonia - and some odor. Horse manure provides a good mix of both, although in modern stables, so much bedding may be used as to make the mix too carbonaceous. For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ...


For home-scale composting, mixing the materials as they are added increases the rate of decomposition, but it can be easier to place the materials in alternating layers, approximately 15 cm (6 in) thick, to help estimate the quantities. Keeping carbon and nitrogen sources separated in the pile can slow down the process, but decomposition will still occur. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


Some people put special materials and activators into their compost. A light dusting of agricultural lime (not on animal manure layers) can curb excessive acidity, especially with food waste. Seaweed meal provides a ready source of trace elements. Finely pulverized rock (rock flour or rock dust) can also provide minerals, while clay and leached rock dust are poor in trace minerals. Agricultural lime is a soil additive made from pulverized limestone or chalk. ... Microminerals (also known as trace elements) are micronutrients that are chemical elements. ... Rock flour consists of clay sized particles of rock generated by glacial erosional actions. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ...


Composting in the form of bioremediation can break down petroleum hydrocarbons, TNT and a variety of toxic compounds. This is the bacterial and in some cases fungal content of the compost, that possess the enzymatic properties to de-polymerize the complex man-made molecules. In other words, there is nothing about the composting process per se that adds or detracts from this, unless as noted above, by warming, to increase the metabolic rate of the constituent organisms. Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. ... Petro redirects here. ... Look up Hydrocarbon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος(metavallo), the Greek word for change), in the most general sense, is the ingestion and breakdown of complex compounds, coupled with the liberation of energy, and the consequent generation of waste...


Some materials are best left to high-rate, a thermophilic composting system, as they decompose slower, attract vermin and require higher temperatures to kill pathogens than backyard composting provides. These materials include meat, dairy products, eggs, restaurant grease, cooking oil, manure and bedding of non-herbivores, and residuals from the treatment of wastewater and drinking water. Meat and dairy products can be recycled using bokashi, a fermentation method. Thermophiles produce some of the bright colors of Grand Prismatic Spring, Yellowstone National Park A thermophile is an organism – a type of extremophile – which thrives at relatively high temperatures, up to about 60 °C. Many thermophiles are archaea. ... Look up vermin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A pathogen (literally birth of pain from the Greek παθογένεια) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. ... For other uses, see Meat (disambiguation). ... Dairy products are generally defined as foodstuffs produced from milk. ... Chicken egg (left) and quail eggs (right), the types of egg commonly used as food An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. ... The Water Environment Federation (WEF) formally recognized the term biosolids in 1991 and it is in common use thoughout the world as of 2004. ... effective microorganisms (有用・微生物群, YÅ«yō・Biseibutsugun) or EM is a generic and descriptive name and technology first pioneered by Dr. Teruo Higa (比嘉照夫博士) of Japan. ...


Human waste can be composted by industrial, high-heat methods and also composting toilets, even though most composting toilets do not allow for the thermophilic decomposition believed to be necessary rapid kill of pathogens, such as Salmonella This is not a problem, however, since composting toilets also incorporate the essential element of time required to reduce available substrate on which pathogens can feed, while increasing the growth of competing microbes. If these high temperatures are reached, the resulting compost can be safely used as a fertilizer for food crops and even directly edible crops provided it is not illegal in the regions where the sludge is applied. Careful filtration of the compost also prevents contamination. Composting toilets use biological processes to deal with the disposal and processing of human excrement into organic compost material. ... Thermophiles produce some of the bright colors of Grand Prismatic Spring, Yellowstone National Park A thermophile is an organism – a type of extremophile – which thrives at relatively high temperatures, up to about 60 °C. Many thermophiles are archaea. ... A pathogen (literally birth of pain from the Greek παθογένεια) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. ... Species S. enterica This article is about the bacteria. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either through the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ...


Approaches

There are two major approaches to composting: active and passive. These terms are somewhat of a misnomer since both active and passive composts can attain high heating, which increases the rate of biochemical processes. But the terms active and passive are appropriate descriptions for the nature of human intervention used.


Active

An active compost heap, steaming on a cold winter morning. The heap is kept warm by the exothermic action of the bacteria as they decompose the organic matter.
An active compost heap, steaming on a cold winter morning. The heap is kept warm by the exothermic action of the bacteria as they decompose the organic matter.

Active (hot) composting is composting at close to ideal conditions, allowing aerobic bacteria to thrive. Aerobic bacteria break down material faster and produce less odor and fewer pathogens and destructive greenhouse gases than anaerobic bacteria. Commercial-grade composting operations actively control the composting conditions such as the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. For backyard composters, the charts of carbon and nitrogen ratios in various ingredients and the calculations required to get the ideal mixture can be intimidating, so many rules of thumb exist for approximating it. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1080x1284, 463 KB) Photograph © Andrew Dunn, 19 November 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1080x1284, 463 KB) Photograph © Andrew Dunn, 19 November 2005. ... In thermodynamics, the word exothermic outside heating describes a process or reaction that releases energy usually in the form of heat, but it can also release energy in form of light (e. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... For other uses, see Decomposition (disambiguation). ... Wikinews has related news: Scientists warn thawing Siberia may trigger global meltdown A schematic representation of the exchanges of energy between outer space, the Earths atmosphere, and the Earth surface. ...


Pasteurisation is a misnomer in composting, as no compost will become truly sterilized by high temperatures alone. Rather, in a very hot compost where the temperature exceeds 55 °C (130 °F) for several days, the ability of organisms to survive is greatly compromised. Nevertheless, there are many organisms in nature that can survive extreme temperatures, including the group of pathogenic Clostridium, and so no compost is completely safe. To achieve the elevated temperatures, the compost bin must be kept warm, insulated and damp. Pasteurization is the process of heating food for the purpose of killing harmful organisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, molds, and yeasts. ... Species Clostridium acetobutylicum Clostridium aerotolerans Clostridium botulinum Clostridium colicanis Clostridium difficile Clostridium formicaceticum Clostridium novyi Clostridium perfringens Clostridium sordelli Clostridium tetani Clostridium piliforme Clostridium tyrobutyricum etc. ...


Aerated Composting is an efficient form of composting from the chemical point of view as it produces ultimately only energy in the form of waste heat and CO2 and H2O . With aerated composting, fresh air (i.e. oxygen) is introduced throughout the mix of materials using any appropriate mechanism. The air stimulates the microorganisms that are already in the mix, and their by-product is heat. In a properly operated compost system, pile temperatures are sufficient to stabilize the raw material, and the oxygen-rich conditions within the core of the pile eliminate offensive odors. High temperatures also destroy fly larvae and weed seeds, yielding a safe, high-quality finished product.


Finally, aeration expedites the composting process through the mechanism of heating insofar as the elevated heat will drive biochemical processes faster, so that a finished product can be rendered in 60 to 120 days. Aerated compost is an excellent source of macro- and micro-nutrients as well as stable organic matter, all of which support healthy plant growth. In addition, the micro-organisms in compost aid in the suppression of plant pathogens. Finally, compost retains water extremely well resulting in improved drought resistance, a longer growing season, and reduced soil erosion.


Passive

Passive composting is composting in which the level of physical intervention is kept to a minimum, and often as a result the temperatures never reach much above 30°C (86 °F). It is slower but is the more common type of composting in most domestic garden compost bins. Such composting systems may be either enclosed (home container composting, industrial in-vessel composting) or in exposed piles (industrial windrow composting). Kitchen scraps are put in the garden compost bin and left untended. This scrap bin can have a very high water content which reduces aeration, and so becomes odorous. To improve drainage and airflow, a gardener can mix in wood chips, small pieces of bark, leaves or twigs, or make physical holes through the pile. Twin vault New Zealand Box compost system Container composting - There are sound reasons for composting in containers, although there is debate as to whether slatted or closed sided bins are preferable, for this will affect air circulation within the compost pile, as well as the potential for heat loss. ... In-vessel composting is an industrial form of composting that occurs in enclosed reactors. ... This page is given by a great person named sudhir kaushik. ...


Natural

An unusual form of natural composting in nature is seen in the case of the mound-builders (megapodes) of eastern Indonesia, New Guinea, and Australia as well as in the case of bowerbirds of New Guinea and Australia. These Megapodes are fowl-sized birds famous for building nests in the form of huge compost heaps containing leaf litter, in which they incubate their eggs. The birds work constantly to maintain the correct, almost exact, incubation temperatures, by adding and removing leaves from the compost pile. In effect, this teaches us that thermophilic high-temperature composting is not man-made. This article is about mound-building birds. ... Genera Ailuroedus Archboldia Amblyornis Prionodura Sericulus Ptilonorhynchus Chlamydera The 19 bowerbirds and catbirds make up the family Ptilonorhynchidae. ...


Home composting

Home composters use a range of techniques, varying from extremely passive (throw everything in a pile and leave it for a year or two) to extremely active (monitor the temperature, turn the pile regularly, and adjust the ingredients over time). Some composters use mineral powders to absorb smells, although a well-maintained pile seldom has bad odors. It is usually located in the back garden.


Moisture and heat

An effective compost pile is about as damp as a well wrung-out sponge. This provides the moisture that all life requires. Microorganisms vary by their ideal temperature and the heat they generate as they digest. Mesophilic bacteria survive best at temperatures of 20 to 44 °C (70 to 120 °F). thermophilic (heat-surviving) bacteria grow optimally at around 55°C (130 °F), and can attain the fastest decomposition, since metabolic processes proceed more rapidly under higher temperatures. Elevated temperature is also preferred since it causes the most rapid pathogen reduction, and is more destructive of weed seeds. To minimally achieve it, the heap should be about 1 m (3 ft) wide, 1 m (3 ft) tall, and as long as is practicable. This provides enough insulating mass to build up heat but also allows aeration. The center of the pile heats up the most. A mesophile is an organism that grows best in moderate temperature, neither too hot nor too cold, typically between 25 and 40 °C (68 and 113 °F). ... This article is about a type of organism. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


If the pile does not heat up, common reasons include that:

  • The heap is too wet, limiting the oxygen which bacteria require
  • The heap is too dry for the bacteria to survive and reproduce
  • There is insufficient protein (nitrogen-rich material)

The necessary material should be added, or the pile should be turned to aerate it and bring the outer layers inside and vice versa. You should add water at this time to help keep the pile damp. One guideline is to turn the pile when the high temperature has begun to drop, indicating that the food source for the fastest-acting bacteria (in the center of the pile) has been largely consumed. When turning the pile does not cause a temperature rise, it brings no further advantage. When all the material has turned into dark brown crumbly matter, it is ready to use.


Worm composting

Worm composting or vermicomposting is a method of composting using Red Wiggler worms in a container. Food waste and moistened bedding are added, and the worms and micro-organisms eventually convert them to rich compost. The worms excrete a soil-nutrient material called worm castings. Worm composting can be done indoors, allowing year-round composting, and providing apartment dwellers with a means of composting. For other uses, see Worm (disambiguation). ... Vermicompost (also called worm compost, vermicast, worm castings, worm humus or worm manure) is the end-product of the breakdown of organic matter by some species of earthworm. ... Families   Acanthodrilidae   Ailoscolecidae   Alluroididae   Almidae   Biwadrilidae   Eudrilidae   Exxidae   Glossoscolecidae   Lumbricidae   Lutodrilidae   Megascolecidae   Microchaetidae   Ocnerodrilidae   Octochaetidae   Sparganophilidae Earthworm is the common name for the larger members of the Oligochaeta (which is either a class or subclass depending on the author) in the phylum Annelida. ...


Worms are low in the food chain, and so are critical to healthy soil. This is why farmers have historically wanted healthy worm populations to live in their fields. Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species to another within an ecosystem. ...


The nutrients and micro-organisms can be concentrated in liquid form called worm tea, made by running distilled water through worm castings. When it is poured into the soil, the microorganisms multiply, creating a healthy growing environment for plants.


Industrial composting

Industrial composting systems are increasingly being installed as a waste management alternative to landfills, along with other advanced waste processing systems. Industrial composting or anaerobic digestion combined with mechanical sorting of mixed waste streams is called mechanical biological treatment increasingly used in Europe due to stringent new regulations controlling the amount of organic matter allowed in landfills. Treating biodegradable waste before it enters a landfill reduces global warming from fugitive methane; untreated waste breaks down anaerobically in a landfill, producing landfill gas that contains methane, a greenhouse gas even more potent than carbon dioxide. Look up landfill in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The following page contains a list of different forms of solid waste treatment technologies and facilities employed in waste management infrastructure. ... Anaerobic digestion component of Lübeck mechanical biological treatment plant in Germany, 2007 Anaerobic digestion is a process in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. ... Anaerobic digestion and air processing components of Lübeck mechanical biological treatment plant in Germany A mechanical biological treatment system is a form of waste processing facility that combines a sorting facility with a form of biological treatment such as composting or anaerobic digestion. ... Biodegradable waste is a type of waste, typically originating from plant or animal sources, which may be broken down by other living organisms. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... Anaerobic respiration refers to the oxidation of molecules in the absence of oxygen to produce energy, in opposition to Aerobic respiration which does use oxygen. ... Natural gas rig Natural gas (commonly refered to as gas in many countries) is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


Most commercial and industrial composting operations use active composting techniques. These ensure that the process does not get out of control especially with the high through-put demand imposed by contracted, incoming waste. This means that as short as possible a processing time must be maintained to keep the facility properly functioning (see compost windrow turner). Partly for this reason composters have declined to support compost maturity standards if it would increase the required holding time. The greatest amount of technological control of composting is seen in systems using an enclosed vessel and controlling its temperature, air flow, moisture and other parameters. See In-vessel composting (indoor composting). Compost windrow turners were developed to produce compost on a large scale. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Large-scale composting systems are used by many urban centers around the world. Co-composting is a technique which combines solid waste with de-watered biosolids, which originated in the 1960's and has fallen somewhat out of favor due to difficulties controlling inert and plastic contamination from MSW. In Europe, mixed waste composting is virtually illegal. The world's largest MSW co-composter is the Edmonton Composting Facility in Edmonton in Alberta, Canada, which turns 220,000 tonnes of residential solid waste and 22,500 dry tonnes of biosolids per year into 80,000 tonnes of compost. The facility is 38,690 square metres (416,500 ft²) large (equivalent to 4½ Canadian football fields), and the aeration building alone is the largest stainless steel building in North America, the size of 14 NHL rinks. The Edmonton Composting Facility is the site of the City of Edmontons advanced co-composting system for processing organic waste. ... This article is about the city in Alberta, Canada. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... Diagram of a Canadian football field. ... North American redirects here. ... NHL can also be an abbreviation for National Historic Landmark or Non-Hodgkins lymphoma. ...


See also

A handful of compost A double-wide bin with compost at different stages of decomposition Compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials. ... Twin vault New Zealand Box compost system Container composting - There are sound reasons for composting in containers, although there is debate as to whether slatted or closed sided bins are preferable, for this will affect air circulation within the compost pile, as well as the potential for heat loss. ... Compost Tea, a liquid solution or suspension made by steeping compost in water, is alleged to return necessary microbes back into the soil—it has a very short shelf life. ... Ecological sanitation, also known as ecosan, is a modern alternative to conventional sanitation techniques. ... Humanure is a neologism designating human waste (feces and urine) that is recycled via composting for agricultural or other purposes. ... In-vessel composting is an industrial form of composting that occurs in enclosed reactors. ... The following page contains a list of different composting systems: Home composting Bokashi A fermentation alternative to compost. ... It has been suggested that Small-scale agriculture be merged into this article or section. ... Conventionally, plastics are made of petrochemicals. ... Bioplastics are a form of plastics derived from plant sources such as hemp oil, soy bean oil and corn starch rather than traditional plastics which are derived from petroleum. ...

References

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

External links

  • Compost Happens t-shirt from Ringleader Clothing.
  • How-to video on home composting from the nonprofit group Kitchen Gardeners International.
  • Cré, the Irish Composting Association Contains information on composting in Ireland.
  • Online compost calculator that provides the carbon:nitrogen ratio for many common ingredients and calculates the best mix.
For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. ... Anaerobic digestion component of Lübeck mechanical biological treatment plant in Germany, 2007 Anaerobic digestion is a process in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. ... An eco-industrial park is a type of industrial park in which businesses cooperate with each other and with the local community in an attempt to reduce waste, efficiently share resources (such as information, materials, water, energy, infrastructure, and natural resources), and produce sustainable development, with the intention of increasing... For other forms of waste plant that produce energy see waste-to-energy. ... Look up landfill in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anaerobic digestion and air processing components of Lübeck mechanical biological treatment plant in Germany A mechanical biological treatment system is a form of waste processing facility that combines a sorting facility with a form of biological treatment such as composting or anaerobic digestion. ... Radioactive wastes are waste types containing radioactive chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose. ... Reuse is using an item more than once. ... The international recycling symbol. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Reuse. ... The word sewerage means the provision of pipes etc to collect and dispose of sewage. ... For other uses, see Waste (disambiguation). ... For the corporation, see Waste Management Incorporated Waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal of waste materials, usually ones produced by human activity, in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or local amenity. ... Waste sorting is the process by which waste is separated into different elements. ... The waste hierarchy The waste hierarchy refers to the 3 Rs reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability. ... The following page contains a list of different waste management related concepts and acronyms: BANANA Build Absolutely Nothing Anywhere Near Anything Best practicable environmental option (BPEO) Extended producer responsibility Linguistic detoxification NIMBY Not in my back yard Pay as you throw Polluter pays principle Proximity principle Waste strategy Waste hierarchy... Depending upon the country different legislation governs the way waste is managed and disposed of. ... Waste treatment refers to the activities required to ensure that waste has the least practicable impact on the environment. ... Environmental technology or green technology is the application of the environmental sciences to conserve the natural environment and resources, and by curbing the negative impacts of human involvement. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Air Pollution#Control devices. ... Bio-energy redirects here. ... For other uses, see Birth control (disambiguation). ... Conservation biology, or conservation ecology, is the science of analyzing and protecting Earths biological diversity. ... The conservation ethic is an ethic of resource use, allocation, exploitation, and protection. ... Ecoforestry is forestry that emphasizes holistic practices which strive to protect and restore ecosystems1 instead of traditional forestry that maximizes economic productivity. ... For battery powered passenger automobiles, see battery electric vehicle. ... For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ... Higher electricity use per capita correlates with a higher score on the Human Development Index(1997). ... tytytrtyty This article is about energy efficiency as a ratio. ... Environmental design is the process of addressing environmental parameters when devising plans, programs, policies, buildings, or products. ... An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is an assessment of the likely influence a project may have on the environment. ... Envirnonmental preservation is the strict setting aside of natural resources to prevent the use or contact by humans or by human intervention. ... This article is about green building construction. ... Green computing is the study and practice of using computing resources efficiently. ... For other types of hybrid transportation, see Hybrid vehicle (disambiguation). ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Industrial ecology is the shifting of industrial process from open loop systems, in which resource and capital investments move through the system to become waste, to a closed loop system where wastes become inputs for new processes. ... Industrial wastewater treatment covers the mechanisms and processes used to treat waters that have been contaminated in some way by mans industrial or commercial activities prior to its release into the environment or its re-use. ... Natural building involves a range of building systems and materials that place major emphasis on sustainability. ... The international recycling symbol. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... // Renewable energy development covers the advancement, capacity growth, and use of renewable energy sources by humans. ... Generally, remediation means providing a remedy, so environmental remediation deals with the removal of pollution or contaminants from environmental media such as soil, groundwater, sediment, or surface water for the general protection of human health and the environment or from a brownfield site intended for redevelopment. ... The following page contains a list of different forms of waste treatment Anaerobic digestion ArrowBio Composting Gasification Incineration In-vessel composting Landfill Mechanical biological treatment Mechanical heat treatment Plasma Pyrolysis Recycling Sewage treatment Tunnel composting UASB Windrow composting Categories: | ... Sustainable architecture applies techniques of sustainable design to architecture. ... This article is about a concept related to renewable energy, of which sustainable energy is a superset. ... Sustainable development is a socio-ecological process characterized by the fulfilment of human needs while maintaining the quality of the natural environment indefinitely. ... The following page consist of a list of waste water treatment technologies: Activated sludge Anaerobic digestion Anaerobic lagoon Cesspit Combined sewer overflow Composting toilet Constructed wetland Imhoff tank Floculation Reed bed Septic tank Sequencing batch reactor UASB Aerobic Granular Reactor This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Water purification is the process of removing contaminants from a raw water source. ... For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. ...

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Compost - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (261 words)
Compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials (those with plant and animal origins).
Compost is used in gardening and agriculture as a soil amendment, and commercially by the landscaping and container nursery industries.
Compost is also used as a seed starting medium generally mixed with a small portion of sand for improved drainage.
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