FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Complex script
The word العربية al'arabiyyah, "the Arabic language" in Arabic, in stages of rendering. The first line shows the letters as they are unprocessed, the result that would be given by an application without complex script rendering. In the second line the bidirectional display mechanism has come to play, and in the third the glyph shaping mechanism has rendered the letters according to context.
The word العربية al'arabiyyah, "the Arabic language" in Arabic, in stages of rendering. The first line shows the letters as they are unprocessed, the result that would be given by an application without complex script rendering. In the second line the bidirectional display mechanism has come to play, and in the third the glyph shaping mechanism has rendered the letters according to context.

A complex script is a human-language script in which the relationship between characters and glyphs, or their display direction, or both, are out of the bounds of what has been traditionally assumed from experience of dealing with ASCII characters. That is, a complex script is that which breaks the assumptions of one-to-one correspondence between characters and glyph and a single display direction. A glyph is a carved figure or character, incised or in relief; a carved pictograph; hence, a pictograph representing a form originally adopted for sculpture, whether carved or painted. ... The writing systems of some languages, such as Persian (Farsi), Hebrew, and Arabic are written from right to left (RTL). ... There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ...


It follows that the Indic, Hebrew and Arabic scripts are complex scripts, as they break one or both of the assumptions--in Indic a character can have numerous different glyphs depending on its context (the use of virama with a following character triggers the half-form, or conjuct form, of the first character), in Hebrew the text can run both right to left (Hebrew letters) and left to right (digits) on the same line, and in Arabic both complexities occur. In contrast, Chinese is not a complex script--although its huge character repertoire requires special handling in itself, it does not break the traditional ASCII assumptions of character to glyph correspondence and single directionality on the same line. The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas used in South Asia and Southeast Asia. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language. ...


Complex scripts cannot be displayed properly without a display mechanism dedicated to their specialties. This means that merely extending the character repertoire is not enough for enabling them on a system. For example, old text terminals, if they are 8-bit clean, can be extended to basic Unicode support via UTF-8 (which was originally designed prominently for accommodation of legacy environments), allowing them to display characters in Greek, Runic and Chinese, but displaying Arabic characters would necessitate upgrading the terminal display software itself, which is no small undertaking. Because of this initial difficulty of providing support for complex scripts, many multilingual packages boasting of support for most of the world's languages can be found to be missing support for all of the Arabic, Hebrew and Indic scripts. In computing, Unicode is the international standard whose goal is to provide the means to encode the text of every document people want to store in computers. ... UTF-8 (8-bit Unicode Transformation Format) is a lossless, variable-length character encoding for Unicode created by Ken Thompson and Rob Pike. ... The Runic alphabets are a set of related alphabets using letters known as runes, formerly used to write Germanic languages, mainly in Scandinavia and the British Isles. ...


The issue of Far Eastern display direction does not make such scripts as Chinese or Mongolian complex. Unlike Hebrew or Arabic, they can be written left to right, top to bottom instead of their default (pre-computer) direction without affecting the meaning, and even in their default direction there are no directionality changes within a single line, so that the unusual direction can be implemented with a simple instruction to the display mechanism. For Hebrew text such an instruction would cause the letters to be displayed correctly but the digits (and English text) in reverse order.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Unicode - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5025 words)
Further additions of characters to the already-encoded scripts, as well as symbols, in particular for mathematics and music (in the form of notes and rhythmic symbols), also occur.
Invented scripts, most of which do not qualify for inclusion in Unicode due to lack of real-world usage, are listed in the ConScript Unicode Registry, along with unofficial but widely-used Private Use Area code assignments.
Proposals suggested the inclusion of the elvish scripts Tengwar and Cirth from J.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m