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Encyclopedia > Competition

Competition is the rivalry of two or more parties over something. Competition occurs naturally between living organisms which coexist in the same environment. For example, animals compete over water supplies, food, and mates. In addition, humans compete for attention, wealth, prestige, and fame. This article is about the physical universe. ...


Competition can be remote, as in a free throw contest, or antagonistic, as in a standard basketball game. These contests are similar, but in the first one players are isolated from each other, while in the second one they are able to interfere with the performance of their competitors. It has been suggested that Three point play be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the sport. ...


Competition gives incentives for self improvement. If two watchmakers are competing for business, they will lower their prices and improve their products to increase their sales. If birds compete for a limited water supply during a drought, the more suited birds will survive to reproduce and improve the population. Look up Improve in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Rivals will often refer to their competitors as "the competition". The term can also be used as to refer to the contest or tournament itself. A tournament is a competition involving a relatively large number of competitors, all participating in a single sport or game. ...

Contents

Etymology

The Latin root for the verb "to compete" is "competere", which means "to seek together" or "to strive together".[1] However, even the general definition stated above is not universally accepted. Social theorists, most notably Alfie Kohn (No Contest: The Case Against Competition [1986]), and cooperativists in general argue that the traditional definition of competition is too broad and too vague. Competition which originates internally and is biologically motivated can and should be defined as either amoral competition or simply survival instinct, behavior which is neither good nor bad but exists to further the survival of an individual or species (e.g., hunting), or behavior which is coerced (e.g., self-defense). Social Darwinists, however, state that competition is not only moral, but necessary to the survival of the species. Alfie Kohn (October 15, 1957) is an American lecturer and author in the fields of education, psychology and parenting. ...


Sizes and levels

Competition may also exist at different sizes; some competitions may be between two members of a species, while other competitions can involve entire species. In an example in economics, a competition between two small stores would be considered small compared to competition between several mega-giants. As a result, the consequences of the competition would also vary- the larger the competition, the larger the effect. Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ...


In addition, the level of competition can also vary. At some levels, competition can be informal and be more for pride or fun. However, other competitions can be extreme and bitter; for example, some human wars have erupted because of the intense competition between two nations or nationalities. This article is about modern humans. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ...


Cooperative competition vs destructive competition

Destructive competition

Destructive competition seeks to benefit an individual/group/organism by damaging/eliminating competing individuals/groups/organisms; it opposes the desire for mutual survival - it is “winner takes all”. The rationale being that the challenge is a zero-sum game; the success of one group is dependent on the failure of the other competing groups. Destructive competition tends to promote fear, a first-strike mentality and embraces certain forms of trespass.[2] As commonly used, individual refers to a person or to any specific object in a collection. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... Zero-sum describes a situation in which a participants gain (or loss) is exactly balanced by the losses (or gains) of the other participant(s). ... “Unlawful entry” redirects here. ...


Cooperative competition

Further information: coopetition

Cooperative competition is based upon promoting mutual survival - “everyone wins”. Adam Smith’s “invisible hand” is a process where individuals compete to improve their level of happiness but compete in a cooperative manner through peaceful exchange and without violating other people. Cooperative competition focuses individuals/groups/organisms against the environment.[2] Coopetition or Co-opetition is a neologism coined to describe cooperative competition. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Invisible hand (disambiguation). ... In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is a living being. ...


Consequences

Competition can have both beneficial and detrimental effects. Many evolutionary biologists view inter-species and intra-species competition as the driving force of adaptation and ultimately, evolution. However, some biologists, most famously Richard Dawkins, prefer to think of evolution in terms of competition between single genes, which have the welfare of the organism 'in mind' only insofar as that welfare furthers their own selfish drives for replication. Some social Darwinists claim (controversially) that competition also serves as a mechanism for determining the best-suited group, politically, economically, and ecologically. For other uses, see Adaptation (disambiguation). ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... Social Darwinism is a descriptive term given to a kind of social theory that draws an association between Darwins theory of evolution by natural selection, and the sociological relations of humanity. ...


On the negative side, competition can cause injury to the organisms involved, and drain valuable resources and energy. Human competition can be expensive, as is the case with political elections, international sports competitions, and advertising wars. It can lead to the compromising of ethical standards in order to gain an advantage; for example, several athletes have been caught using banned steroids in professional sports in order to boost their own chances of success or victory. And it can be harmful for the participants, such as athletes who injure themselves exceeding the physical tolerances of their bodies, or companies which pursue unprofitable paths while engaging in competitive rivalries.


Economics and business

Merriam-Webster defines competition in business as "the effort of two or more parties acting independently to secure the business of a third party by offering the most favorable terms." [1] Seen as the pillar of capitalism in that it may stimulate innovation, encourage efficiency, or drive down prices, competition is touted as the foundation upon which capitalism is justified. According to microeconomic theory, no system of resource allocation is more efficient than pure competition. Competition, according to the theory, causes commercial firms to develop new products, services, and technologies. This gives consumers greater selection and better products. The greater selection typically causes lower prices for the products compared to what the price would be if there was no competition (monopoly) or little competition (oligopoly). Competition is the act of striving against another force for the purpose of achieving dominance or attaining a reward or goal, or out of a biological imperative such as survival. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... In economics, x-efficiency is the effectiveness with which a given set of inputs are used to produce outputs. ... In economics and business, the price is the assigned numerical monetary value of a good, service or asset. ... Microeconomics (literally, very small economics) is a social science which involves study of the economic distribution of production and income among individual consumers, firms, and industries. ... This article is about the economic term. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


However, competition may also lead to wasted (duplicated) effort and to increased costs (and prices) in some circumstances. For example, the intense competition for the small number of top jobs in music and movie acting leads many aspiring musicians and actors to make substantial investments in training which are not recouped, because only a fraction become successful. In economics, business, and accounting, a cost is the value of inputs that have been used up to produce something, and hence are not available for use anymore. ... Superstar is a term used to refer to a celebrity who has great popular appeal and is widely-known, prominent or successful in some field. ...


Three levels of economic competition have been classified:


1. The most narrow form is direct competition (also called category competition or brand competition), where products which perform the same function compete against each other. For example, a brand of pick-up trucks competes with several different brands of pick-up trucks. Sometimes two companies are rivals and one adds new products to their line so that each company distributes the same thing and they compete.


2. The next form is substitute or indirect competition, where products which are close substitutes for one another compete. For example, butter competes with margarine, mayonnaise, and other various sauces and spreads.


3. The broadest form of competition is typically called budget competition. Included in this category is anything on which the consumer might want to spend their available money. For example, a family which has $20,000 available may choose to spend it on many different items, which can all be seen as competing with each other for the family's available money. Consumers refers to individuals or households that use goods and services generated within the economy. ... Income, generally defined, is the money that is received as a result of the normal business activities of an individual or a business. ...


Competition does not necessarily have to be between companies. For example, business writers sometimes refer to "internal competition". This is competition within companies. The idea was first introduced by Alfred Sloan at General Motors in the 1920s. Sloan deliberately created areas of overlap between divisions of the company so that each division would be competing with the other divisions. For example, the Chevy division would compete with the Pontiac division for some market segments. Also, in 1931, Procter & Gamble initiated a deliberate system of internal brand versus brand rivalry. The company was organized around different brands, with each brand allocated resources, including a dedicated group of employees willing to champion the brand. Each brand manager was given responsibility for the success or failure of the brand and was compensated accordingly. This is known as intra-brand competition. Alfred Pritchard Sloan, Jr. ... General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ... Chevrolet, or Chevy, is a brand of automobile that is now part of the General Motors group. ... This article is about Pontiac automobiles; for the Native American leader, see Chief Pontiac, for other uses see the Pontiac (disambiguation). ... A Market segment is a subgroup of people or organizations sharing one or more characteristics that cause them to have similar product needs. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Procter & Gamble Co. ... For other uses, see Brand (disambiguation). ...


Finally, most businesses also encourage competition between individual employees. An example of this is a contest between sales representatives. The sales representative with the highest sales (or the best improvement in sales) over a period of time would gain benefits from the employer.


It should also be noted that business and economic competition in most countries is often limited or restricted. Competition often is subject to legal restrictions. For example, competition may be legally prohibited as in the case with a government monopoly or a government-granted monopoly. Tariffs, subsidies or other protectionist measures may also be instituted by government in order to prevent or reduce competition. Depending on the respective economic policy, the pure competition is to a greater or lesser extent regulated by competition policy and competition law. For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... scheiiiißßßßßee!!!!!!!!!!!!!regional, local; for levels below the national, it is a local monopoly. ... In economics, a government-granted monopoly (also called a de jure monopoly) is a form of coercive monopoly in a government grants exclusive privilege to a private individual or firm to be the sole provider of a good or service; potential competitors are excluded from the market by law, regulation... A tariff is a tax placed on imported and/or exported goods, sometimes called a customs duty. ... A subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by government in support of an activity regarded as being in the public interest. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of promoting favored domestic industries through the use of high tariffs and other regulations to discourage imports. ... Competition policy is an economics term referring to the body of laws of a state which govern the extent, and ability, to which bodies can economically compete. ... Antitrust redirects here. ...


Competition between countries is quite subtle to detect, but is quite evident in the World economy.Countries compete to provide the best business environment for multinational corporations. Such competition is evident by the policies undertaken by these countries to educate the future workforce. For example, East Asian economies like Singapore, Japan and South Korea tend to emphasize education by allocating a large portion of the budget to this sector, and by implementing programmes such as gifted education, which some detractors criticise as indicative of academic elitism. The world economy can be evaluated in various ways, depending on the model used, and this valuation can then be represented in various ways (for example, in 2006 US dollars). ... A multinational corporation (MNC) or transnational corporation (TNC) is one that spans multiple nations; these corporations are often very large. ... Gifted education is a broad term for special practices, procedures and theories used in the education of children who have been identified as gifted or talented. ... Academic institutions often face the charge of academic elitism, sometimes called the Ivory Tower. ...


See separate sub-markets principle. In topology and related branches of mathematics, separated sets are pairs of subsets of a given topological space that are related to each other in a certain way. ...


Law

Main article: Competition law
The Department of Justice building in Washington, D.C. is home to the influential antitrust enforcers of U.S. competition laws
The Department of Justice building in Washington, D.C. is home to the influential antitrust enforcers of U.S. competition laws

Competition law, known in the United States as antitrust law, has three main functions. Firstly, it prohibits agreements aimed to restrict free trading between business entities and their customers. For example, a cartel of sport shops who together fix football jersey prices higher than normal is illegal.[3] Secondly, competition law can ban the existence or abusive behaviour of a firm dominating the market. One case in point could be a software company who through its monopoly on computer platforms makes consumers use its media player.[4] Thirdly, to preserve competitive markets, the law supervises the mergers and acquisitions of very large corporations. Competition authorities could for instance require that a large packaging company give plastic bottle licenses to competitors before taking over a major PET producer.[5] In this case, as in all three, competition law aims to protect the welfare of consumers by ensuring business must compete for its share of the market economy. Antitrust redirects here. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1433x954, 352 KB) Summary The John F. Kennedy Building in Washington, D.C., which is home to the headquarters of the United States Department of Justice. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1433x954, 352 KB) Summary The John F. Kennedy Building in Washington, D.C., which is home to the headquarters of the United States Department of Justice. ... Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building, Washington, D.C. For animal rights group, see Justice Department (JD) The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The Department of Justice building in Washington, D.C. is home to the United States antitrust enforcers United States antitrust law is the body of laws which prohibit anti-competitive behavior (monopoly) and unfair business practices. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For the American pop-punk band, see Cartel (band). ... This article is about the economic term. ... Acquisition redirects here. ... To licence or grant licence is to give permission. ... PETE redirects here. ... Welfare economics is a branch of economics that uses microeconomic techniques to simultaneously determine the allocational efficiency of a macroeconomy and the income distribution consequences associated with it. ... A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets (though completley useless to some dumbasses) guided by a free price system. ...


In recent decades, competition law has also been sold as good medicine to provide better public services, traditionally funded by tax payers and administered by democratically accountable governments. Hence competition law is closely connected with law on deregulation of access to markets, providing state aids and subsidies, the privatisation of state owned assets and the use of independent sector regulators, such as the United Kingdom telecommunications watchdog Ofcom. Behind the practice lies the theory, which over the last fifty years has been dominated by neo-classical economics. Markets are seen as the most efficient method of allocating resources, though sometimes they fail and regulation becomes necessary to protect the ideal market model. Behind the theory lies the history, reaching back further than the Roman Empire. The business practices of market traders, guilds and governments have always been subject to scrutiny, and sometimes severe sanctions. Since the twentieth century, competition law has become global. The two largest, most organised and influential systems of competition regulation are United States antitrust law and European Community competition law. The respective national authorities, the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in the United States and the European Commission's Competition Directorate General (DGCOMP) have formed international support and enforcement networks. Competition law is growing in importance every day, which warrants for its careful study. Public services is a term usually used to mean services provided by government to its citizens, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing private provision of services. ... Taxes redirects here. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation) and Democratic Party. ... Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or — especially in India — disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership. ... Ofcom is a regulator for communication industries in the United Kingdom. ... Neoclassical economics is the grouping of a number of schools of thought in economics. ... Market failure is a term used by economists to describe the condition where the allocation of goods and services by a market is not efficient. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... A guild is an association of persons of the same trade or pursuits, formed to protect mutual interests and maintain standards of morality or conduct. ... The Department of Justice building in Washington, D.C. is home to the United States antitrust enforcers United States antitrust law is the body of laws which prohibit anti-competitive behavior (monopoly) and unfair business practices. ... The European Commission, established following World War II, was the first Europe wide competition authority European Community competition law is one of the areas of authority of the European Union. ... The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans. ... | logo_caption = | seal = US-FederalTradeCommission-Seal. ... The Directorate-General for Competition (COMP) is a Directorate-General of the European Commission, located in Brussels, Belgium. ...


Politics

Competition is also found in politics. In democracies, an election is a competition for an elected office. In other words, two or more candidates strive and compete against one another to attain a position of power. The winner gains the seat of the elected office for a set amount of time, when another election is usually held to determine the next holder of the office. For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... This article is about the political process. ...


In addition, there is inevitable competition inside a government. Because several offices are appointed, potential candidates compete against the others in order to gain the particular office. Departments may also compete for a limited amount of resources, such as for funding. Finally, where there are party systems, elected leaders of different parties will ultimately compete against the other party for laws, funding, and power. For the rental car company, see Budget Rent a Car. ... A party system is a concept in political science concerning the system of government in a state where political parties exist. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Funding or financing is to provide capital (funds), which means money for a project, a person, a business or any other private or public institutions. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Finally, competition is also immanent between governments. Each country or nationality struggles for world dominance, power, or military strength. For example, the United States competed against the Soviet Union in the Cold War for world power, and the two also struggled over the different types of government (in this case, representative democracy and communism). The result of this type of competition often leads to worldwide tensions and may sometimes erupt into warfare. For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ...


Sports

The USOC's headquarters in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The Olympic Games are regarded as the international pinnacle of sports competition.
The USOC's headquarters in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The Olympic Games are regarded as the international pinnacle of sports competition.

While some sports, such as fishing, or hiking have been viewed as primarily recreational, most sports are considered competitive. The majority involve competition between two or more persons, (or animals and/or mechanical devices typically controlled by humans as in horse racing or auto racing). For example, in a game of basketball, two teams compete against one another to determine who can score the most points. While there is no set reward for the winning team, many players gain an internal sense of pride. In addition, extrinsic rewards may also be given. Athletes, besides competing against other humans, also compete against nature in sports such as whitewater kayaking or mountain climbing, where the goal is to reach a destination, with only natural barriers impeding the process. A regularly scheduled (such as annual) competition meant to determine the "best" competitor of that cycle is called a championship. The United States Olympic Committee (USOC) is a non-profit organization that is the National Olympic Committee for the United States. ... Colorado Springs is most populous Home Rule Municipality in the State of Colorado. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... For the computer security term, see Phishing. ... Two hikers in the Mount Hood National Forest Eagle Creek hiking Hiking is a form of walking, undertaken with the specific purpose of exploring and enjoying the scenery. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... Juuso Pykälistö driving a Peugeot 206 World Rally Car at the 2003 Swedish rally Racing cars redirects here. ... This article is about the sport. ... This article is about the physical universe. ... Whitewater kayaking is the sport of paddling a kayak on a moving body of water, typically a river. ... Mountaineering is an umbrella term that can variously be used to describe the actions of climbing, hillwalking and scrambling. ... Championship is a term used to refer to various forms of sports competitions in which the aim is to decide which individual or team is the champion; that is, the best competitor. ...


While professional sports have been usually viewed as intense and extremely competitive, recreational sports, which are often less intense, are considered a healthy option for the competitive urges in humans. Sport provides a relatively safe venue for converting unbridled competition into harmless competition, because sports competition is restrained. Competitive sports are governed by codified rules agreed upon by the participants. Violating these rules is considered to be unfair competition. Thus sports provide artificial not natural competition; for example, competing for control of a ball or defending territory on a playing field is not an innate biological factor in humans. Athletes in sports like gymnastics and competitive diving compete against each other to come closest to a conceptual ideal of a perfect performance, which incorporates measurable criteria and standards which are translated into numerical ratings and scores. Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of sequences of movements requiring physical strength, flexibility, balance, endurance, gracefulness, and kinesthetic awareness, and includes such skills as handsprings, handstands, split leaps, aerials and cartwheels. ... For other uses, see Dive. ...


Sports competition is generally broken down into three categories: individual sports, such as archery, dual sports, such as doubles tennis, or team sports competition, such as football. While most sports competitions are recreation, there exists several major and minor professional sports leagues throughout the world. The Olympic Games, held every four years, is regarded as the international pinnacle of sports competition. Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... Look up minor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ...


Education

Competition is a factor in education. On a global scale, national education systems, intending to bring out the best in the next generation, encourage competitiveness among students by scholarships. Countries like Singapore and England have a special education program which caters to special students, prompting charges of academic elitism. Upon receipt of their academic results, students tend to compare their grades to see who is better. For severe cases, the pressure to perform in some countries is so high that it results in stigmatization of intellectually deficient students or even suicide as consequence of failing the exams, Japan being a prime example (see Education in Japan). This has resulted in critical revaluation of examinations as a whole by educationists[citation needed]. Critics of competition as opposed to excellence as a motivating factor in education systems, such as Alfie Kohn, assert that competition actually has a net negative influence on the achievement levels of students and that it "turns all of us into losers." (Kohn 1986) Note: The term scholarship can mean either the methods employed by scholars (see scholarly method) or an award of access to an institution and/or money for an individual for the purposes of furthering their education. ... This article is about educating students with disabilities or behavioral problems. ... Look up special in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Academic institutions often face the charge of academic elitism, sometimes called the Ivory Tower. ... Education in Japan is known for well-maintained educational system and excellent achievement. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Alfie Kohn (October 15, 1957) is an American lecturer and author in the fields of education, psychology and parenting. ...


Competitions also make up a large proponent of extracurricular activities in which students participate. Such competitions include TVO's broadcast Reach for the Top competition, FIRST Robotics, Duke Annual Robo-Climb Competition (DARC) and the University of Toronto Space Design Contest. In Texas the University Interscholastic League (UIL) has 22 High School level contests and 18 elementary and Junior High in subjects ranging from accounting to science to ready writing. Extracurricular activities are activities performed by students that fall outside the realm of the normal curriculum of school or university education. ... TVOntario, officially the Ontario Educational Communications Authority, is an educational public television broadcaster in the Canadian province of Ontario. ... Final moments of an episode of the Montreal version of Reach for the Top, as aired on CBMT-6 in the late 1970s. ... For other uses, see first. ... Hosted by Duke University, the Duke Annual Robo-Climb Competition (DARC) challenges students to create innovative wall-climbing robots that can autonomously ascend vertical surfaces. ... The University of Toronto Space Design Contest, or UTSDC is an annual contest for high school students, founded in 2003 by Norman Goh. ...


Biology and ecology

Main article: Competition (biology)

Competition within and between species is an important topic in biology, specifically in the field of ecology. Competition between members of a species ("intraspecific") is the driving force behind evolution and natural selection; the competition for resources such as food, water, territory, and sunlight results in the ultimate survival and dominance of the variation of the species best suited for survival. Competition is also present between species ("interspecific"). A limited amount of resources are available and several species may depend on these resources. Thus, each of the species competes with the others to gain the resources. As a result, several species less suited to compete for the resources may either adapt or die out. According to evolutionary theory, this competition within and between species for resources plays a critical role in natural selection. For example, a smaller tree will receive less sunlight from an adjacent tree which is larger than it in a rain forest. The larger tree is competing with the smaller one. Trees in this Bangladesh forest are in competition for light. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... In ethology, sociobiology and behavioral ecology, the term territory refers to any geographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (and, occasionally, animals of other species). ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... ADAPT is a grassroots disability rights organization with chapters in 30 states. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... This article is about biological evolution. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... A rainforest is a forested biome with high annual rainfall. ...


The study of competition

Competition has been studied in several fields, including psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Social psychologists, for instance, study the nature of competition. They investigate the natural urge of competition and its circumstances. They also study group dynamics to detect how competition emerges and what its effects are. Sociologists, meanwhile, study the effects of competition on society as a whole. In addition, anthropologists study the history and prehistory of competition in various cultures. They also investigate how competition manifested itself in various cultural settings in the past, and how competition has developed over time. {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... This article is about the social science. ... A psychologist is an expert in psychology, the systematic investigation of the human body, including behavior, cognition, and affect. ... Sociology is the study of the social lives of humans, groups and societies. ... See Anthropology. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ...


Competitiveness

Main article: Competitiveness

Many philosophers and psychologists have identified a trait in most living organisms which drive the particular organism to compete. This trait, called competitiveness, is viewed as an innate biological trait which coexists along with the urge for survival. Competitiveness, or the inclination to compete, though, has become synonymous with aggressivity and ambition in the English language. More advanced civilizations integrate aggressivity and competitiveness into their interactions as a way to distribute resources and adapt. Most plants compete for higher spots on trees to receive more sunlight. Competitiveness is a comparative concept of the ability and performance of a firm, sub-sector or country to sell and supply goods and/or services in a given market. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... A psychologist is an expert in psychology, the systematic investigation of the human body, including behavior, cognition, and affect. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... In biology, a trait or character is a genetically inherited feature of an organism. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Central New York City. ... Generally, an interaction is a kind of action which occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. ...


The term also applies to econometrics. Here it is a comparative measure of the ability and performance of a firm or sub-sector to sell and produce/supply goods and/or services in a given market. The two academic bodies of thought on the assessment of competitiveness are the Structure Conduct Performance Paradigm and the more contemporary New Empirical Industrial Organisation model. Predicting changes in the competitiveness of business sectors is becoming an integral and explicit step in public policy making. Within capitalist economic systems, the drive of enterprises is to maintain and improve their own competitiveness. Econometrics is concerned with the tasks of developing and applying quantitative or statistical methods to the study and elucidation of economic principles. ...


Hypercompetitiveness

The tendency toward extreme, unhealthy competition has been termed hypercompetitive. This concept originated in Karen Horney's theories on neurosis, specifically the highly aggressive personality type which is characterized as "moving against people." In her view, some people have a need to compete and win at any cost as a means of maintaining their self-worth. These individuals are likely to turn any activity into a competition, and they will feel threatened if they find themselves losing. Researchers have found that men and women who score high on the trait of hypercompetitiveness are more narcissistic and less psychologically healthy than those who score low on the trait (Ryckman et al. 1994). Hypercompetitive individuals generally believe that "winning isn't everything; it's the only thing." Karen Horney Karen Horney (horn-eye), born Danielsen (September 16, 1885 – December 4, 1952) was a German Freudian psychoanalyst of Norwegian and Dutch descent. ... Neurosis, also known as psychoneurosis or neurotic disorder, is a catch all term that refers to any mental imbalance that causes distress, but, unlike a psychosis or some personality disorders, does not prevent or affect rational thought. ... In psychology, self-esteem or self-worth is a persons self-image at an emotional level; circumventing reason and logic. ... This article is about narcissism as a word in common use. ... Winning isn’t everything; it’s the only thing is a well-known quote in sport. ...


See also

Look up competition, competitor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... A competition regulator is a government agency, typically a statutory authority, which regulates competition laws, and may sometimes also regulate consumer protection laws. ... The black walnut secretes a chemical from its roots that harms neighboring plants, an example of amensalism. ... only joking Competitor analysis in marketing and strategic management is an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of current and potential competitors. ... Co-op redirects here. ... This article is about cooperation as used in the social sciences. ... The ecological model of competition is a reassessment of the nature of competition in the economy. ... Microeconomics (or price theory) is a branch of economics that studies how individuals, households, and firms make decisions to allocate limited resources,[1] typically in markets where goods or services are being bought and sold. ... Perfect competition is an economic model that describes a hypothetical market form in which no producer or consumer has the market power to influence prices. ... This article refers to an economy controlled by the state. ... Monopolistic competition is a common market form. ... In economic theory, imperfect competition, is the competitive situation in any market where the conditions necessary for perfect competition are not satisfied. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Dictionary website
  2. ^ a b To Alter Or To Abolish
  3. ^ JJB Sports v OFT [2004] CAT 17
  4. ^ in the E.U. side of the saga, see Case T-201/04 Microsoft v. Commission Order, 22 December 2004
  5. ^ Case C-12/03 P, Commission v. Tetra Laval

References

  • Kohn, Alfie (1986). No Contest – The Case Against Competition. Boston New York London: Houghton Mifflin Co.. ISBN 0-395-63125-4. 
  • Ryckman, R. M., Thornton, B., Butler, J. C. (1994). Personality correlates of the hypercompetitive attitude scale: Validity tests of Horney's theory of neurosis. Journal of Personality Assessment, 62, 84-94. [2]

Alfie Kohn (October 15, 1957) is an American lecturer and author in the fields of education, psychology and parenting. ...

External links

  • OECD Competition Homepage
  • First Robotics Competition.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Competition:Topic (494 words)
Well-designed competition law, effective law enforcement and competition-based economic reform promote increased efficiency, economic growth and employment for the benefit of all.
OECD work on competition law and policy actively encourages decision-makers in government to tackle anti-competitive practices and regulations and promotes market-oriented reform throughout the world.
The OECD Journal of Competition Law and Policy provides insight into the thinking of competition law enforcers while focusing on the practical application of competition law and policy.
Unfair competition - Wex (429 words)
The law of unfair competition is primarily comprised of torts that cause an economic injury to a business, through a deceptive or wrongful business practice.
The law of unfair competition is mainly governed by state common law.
The FTC regulations concerning unfair competition are found in various parts of Title 16 of the Code of Federal Regulations (http://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/cfr.php?title=16andtype=titleandvalue=16).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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