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Encyclopedia > Composite material
A cloth of woven carbon fiber filaments, a common element in composite materials
A cloth of woven carbon fiber filaments, a common element in composite materials

Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties and which remain separate and distinct on a macroscopic level within the finished structure. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 143 KB) Kohlenstofffasergewebe Source: German Wikipedia, original upload 17. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 143 KB) Kohlenstofffasergewebe Source: German Wikipedia, original upload 17. ... Look up material in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...



Plywood is a common composite material that many people encounter in their everyday lives
Plywood is a common composite material that many people encounter in their everyday lives

The most primitive composite materials comprised straw and mud in the form of bricks for building construction; the Biblical book of Exodus speaks of the Israelites being oppressed by Pharaoh, by being forced to make bricks without straw being provided. The ancient brick-making process can still be seen on Egyptian tomb paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art[1]. The most advanced examples perform routinely on spacecraft in demanding environments. The most visible applications pave our roadways in the form of either steel and aggregate reinforced portland cement or asphalt concrete. Those composites closest to our personal hygiene form our shower stalls and bath tubs made of fiberglass. Solid surface, imitation granite and cultured marble sinks and counter tops are widely used to enhance our living experiences. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 1034 KB) close up picture of plywood with a veneer coat. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 1034 KB) close up picture of plywood with a veneer coat. ... Towers of Hanoi constructed from plywood. ... Bales of straw bundles of rice straw Pile of straw bales, sheltered under a tarpaulin Straw is an agricultural byproduct, the dry stalk of a cereal plant, after the nutrient grain or seed has been removed. ... This article is about a type of online computer game. ... For other uses, see Brick (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Look up Israelite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... In Exodus 5 (Parshat Shemot in the Torah), after Moses and Aaron meet with Pharoah and deliver Gods message, Let my people go, Pharoah not only refuses but punishes the Israelites by telling his overseers, Ye shall no more give the people straw to make brick, as heretofore: let... Ancient Egyptian art refers to the style of painting, sculpture, crafts and architecture developed by the civilization in the lower Nile Valley from c. ... The Metropolitan Museum of Art is an art museum located on the eastern edge of Central Park, along what is known as Museum Mile in New York City. ... Sampling fast set Portland cement Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general usage, as it is a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar and plaster. ... Asphalt As shown in this cross-section, many older roadways are smoothed by applying a thin layer of asphalt concrete to the existing portland cement concrete. ... Bundle of fiberglass Fiberglass (also called fibreglass and glass fibre) is material made from extremely fine fibers of glass. ...

There are two categories of constituent materials: matrix and reinforcement. At least one portion of each type is required. The matrix material surrounds and supports the reinforcement materials by maintaining their relative positions. The reinforcements impart their special mechanical and physical properties to enhance the matrix properties. A synergism produces material properties unavailable from the individual constituent materials, while the wide variety of matrix and strengthening materials allows the designer of the product or structure to choose an optimum combination. Engineered composite materials must be formed to shape. The matrix material can be introduced to the reinforcement before or after the reinforcement material is placed into the mold cavity or onto the mold surface. The matrix material experiences a melding event, after which the part shape is essentially set. Depending upon the nature of the matrix material, this melding event can occur in various ways such as chemical polymerization or solidification from the melted state.

A variety of molding methods can be used according to the end-item design requirements. The principal factors impacting the methodology are the natures of the chosen matrix and reinforcement materials. Another important factor is the gross quantity of material to be produced. Large quantities can be used to justify high capital expenditures for rapid and automated manufacturing technology. Small production quantities are accommodated with lower capital expenditures but higher labor and tooling costs at a correspondingly slower rate. Most commercially produced composites use a polymer matrix material often called a resin solution. There are many different polymers available depending upon the starting raw ingredients. There are several broad categories, each with numerous variations. The most common are known as polyester, vinyl ester, epoxy, phenolic, polyimide, polyamide, polypropylene, PEEK, and others. The reinforcement materials are often fibers but also commonly ground minerals. The various methods described below have been developed to reduce the resin content of the final product, or the fibre content is increased. As a rule of thumb hand lay up results in a product containing 60% resin and 40% fibre, whereas vacuum infusion gives a final product with 40% resin and 60% fibre content. The strength of the product is greatly dependent on this ratio, so this increase in fibre content results in a dramatically stronger product. SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester (aka Terylene) is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... Vinyl Ester, or Vinylester, is a resin produced by the esterification of an epoxy resin with an unsaturated monocarboxylic acid. ... In chemistry, epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks) when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in... Phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. ... Polyimide (sometimes abbreviated PI) is a polymer of imide monomers. ... A polyamide is a polymer containing monomers joined by peptide bonds. ... Polypropylene lid of a Tic Tacs box, with a living hinge and the resin identification code under its flap Micrograph of polypropylene Polypropylene or polypropene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer, made by the chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications, including food packaging, ropes, textiles, stationery, plastic... For other uses, see PEEK (disambiguation). ...

Molding methods

In general, the reinforcing and matrix materials are combined, compacted and processed to undergo a melding event. After the melding event, the part shape is essentially set, although it can deform under certain process conditions. For a thermoset polymeric matrix material, the melding event is a curing reaction that is initiated by the application of additional heat or chemical reactivity such as an organic peroxide. For a thermoplastic polymeric matrix material, the melding event is a solidification from the melted state. For a metal matrix material such as titanium foil, the melding event is a fusing at high pressure and a temperature near the melt point.

For many molding methods, it is convenient to refer to one mold piece as a "lower" mold and another mold piece as an "upper" mold. Lower and upper refer to the different faces of the molded panel, not the mold's configuration in space. In this convention, there is always a lower mold, and sometimes an upper mold. Part construction begins by applying materials to the lower mold. Lower mold and upper mold are more generalized descriptors than more common and specific terms such as male side, female side, a-side, b-side, tool side, bowl, hat, mandrel, etc. Continuous manufacturing processes use a different nomenclature.

The molded product is often referred to as a panel. For certain geometries and material combinations, it can be referred to as a casting. For certain continuous processes, it can be referred to as a profile.

Open moulding

A process using a rigid, one sided mould which shapes only one surface of the panel. The opposite surface is determined by the amount of material placed upon the lower mould. Reinforcement materials can be placed manually or robotically. They include continuous fibre forms fashioned into textile constructions and chopped fibre. The matrix is generally a resin, and can be applied with a pressure roller, a spray device or manually. This process is generally done at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. Two variations of open moulding are Hand Layup and Spray-up. For other uses, see robot (disambiguation). ... For the meaning of fiber in nutrition, see dietary fiber. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Room temperature, in laboratory reports, is taken to be roughly 21–23 degrees Celsius (68–72 degrees Fahrenheit), or 294–296 kelvins. ... Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any given point in the Earths atmosphere. ...

Vacuum bag moulding

A process using a two-sided mould set that shapes both surfaces of the panel. On the lower side is a rigid mould and on the upper side is a flexible membrane or vacuum bag. The flexible membrane can be a reusable silicone material or an extruded polymer film. Then, vacuum is applied to the mould cavity. This process can be performed at either ambient or elevated temperature with ambient atmospheric pressure acting upon the vacuum bag. Most economical way is using a venturi vacuum and air compressor or a vacuum pump. A vacuum bag is a bag made of strong rubber-coated fabric, open at one end, and used to bond or laminate materials. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ...

Pressure bag moulding

This process is related to vacuum bag moulding in exactly the same way as it sounds. A solid female mould is used along with a flexible male mould. The reinforcement is place inside the female mould with just enough resin to allow the fabric to stick in place. A measured amount of resin is then liberally brushed indiscriminately into the mould and the mould is then clamped to a machine that contains the male flexible mould. The flexible male membrane is then inflated with heated compressed air or possibly steam. The female mould can also be heated. Excess resin is forced out along with trapped air. This process is extensively used in the production of composite helmets due to the lower cost of unskilled labour. Cycle times for a helmet bag moulding machine vary form 20 to 45 minutes, but the finished shells require no further curing if the moulds are heated. Pith helmet of Harry S. Truman A helmet is a form of protective clothing worn on the head and usually made of metal or some other hard substance, typically for protection from falling objects or high-speed collisions. ...

Autoclave molding

A process using a two-sided mold set that forms both surfaces of the panel. On the lower side is a rigid mold and on the upper side is a flexible membrane made from silicone or an extruded polymer film such as nylon. Reinforcement materials can be placed manually or robotically. They include continuous fiber forms fashioned into textile constructions. Most often, they are pre-impregnated with the resin in the form of prepreg fabrics or unidirectional tapes. In some instances, a resin film is placed upon the lower mold and dry reinforcement is placed above. The upper mold is installed and vacuum is applied to the mold cavity. The assembly is placed into an autoclave pressure vessel. This process is generally performed at both elevated pressure and elevated temperature. The use of elevated pressure facilitates a high fiber volume fraction and low void content for maximum structural efficiency. Front loading autoclaves are common Stovetop autoclaves need to be monitored carefully and are the simplest of all autoclaves Multiple large autoclaves are used for processing substantial quantities of laboratory equipment prior to reuse, and infectious material prior to disposal. ... Steel Pressure Vessel A pressure vessel is a closed, rigid container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure different from the ambient pressure. ...

Resin transfer molding (RTM)

A process using a two-sided mold set that forms both surfaces of the panel. The lower side is a rigid mold. The upper side can be a rigid or flexible mold. Flexible molds can be made from composite materials, silicone or extruded polymer films such as nylon. The two sides fit together to produce a mold cavity. The distinguishing feature of resin transfer molding is that the reinforcement materials are placed into this cavity and the mold set is closed prior to the introduction of matrix material. Resin transfer molding includes numerous varieties which differ in the mechanics of how the resin is introduced to the reinforcement in the mold cavity. These variations include everything from vacuum infusion (see also resin infusion) to vacuum assisted resin transfer molding. This process can be performed at either ambient or elevated temperature.


Other types of molding include press molding, transfer molding, pultrusion molding, filament winding, casting, centrifugal casting and continuous casting. Transfer molding, like compression molding, is a process where the amount of molding material (usually a thermoset plastic) is measured and inserted before the moulding takes place. ... Pultrusion is a continuous process of manufacturing of composite materials with constant cross-section whereby reinforcing fibers are pulled through a resin, possibly followed by a separate preforming system, and into a heated die, where the resin undergoes polymerization. ... This article is about the manufacturing process. ... Continuous casting is a refinement of the casting process for the continuous, high-volume production of metal sections with a constant cross-section. ...


Some types of tooling materials used in the manufacturing of composites structures include invar, steel, aluminum, reinforced silicon rubber, nickle, and carbon fiber. Selection of the tooling material is typically based on, but not limited to, the coefficient of thermal expansion, expected number of cycles, end item tolerance, desired or required surface condition, method of cure, glass transition temperature of the material being molded, molding method, matrix, cost and a variety of other considerations. Invar, also called FeNi36, is an alloy of iron (64%) and nickel (36%) with some carbon and chromium. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ... Silicone rubber is a polymer that has a backbone of silicon oxygen linkages, the same bond that is found in quartz, glass and sand. ... Nickle may refer to: Nickle programming language, a numeric oriented programming language Nickle, another name for the European woodpecker Nickle is an alternative, rarely-used spelling for: nickel, the chemical element Nickel (Canadian coin), a five-cent coin Nickel (United States coin), a five-cent coin Nickel (disambiguation) Category: ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... The glass transition temperature is the temperature below which the physical properties of amorphous materials vary in a manner similar to those of a solid phase (glassy state), and above which amorphous materials behave like liquids (rubbery state). ...

Mechanics of composite materials

The physical properties of composite materials are generally not isotropic (independent of direction of applied force) in nature, but rather are typically orthotropic (different depending on the direction of the applied force or load). For instance, the stiffness of a composite panel will often depend upon the orientation of the applied forces and/or moments. Panel stiffness is also dependent on the design of the panel. For instance, the fiber reinforcement and matrix used, the method of panel build, thermoset versus thermoplastic, type of weave, and orientation of fiber axis to the primary force. Isotropic means independent of direction. Isotropic radiation has the same intensity regardless of the direction of measurement, and an isotropic field exerts the same action regardless of how the test particle is oriented. ... Orthotropic is a term that can have several meanings In materials science, an orthotropic material is one that has the different materials properties or strengths in different orthogonal directions. ...

In contrast, isotropic materials (for example, aluminium or steel), in standard wrought forms, typically have the same stiffness regardless of the directional orientation of the applied forces and/or moments.

The relationship between forces/moments and strains/curvatures for an isotropic material can be described with the following material properties: Young's Modulus, the Shear Modulus and the Poisson's ratio, in relatively simple mathematical relationships. For the anisotropic material, it requires the mathematics of a second order tensor and up to 21 material property constants. For the special case of orthogonal isotropy, there are three different material property constants for each of Young's Modulus, Shear Modulus and Poisson's ratio--a total of 9 constants to describe the relationship between forces/moments and strains/curvatures. In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... Shear strain In materials science, shear modulus or modulus of rigidity, denoted by G, or sometimes S or μ, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain:[1] where = shear stress; is the force which acts is the area on which the force acts = shear strain; is... Figure 1: Rectangular specimen subject to compression, with Poissons ratio circa 0. ...

Categories of fiber reinforced composite materials

Fiber reinforced composite materials can be divided into two main categories normally referred to as short fiber reinforced materials and continuous fiber reinforced materials. Continuous reinforced materials will often constitute a layered or laminated structure. The woven and continuous fiber styles are typically available in a variety of forms, being pre-impregnated with the given matrix (resin), dry, uni-directional tapes of various widths, plain weave, harness satins, braided, and stitched.

The short and long fibers are typically employed in compression molding and sheet molding operations.These come in the form of flakes, chips, and random mate (which can also be made from a continuous fiber laid in random fashion until the desired thickness of the ply / laminate is achieved).

Failure of composites

Shock, impact, or repeated cyclic stresses can cause the laminate to separate at the interface between two layers, a condition known as delamination. Individual fibers can separate from the matrix e.g. fiber pull-out. Delamination is a mode of failure of laminated composite materials. ...

Composites can fail on the microscopic or macroscopic scale. Compression failures can occur at both the macro scale or at each individual reinforcing fiber in compression buckling. Tension failures can be net section failures of the part or degradation of the composite at a microscopic scale where one or more of the layers in the composite fail in tension of the matrix or failure the bond between the matrix and fibers. A microscope (Greek: micron = small and scopos = aim) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... Macroscopic is commonly used to describe physical objects that are measurable and observable by the naked eye. ...

Some composites are brittle and have little reserve strength beyond the initial onset of failure while others may have large deformations and have reserve energy absorbing capacity past the onset of damage. The variations in fibers and matrices that are available and the mixtures that can be made with blends leave a very broad range of properties that can be designed into a composite structure. The best known failure occurred when the carbon-fiber wing of the Space Shuttle Columbia fractured when impacted during take-off. It led to catastrophic break-up of the vehicle when it re-entered the earth's atmosphere on February 1, 2003. Space Shuttle Columbia (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first spaceworthy space shuttle in NASAs orbital fleet. ...

Examples of composite materials

Fiber reinforced polymers or FRPs include wood (comprising cellulose fibers in a lignin and hemicellulose matrix), carbon-fiber reinforced plastic or CFRP, and glass reinforced plastic or GRP. If classified by matrix then there are thermoplastic composites, short fiber thermoplastics, long fiber thermoplastics or long fiber reinforced thermoplastics. There are numerous thermoset composites, but advanced systems usually incorporate aramid fibre and carbon fibre in an epoxy resin matrix. Fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) (also Fibre-reinforced polymer) is a composite material comprising a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Lignin (sometimes lignen) is a chemical compound (complex, highly cross-linked aromatic polymer) that is most commonly derived from wood and is an integral part of the cell walls of plants, especially in tracheids, xylem fibres and sclereids. ... A hemicellulose can be any of several heteropolymers (matrix polysaccharides) present in almost all cell walls along with cellulose. ... Carbon fiber reinforced plastic or (CFRP or CRP), is a strong, light and very expensive composite material or fiber reinforced plastic. ... This article or section should be merged with Fiberglass Glass-reinforced plastic (GRP), is a composite material made of a plastic reinforced by fine fibers made of glass. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Long fiber thermoplastics (LFT) are one of the fastest growing materials in the polymer composites industry. ... Thermosetting plastics (thermosets) refer to a range of polymer materials that cure, through the addition of energy, to a stronger form. ... Aramid fiber (1961) is a fire-resistant and strong synthetic fiber. ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ... Epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between Epichorohydrin & Bisphenol A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in the United States. ...

Composites can also use metal fibres reinforcing other metals, as in metal matrix composites or MMC. Magnesium is often used in MMCs because it has similar mechanical properties as epoxy. The benefit of magnesium is that it does not degrade in outer space. Ceramic matrix composites include bone (hydroxyapatite reinforced with collagen fibers), Cermet (ceramic and metal) and concrete. Ceramic matrix composites are built primarily for toughness, not for strength. Organic matrix/ceramic aggregate composites include asphalt concrete, mastic asphalt, mastic roller hybrid, dental composite, syntactic foam and mother of pearl. Chobham armour is a special composite used in military applications. A metal matrix composite (MMC) is a type of composite material with at least two constituent parts, one being a metal. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... Hydroxylapatite is a naturally occurring form of calcium apatite with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), but is usually written Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 to denote that the crystal unit cell comprises two molecules. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... A Cermet is a composite material composed of ceramic (cer) and metallic (met) materials. ... This article is about the construction material. ... The term asphalt is often used as an abbreviation for asphalt concrete. ... Base layer of asphalt concrete in a road under construction. ... Dental composites are a group of restorative material used in dentistry. ... Glass microspheres are spheres of glass technically manufactured with a diameter in the micrometer range (from 1 to 1000 (microns))[1], although the term is also used for a wider range of 100 nanometres to 5 millimetres. ... “Mother of Pearl” redirects here. ... Chobham armour is a composite armour developed in the 1960s at the British tank research centre on Chobham Common. ...

Additionally, thermoplastic composite materials can be formulated with specific metal powders resulting in materials with a density range from 2 g/cc to 11 g/cc (same density as lead). These materials can be used in place of traditional materials such as aluminum, stainless steel, brass, bronze, copper, lead, and even tungsten in weighting, balancing, vibration dampening, and radiation shielding applications. High density composites are an economically viable option when certain materials are deemed hazardous and are banned (such as lead) or when secondary operations costs (such as machining, finishing, or coating) are a factor.

Engineered wood includes a wide variety of different products such as plywood, oriented strand board, wood plastic composite (recycled wood fiber in polyethylene matrix), Pykrete (sawdust in ice matrix), Plastic-impregnated or laminated paper or textiles, Arborite, Formica (plastic) and Micarta. Other engineered laminate composites, such as Mallite, use a central core of end grain balsa wood, bonded to surface skins of light alloy or GRP. These generate low-weight, high rigidity materials. Engineered wood, also called composite wood, includes a range of derivative wood products which are manufactured by binding together the strands, particles, fibers, or veneers of wood, together with adhesives, to form composite materials. ... Towers of Hanoi constructed from plywood. ... OSB-production before the press Oriented strand board, or OSB, is an engineered wood product formed by layering strands (flakes) of wood in specific orientations. ... Wood-plastic composite is a composite material lumber or timber made of recycled plastic and wood wastes. ... Pykrete is a composite material made of approximately 14% sawdust (or, less frequently, wood pulp) and 86% water by weight then frozen, invented by Max Perutz and proposed during World War II by Geoffrey Pyke to the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom as a candidate material for making a... Arborite is a brand of composite material manufactured by the Arborite Company, founded in Canada in 1948 after the initial development of the product in 1942 by Howard Smith Paper Mills. ... Formica is a brand of plastic laminate containing melamine resin. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with novotext. ... The Mallite-bodied, four-wheel drive, Cosworth Formula One car. ... Binomial name Ochroma lagopus Balsa (Ochroma lagopus, synonym ) is a large, fast-growing tree to 30 m tall, native from tropical South America north to southern Mexico. ...

Typical products

Composite materials have gained popularity (despite their generally high cost) in high-performance products that need to be lightweight, yet strong enough to take harsh loading conditions such as aerospace components (tails, wings, fuselages, propellers), boat and scull hulls, bicycle frames and racing car bodies. Other uses include fishing rods and storage tanks. The new Boeing 787 Dreamliner structure including the wings and fuselage is composed of over 50 percent composites. Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Empennage is an aviation term used to describe the tail portion of an aircraft. ... For other uses, see Wing (disambiguation). ... The fuselage can be short, and seemingly unaerodynamic, as in this Christen Eagle 2 The fuselage (from the French fuselé spindle-shaped) is an aircrafts main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo. ... For other uses, see Propeller (disambiguation). ... Scull [skuhl] –noun an oar mounted on a fulcrum at the stern of a small boat and moved from side to side to propel the boat forward. ... For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ... Auto racing (also known as automobile racing or autosport) is a sport involving racing automobiles. ... A fiberglass spinning rod and reel circa 1997. ... // A tank is a container, usually for liquids, sometimes for gases. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Edward Boeing. ... The Boeing 787 Dreamliner is a mid-sized, wide body, twin engined jet airliner currently under development by Boeings Commercial Airplanes unit and scheduled to enter service in May 2008. ...

Carbon composite is a key material in today's launch vehicles and spacecrafts. It is widely used in solar panel substrates, antenna reflectors and yokes of spacecrafts. It is also used in payload adapters, inter-stage structures and heat shields of launch vehicles.

See also

An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... For the meaning of fiber in nutrition, see dietary fiber. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Thermosetting plastics (thermosets) refer to a range of polymer materials that cure, through the addition of energy, to a stronger form. ... Reinforced concrete at Sainte Jeanne dArc Church (Nice, France): architect Jacques Dror, 1926–1933 Reinforced concrete, also called ferroconcrete in some countries, is concrete in which reinforcement bars (rebars) or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen a material that would otherwise be brittle. ... The concept of using fibers in concrete as reinforcement is not new. ...


Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

Further reading

  • Autar K. Kaw (2005). Mechanics of Composite Materials, 2nd edition, CRC. ISBN 0-84-931343-0. 
  • Handbook of Polymer Composites for Engineers By Leonard Hollaway Published 1994

Woodhead Publishing

External links

  Results from FactBites:
composite material: Information From Answers.com (1967 words)
Composites consisting of resin matrices reinforced with discontinuous glass fibers and continuous-glass-fiber mats are widely used in truck and automobile components bearing light loads, such as interior and exterior panels, pistons for diesel engines, drive shafts, rotors, brakes, leaf springs, wheels, and clutch plates.
Many materials are produced as composites, such as the fiberglass-reinforced plastics used for automobile bodies and boat hulls, but the term usually is used to describe any of various modern industrially manufactured composites, such as carbon fiber–reinforced plastics.
Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different mechanical properties and which remain separate and distinct within the finished structure.
  More results at FactBites »



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