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Encyclopedia > Comparison of operating systems

These tables compare general and technical information for a number of widely used and currently available operating systems. // An operating system (OS) is a set of computer programs that manage the hardware and software resources of a computer. ...


Due to the large number and variety of available Linux distributions, they are all grouped under a single entry; see comparison of Linux distributions for a detailed comparison. There are also a variety of BSD operating systems, covered in comparison of BSD operating systems. For information on views of each operating system, see operating system advocacy. A Linux distribution, often simply distribution or distro, is a member of the Linux family of Unix-like operating systems comprising the Linux kernel, the non-kernel parts of the GNU operating system, and assorted other software. ... The many Linux distributions differ for various reasons including technical, organizational, and philosophical. ... There are a number of Unix-like operating systems based on, or descended from, the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) series of Unix variants. ... It has been suggested that Apple evangelist be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

General information

Creator First public release Predecessor Latest stable version Cost/Availability Preferred license1 Target system type
Version Release Date
AIX IBM 1986 System V R3 5.3 August 2004 Bundled with hardware Proprietary Server, Network Appliance, Workstation
AmigaOS Amiga, Inc. July 23, 1985 TRIPOS (as the disk operating component of AmigaOS) 4.0 Final 24 December 2006 Bundled with hardware Proprietary, Clones available under GNU GPL Workstation, Home Desktop
FreeBSD The FreeBSD Project December 1993 386BSD 6.2 January 18, 2007 Free BSD Server, Workstation, Network Appliance, Embedded
HP-UX Hewlett-Packard 1983 Unix 11.31 "11i v3" February 15, 2007 $400 Proprietary Server, Workstation
i5/OS IBM 1988 OS/400 V5R4 January 2006 Bundled with hardware Proprietary Server
IRIX SGI 1998 Unix 6.5.30 August 2006 Bundled with hardware Proprietary Server, Workstation
Inferno Bell Labs 1997 Plan 9 Fourth Edition February 2007 Free MIT/GNU GPL/GNU LGPL/LPL Network Appliance, Server, Embedded
GNU/Linux GNU Project, Linus Torvalds et al. 1992 Unix5, Minix6 Linux kernel 2.6.22.1; GNU C Library 2.5 July 10, 2007; September 29, 2006 See Comparison of Linux distributions GNU GPL, GNU LGPL and other licenses See: Comparison of Linux distributions
Mac OS Apple Inc. January 1984 None2 8 9.2.2 May 12, 2002 Bundled with older Macs;

Free with Mac OS X for PowerPC3 A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... AIX (Advanced Interactive eXecutive) is a proprietary operating system developed by IBM based on UNIX System V. Before the product was ever marketed, the acronym AIX originally stood for Advanced IBM UNIX. AIX has pioneered numerous network operating system enhancements, introducing new innovations later adopted by Unix-like operating systems... IBM redirects here. ... AT&T UNIX System V was one of the versions of the UNIX operating system. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on using, copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Samba Network Icon Network-attached storage (NAS) is the name given to dedicated data storage technology which can be connected directly to a computer network to provide centralized data access and storage to heterogeneous network clients. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ... AmigaOS is the default native operating system of the Amiga personal computer. ... Amiga, Inc. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ... The University of Cambridge, England, divides the different kinds of honours bachelors degree by Tripos, a word which has an obscure etymology, but which may be traced to the three-legged stool candidates once used to sit on when taking oral examinations. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on using, copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... The GNU logo The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL) is a widely-used free software license, originally written by Richard Stallman for the GNU project. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ... FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through the 386BSD and 4. ... FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through the 386BSD and 4. ... 386BSD, also known as JOLIX, is a free BSD operating system for the Intel 80386. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The BSD license is a permissive license and is one of the most widely used free software licenses. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ... Samba Network Icon Network-attached storage (NAS) is the name given to dedicated data storage technology which can be connected directly to a computer network to provide centralized data access and storage to heterogeneous network clients. ... In mathematics, see embedding. ... HP-UX (Hewlett Packard UniX) is Hewlett-Packards proprietary implementation of the Unix operating system, based on System V (initially System III). ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on using, copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ... IBM redirects here. ... OS/400 is an operating system used on IBMs line of AS/400 (now called iSeries) minicomputers. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on using, copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... IRIX is a computer operating system developed by Silicon Graphics, Inc. ... SGI is a TLA for at least three separate entities: Saskatchewan Government Insurance Scientific Games International Silicon Graphics, Incorporated Soka Gakkai International This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on using, copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ... Inferno is an operating system for creating and supporting distributed services. ... Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. ... Plan 9 from Bell Labs is a distributed operating system, primarily used as a research vehicle. ... The MIT License, also called the X License or the X11 License, originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is a license for the use of certain types of computer software. ... The GNU logo The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL) is a widely-used free software license, originally written by Richard Stallman for the GNU project. ... GNU logo The GNU Lesser General Public License (formerly the GNU Library General Public License) is a free software license published by the Free Software Foundation. ... The Lucent Public License is an open-source license created by Lucent Technologies. ... Samba Network Icon Network-attached storage (NAS) is the name given to dedicated data storage technology which can be connected directly to a computer network to provide centralized data access and storage to heterogeneous network clients. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In mathematics, see embedding. ... Unix systems filiation. ... The GNU logo, drawn by Etienne Suvasa The GNU Project was announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman. ... Linus Benedict Torvalds  ; born December 28, 1969 in Helsinki, Finland, is a Finnish software engineer best known for initiating the development of the Linux kernel. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... MINIX is a free/open source, Unix-like operating system (OS) based on a microkernel architecture. ... The Linux kernel is a Unix-like operating system kernel. ... Glibc is the GNU projects C standard library. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The many Linux distributions differ for various reasons including technical, organizational, and philosophical. ... The GNU logo The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL) is a widely-used free software license, originally written by Richard Stallman for the GNU project. ... GNU logo The GNU Lesser General Public License (formerly the GNU Library General Public License) is a free software license published by the Free Software Foundation. ... The many Linux distributions differ for various reasons including technical, organizational, and philosophical. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Apple Inc. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...

Proprietary Workstation, Home Desktop
Mac OS X Apple Inc. March 2001 NeXTSTEP / OPENSTEP / Rhapsody, Mac OS 10.4.10 "Tiger" June 20, 2007 Bundled with hardware; also sold separately:
Desktop $129 (Single User)
Family Pack $199 (5 license)
Open source core system (Both Intel and Power PC versions) (APSL, GNU GPL, others) with proprietary higher level API layers Workstation, Home Desktop, Mobile (embedded)
Mac OS X Server 10.4.10 Bundled with hardware; also sold separately:
$499 (10 clients)
$999 (unlimited clients)
Server
NetBSD The NetBSD Project May 1993 386BSD 3.1 November 4, 2006 Free BSD Network Appliance, Server, Workstation, Embedded
NetWare Novell 1985 S-Net 6.5 SP5a May 2006 $184 (single-user) Proprietary Server
OpenBSD The OpenBSD Project October 1995 NetBSD 1.0 4.1 May 1, 2007 Free BSD Server, Network Appliance, Workstation, Embedded
OpenVMS DEC (now HP) February 1978 RSX-11M 8.3 August 2006 Free for non-commercial use Proprietary Server, Workstation
OS/2 IBM and Microsoft December 1987 MS-DOS 4.52 December 2001 $300 Proprietary Home Desktop, Server
PC-BSD PC-BSD Software 2006 FreeBSD7 1.2 July 12, 2006 Free BSD Desktop, Workstation, Server
Plan 9 Bell Labs 1993 Unix Fourth Edition (Daily snapshots) Free LPL Workstation, Server, Embedded, HPC
Solaris Sun July 1992 SunOS 10 11/06 December, 2006 Free CDDL Server, Workstation
Windows Server Microsoft July 27, 1993 Windows 2000 Windows Server 2003 SP2 (NT 5.2 SP2) November 15, 2006 $379 Web Edition, $450 Small Business Server Proprietary Server, Network Appliance, Embedded, HPC
Microsoft Windows Microsoft November 20, 1985 MS-DOS, VMS, OS/24 Windows Vista (NT 6.0) November 2006-January 20079 XP Home OEM $79, Vista Home Retail $199, Business $299, Ultimate $399 Proprietary Workstation, Home Desktop, media center, Tablet PC, embedded
RISC OS Acorn Computers, RISC OS Limited April 1989 ARTHUR, also the BBC Master OS RISC OS 4.39 "Adjust" $127 (£70) Proprietary; originally bundled with computer educational desktop, home computer
ZETA yellowTAB June 2005 BeOS R5 1.2 April 27, 2006 Professional $110, Student $80 Proprietary Home Desktop, Media Workstation
STOP 6 / XTS-400 BAE Systems 2003 STOP 5 / XTS-300 6.3 June 2006 Unknown; supplied to customers on-demand by BAE Systems Proprietary Server, Workstation, cross-domain solution, network guard
ReactOS ReactOS development team 1996 Windows NT 0.3.1 March 11, 2007 Free GNU GPL, GNU LGPL Workstation, Home Desktop
Creator First public release Predecessor Version Release Date Cost (USD) Preferred license1 Target system type

Note 1: Most OS distributions include bundled software with various other licenses.
Note 2: Although Lisa OS ran on the same (albeit a slower version) microprocessor and was developed by Apple Computer at the same time as Mac OS, they were developed as different projects, sharing only a similar GUI between them. [1]
Note 3: Mac OS versions up to 7.5.5 are available free of charge here.
Note 4: Version NT 5.2 is the latest release of Windows XP Professional x64 Edition. The latest 32-bit build is version NT 5.1 SP2
Note 5: GNU is a recursive acronym for GNU's Not Unix, which was chosen because its design is Unix-like, but differs from Unix by being Free software and by not containing any Unix code.
Note 6: Minix inspired the Linux kernel. No code from Minix was used to create the Linux kernel.
Note 7: PC-BSD uses FreeBSD as a base system with custom configuration and several desktop oriented tools to create an easy to use FreeBSD system for Desktops and Workstations.
Note 8: Mac OS 7.6 was the first Mac OS operating system to be labeled Mac OS. Operating systems prior to this were just known by System #.#, starting from System Software 0.1 (available only to developers) up until System Software 7.5 (System for short). System 7.5.1 was the first "Mac OS" operating system to feature the "Happy Mac" logo on startup. The Happy Mac was retired when Apple released Mac OS X 10.2, codename "Jaguar".
Note 9: Windows Vista was released to manufacturing on November 8, 2006, and was subsequently made available to software developers and businesses in November 2006, with retail availability following on January 30, 2007 Proprietary software is software with restrictions on using, copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ... Mac OS X (official IPA pronunciation: ) is a line of proprietary, graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... Apple Inc. ... NEXTSTEP is the original object-oriented, multitasking operating system that NeXT Computer, Inc. ... The OPENSTEP desktop. ... Rhapsody was the code name given to Apple Computers next-generation operating system during the period of its development between Apples purchase of NeXT in late 1996 and the announcement of Mac OS X in 1998. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Apple Public Source License is the open source license under which Apple Computers Darwin Project was released. ... The GNU logo The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL) is a widely-used free software license, originally written by Richard Stallman for the GNU project. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on using, copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ... Mac OS X Server is the server-oriented version of Apples desktop operating system, Mac OS X. Mac OS X, in both desktop and server versions, is a Unix-like operating system based on technology that Apple acquired from NeXT Computer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... NetBSD is a freely redistributable, open source version of the Unix-like BSD computer operating system. ... NetBSD is a freely redistributable, open source version of the Unix-like BSD computer operating system. ... 386BSD, also known as JOLIX, is a free BSD operating system for the Intel 80386. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The BSD license is a permissive license and is one of the most widely used free software licenses. ... Samba Network Icon Network-attached storage (NAS) is the name given to dedicated data storage technology which can be connected directly to a computer network to provide centralized data access and storage to heterogeneous network clients. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ... In mathematics, see embedding. ... NetWare is a network operating system developed by Novell, Inc. ... Novell Inc. ... S-Net was a network operating system and the set of network protocols it used to talk to client machines on the network. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on using, copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... OpenBSD is a Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley. ... OpenBSD is a Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley. ... NetBSD is a freely redistributable, open source version of the Unix-like BSD computer operating system. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The BSD license is a permissive license and is one of the most widely used free software licenses. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Samba Network Icon Network-attached storage (NAS) is the name given to dedicated data storage technology which can be connected directly to a computer network to provide centralized data access and storage to heterogeneous network clients. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ... In mathematics, see embedding. ... OpenVMS[1] (Open Virtual Memory System or just VMS) is the name of a high-end computer server operating system that runs on the VAX[2] and Alpha[3] family of computers developed by Digital Equipment Corporation of Maynard, Massachusetts (DIGITAL was then purchased by Compaq, and is now owned... The DEC logo Digital Equipment Corporation was a pioneering American company in the computer industry. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is currently the worlds largest information technology corporation (by revenue) and is known worldwide for its printers, personal computers and high end servers. ... RSX-11: A family of real-time operating systems mainly for PDP-11 computers created by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), common in the late 1970s and early 1980s, designed for and much used in process control, but also popular for program development. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on using, copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... IBM redirects here. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on using, copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... PC-BSD is a Unix-like, desktop-oriented operating system based on FreeBSD similar to DesktopBSD. It aims to be easy to install by using a graphical installation program, and easy- and ready-to-use immediately by providing KDE as the default, pre-installed graphical user interface. ... FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through the 386BSD and 4. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The BSD license is a permissive license and is one of the most widely used free software licenses. ... Look up desktop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ... Look up server in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Plan 9 from Bell Labs is a distributed operating system, primarily used as a research vehicle. ... Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... The Lucent Public License is an open-source license created by Lucent Technologies. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Embedded System Design in an FPGA be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Supercomputing. ... Solaris is a computer operating system developed by Sun Microsystems. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... SunOS was the version of the UNIX operating system developed by Sun Microsystems for their workstations and server systems until the early 1990s. ... Common Development and Distribution License (CDDL) is an open source and Free software license, produced by Sun Microsystems, based on the Mozilla Public License (MPL), version 1. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ... Windows Server may refer to: Windows 2000 Server, the release based on Windows 2000 Windows Server 2003, the current release of Windows Server Windows Server Longhorn, the upcoming release of Windows Server Windows Home Server, an upcoming server operating system intended for home use Microsoft Servers, a family of servers... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Windows 2000 (also referred to as Win2K) is a preemptive, interruptible, graphical and business-oriented operating system that was designed to work with either uniprocessor or symmetric multi-processor 32-bit Intel x86 computers. ... Windows Server 2003 is a server operating system produced by Microsoft. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on using, copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Samba Network Icon Network-attached storage (NAS) is the name given to dedicated data storage technology which can be connected directly to a computer network to provide centralized data access and storage to heterogeneous network clients. ... In mathematics, see embedding. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Supercomputing. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... OpenVMS[1] (Open Virtual Memory System or just VMS) is the name of a high-end computer server operating system that runs on the VAX[2] and Alpha[3] family of computers developed by Digital Equipment Corporation of Maynard, Massachusetts (DIGITAL was then purchased by Compaq, and is now owned... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on using, copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ... It has been suggested that Media Server be merged into this article or section. ... A Tablet PC is a notebook- or slate-shaped mobile computer. ... In mathematics, see embedding. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... forever . ... RISCOS Ltd was a UK limited company created in 1999 to continue user-focused development of the RISC OS operating system after the collapse of Acorn. ... A screenshot of Arthurs GUI desktop and its bundled accessory applications Arthur is an early GUI operating System (OS) that was used on Acorn ARM-cpu-based computers from about 1987 until the much-superior RISC OS 2 was completed and made available in April 1989. ... A BBC Master 128 with monitor and disk drives. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on using, copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... The correct title of this article is . ... yellowTAB is a German software firm that produces an operating system based on BeOS 5. ... BeOS R5 is the final version of BeOS from Be Inc. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on using, copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... The XTS-400 is a multi-level secure computer system. ... BAE Systems plc is the worlds fourth largest defence contractor,[3] the largest in Europe and a commercial aerospace manufacturer. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on using, copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ... ReactOS is a project to develop an operating system that is binary-compatible with application software and device drivers for Microsoft Windows NT version 5. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (71st in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The GNU logo The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL) is a widely-used free software license, originally written by Richard Stallman for the GNU project. ... GNU logo The GNU Lesser General Public License (formerly the GNU Library General Public License) is a free software license published by the Free Software Foundation. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... Apple Lisa The Apple Lisa was a revolutionary personal computer designed at Apple Computer during the early 1980s. ... Apple Inc. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... GNU (pronounced ) is a computer operating system composed entirely of free software. ... Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... Clockwise from top: The logo of the GNU Project (the GNU head), the Linux kernel mascot Tux the Penguin, and the FreeBSD daemon Free software is a term coined by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation[1] to refer to software that can be used, studied, and modified without... PC-BSD is a Unix-like, desktop-oriented operating system based on FreeBSD similar to DesktopBSD. It aims to be easy to install by using a graphical installation program, and easy- and ready-to-use immediately by providing KDE as the default, pre-installed graphical user interface. ... System 7 (codenamed Big Bang and sometimes called Mac OS 7) is a version of the Mac OS, the operating system of the Apple Macintosh computer, introduced in 1991. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Happy Mac icon The original Happy Mac icon A Happy Mac is the normal bootup (startup) icon of an Apple Macintosh computer running older versions of the Mac OS operating system. ... The Happy Mac icon The original Happy Mac icon A Happy Mac is the normal bootup (startup) icon of an Apple Macintosh computer running older versions of the Mac OS operating system. ... Screenshot of Mac OS X 10. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


Technical information

Computer architectures supported File systems supported Kernel type Source lines of code GUI default is on6 Package management Update management Primary APIs7
AIX PowerPC JFS, JFS2, ISO 9660, UDF, NFS, SMBFS, GPFS Monolithic No installp, RPM Service Update Management Assistant (SUMA) SysV, POSIX
AmigaOS 68k, PPC (x86 Clone available see AROS) Proprietary (OFS, FFS,SFS, PFS), FAT, ISO 9660, UDF, many others via 3rd party drivers Microkernel Yes Installer19 None Proprietary, POSIX environment functions available thru GNU licensed Amiga ixemul.library
FreeBSD x86, x86-64, PC98, SPARC, others UFS2, ext2, ext3, FAT, ISO 9660, UDF, NFS, ReiserFS (read only), XFS (experimental), ZFS (experimental) and others Monolithic with modules No ports tree, packages by source (CVSup, portsnap), network binary update (freebsdupdate) BSD, POSIX
HP-UX PA-RISC, IA-64 VxFS, HFS, ISO 9660, UDF, NFS, SMBFS Monolithic with modules No swinstall ? SysV, POSIX
Linux x86, x86-64, PPC, SPARC, Alpha, others ext2, ext3, ext4, ReiserFS, FAT, ISO 9660, UDF, NFS, and others Monolithic with modules See: Comparison of Linux distributions POSIX
Inferno x86, PPC, SPARC, Alpha, MIPS, others Styx/9P2000, kfs, FAT, ISO 9660 Monolithic with modules, user space file systems Yes - ? proprietary
Mac OS Classic 68k, PPC HFS+, HFS, AFP, ISO 9660, FAT, UDF Monolithic with modules Yes Apple Installer Software Update proprietary, Carbon
Mac OS X PPC, x86 HFS+ (default), HFS, UFS, AFP, ISO 9660, FAT, UDF, NFS, SMBFS, NTFS (read only), FTP, WebDAV, ZFS (experimental) Hybrid ~86 million[1] Yes Mac OS X Installer Software Update Carbon, Cocoa, BSD/POSIX, X11 (since 10.3)
NetBSD x86, x86-64, PPC, SPARC, 68k, Alpha, others UFS, UFS2, ext2, FAT, ISO 9660, NFS, LFS, and others Monolithic with modules No8 pkgsrc by source (CVS, CVSup, rsync) or binary (using sysinst) BSD, POSIX
NetWare x86 NSS, NWFS, FAT, NFS, AFP, UDF, CIFS, ISO 9660 Hybrid Yes NWCONFIG.NLM, RPM, X11-based GUI installer binary updates, ZENWorks for Servers, Red Carpet proprietary
OES-Linux x86 PPC NSS, NFS, AFP, UDF, CIFS, ISO 9660, Netware Traditional File System Monolithic with modules No RPM, X11-based GUI installer binary updates, ZENWorks for Server, Red Carpet proprietary
OpenBSD x86, x86-64, SPARC, 68k, Alpha, VAX, others ffs, ext2, FAT, ISO 9660, NFS, some others Monolithic with modules No8 ports tree, packages by source BSD, POSIX
OpenVMS VAX, Alpha, IA-64 Files-11, ISO 9660, NFS Monolithic with modules No PCSI, VMSINSTAL - proprietary, Unix-like
OS/2 x86 HPFS, JFS, FAT, ISO 9660, UDF, NFS Monolithic No Feature Install and others - proprietary
PC-BSD x86 10 UFS2, ext2, ext3, FAT, ISO 9660, UDF, NFS, ReiserFS (read only), XFS (experimental) and others Monolithic with modules Yes ports tree, packages, PBI Graphical Installers by PBI updates, source (CVSup, portsnap), network binary update (freebsdupdate) BSD, POSIX
Plan 9 x86, Alpha, MIPS, PPC, SPARC, others fossil/venti, 9P2000, kfs, ext2, FAT, ISO 9660 Monolithic, user space file systems Yes None replica Unix-like (and optional POSIX compatibility layer)
ReactOS x86, Power PC FAT Hybrid 1-2 mil Yes None None Windows API
RISC OS ARM (both 26 and 32-bit) Acorn ADFS, Econet ANFS, FAT, ISO9660, many others as loadable filesystems Unprotected monotasking microkernel with large number of relocatable modules Yes Applications self-contained; hardware drivers often in ROM None Huge number of SWI calls; extensive C libraries
Solaris x86, x86-64, SPARC UFS, ZFS, ext2, FAT, ISO 9660, UDF, NFS, QFS, some others Monolithic with modules Yes SysV packages (pkgadd) Sun Update Connection SysV, POSIX
STOP 6 / XTS-400 x86 proprietary Monolithic No RPM for some untrusted applications binary updates via snail-mail and proprietary tools some SysV, some POSIX, some Linux, some proprietary
Windows Server x86, x86-64, IA-64 NTFS, FAT, ISO 9660, UDF; 3rd-party drivers support ext2, ext3, reiserfs9, and HFS Hybrid ~45 million Cognitive Perspectives on the Role of Naming in Computer Programs. Yes MSI, custom installers Windows Update Windows API, .NET
Windows x86, x86-64 NTFS, FAT ISO 9660, UDF; 3rd-party drivers support ext2, ext3, reiserfs9, and HFS Hybrid ~40 million[citation needed] Yes MSI, custom installers Windows Update Windows API, .NET
ZETA x86 BFS (default), FAT, ISO 9660, UDF, HFS, AFP, ext2, CIFS, NTFS (read only), ReiserFS (read only, up to v3.6) Hybrid Yes SoftwareValet, script-based installers None POSIX, BeOS API
Computer architectures supported File systems supported Kernel type Source lines of code GUI default is on6 Package management Update management Primary APIs7

Note 6: Operating systems where the GUI is not installed and turned on by default are often bundled with an implementation of the X Window System. However, installing X is usually optional.
Note 7: Most operating systems use proprietary APIs in addition to any supported standards.
Note 8: NetBSD and OpenBSD includes the X Window System as base install sets rather than packages within the ports collection. It includes some local changes and is managed as part of the NetBSD/OpenBSD source tree.
Note 9: Windows can read or write to Ext2 and Ext3 file systems only when a driver from FS-driver or ext2fsd is installed. However, using Explore2fs, Windows can read, but not write, from Ext2 and Ext3 file systems. Windows can also access ReiserFS through rfstool and related programs.
Note 10: only i686 CPU
Note 19: Amiga OS features since OS 2.0 version a standard centralized Install utility called Installer, which could be used by any software house to install programs. It works as a LISP language interpreter, and install procedures could be listed as simple text. AmigaOS can also benefit of a 3rd party copyrighted library called XPKMaster.Library. This library is freely distributable and publicly available on Aminet Amiga centralized repository of all Open Source or Free programs and utilities. XPKMaster.Library, complete with GUI, it is made on modules and capable to manage over 300 compression methods and package systems, including those widely accepted as standards such as .ZIP, .CAB, .LHA, .LZX, .RPM, etc.
A typical vision of a computer architecture as a series of abstraction layers: hardware, firmware, assembler, kernel, operating system and applications (see also Tanenbaum 79). ... It has been suggested that Crash counting be merged into this article or section. ... A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ... Source lines of code (SLOC) is a software metric used to measure the amount of code in a software program. ... A graphical user interface (GUI) is a type of user interface which allows people to interact with a computer and computer-controlled devices which employ graphical icons, visual indicators or special graphical elements called widgets, along with text labels or text navigation to represent the information and actions available to... Illustration of a package management system being used to download new software. ... An application programming interface (API) is a source code interface that a computer system or program library provides to support requests for services to be made of it by a Length. ... AIX (Advanced Interactive eXecutive) is a proprietary operating system developed by IBM based on UNIX System V. Before the product was ever marketed, the acronym AIX originally stood for Advanced IBM UNIX. AIX has pioneered numerous network operating system enhancements, introducing new innovations later adopted by Unix-like operating systems... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... JFS is a journaling filesystem created by IBM. It is available under an open source license. ... JFS is a journaling filesystem created by IBM. It is available under an open source license. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ... Network File System (NFS) is a network file system protocol originally developed by Sun Microsystems in 1984, allowing a user on a client computer to access files over a network as easily as if the network devices were attached to its local disks. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... [GPFS]http://www-03. ... It has been suggested that Monolithic system be merged into this article or section. ... RPM Package Manager (originally Red Hat Package Manager, abbreviated RPM) is a package management system. ... AT&T UNIX System V was one of the versions of the UNIX operating system. ... POSIX or Portable Operating System Interface[1] is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API) for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system. ... AmigaOS is the default native operating system of the Amiga personal computer. ... The Motorola 680x0/0x0/m68k/68k/68K family of CISC microprocessor CPU chips were 32-bit from the start, and were the primary competition for the Intel x86 family of chips in personal computers of the 1980s and early 1990s. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... What is AROS? AROS (Amiga Research Operating System) is an open source implementation of the AmigaOS 3. ... On the Amiga the Old File System was the filesystem for Amiga OS before the Amiga Fast File System. ... The Amiga Fast File System (FFS) is an advanced file system used on the Amiga personal computer. ... The Smart File System (SFS) is a journalling filesystem used on Amiga computers. ... The Professional File System is a filesystem originally developed commercially for the Amiga. ... File Allocation Table (FAT) is a partially patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and was the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ... Graphical overview of a microkernel A microkernel is a minimal computer operating system kernel providing only basic operating system services (system calls), while other services (commonly provided by kernels) are provided by user-space programs called servers. ... AmigaOS is the default native operating system of the Amiga personal computer. ... POSIX or Portable Operating System Interface[1] is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API) for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system. ... FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through the 386BSD and 4. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sun UltraSPARC II Microprocessor Sun UltraSPARC T1 (Niagara 8 Core) SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture) is a RISC microprocessor instruction set architecture originally designed in 1985 by Sun Microsystems. ... UNIX file system (UFS) is a file system used by many unix operating systems. ... The ext2 or second extended file system is a file system for the Linux kernel. ... The ext3 or third extended filesystem is a journalled file system that is commonly used by the Linux operating system. ... File Allocation Table (FAT) is a partially patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and was the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ... Network File System (NFS) is a network file system protocol originally developed by Sun Microsystems in 1984, allowing a user on a client computer to access files over a network as easily as if the network devices were attached to its local disks. ... ReiserFS is a general-purpose, journaled computer file system designed and implemented by a team at Namesys led by Hans Reiser who is referred to as the projects Benevolent Dictator for Life. ... XFS is a high-performance journaling file system created by Silicon Graphics for their IRIX operating system. ... In computing, ZFS is a file system originally created by Sun Microsystems for the Solaris Operating System. ... It has been suggested that Monolithic system be merged into this article or section. ... Ports collections (or ports trees, or just ports) are the sets of makefiles and patches provided by the BSD-based operating systems, FreeBSD, NetBSD and OpenBSD, as a simple method of installing software or creating binary packages. ... CVSup is a is a computer program which synchronises files and directories from one location to another while minimizing data transfer using file-type specific delta encoding when appropriate. ... BSD redirects here; for other uses see BSD (disambiguation). ... POSIX or Portable Operating System Interface[1] is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API) for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system. ... HP-UX (Hewlett Packard UniX) is Hewlett-Packards proprietary implementation of the Unix operating system, based on System V (initially System III). ... PA-RISC is a microprocessor architecture developed by Hewlett-Packards Systems & VLSI Technology Operation. ... In computing, IA-64 (short for Intel Architecture-64) is a 64-bit processor architecture developed cooperatively by Intel Corporation and Hewlett-Packard (HP), and implemented in the Itanium and Itanium 2 processors. ... The Veritas File System, or VxFS, is an extent-based file system that was developed by Veritas Software as the first commercial journaling file system. ... HFS may stand for: Hierarchical File System Washington High Fidelity Stereo (WHFS) Hemifacial spasm HFS Group - A loan company based in Macclesfield, UK. High-fructose syrup This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ... Network File System (NFS) is a network file system protocol originally developed by Sun Microsystems in 1984, allowing a user on a client computer to access files over a network as easily as if the network devices were attached to its local disks. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... It has been suggested that Monolithic system be merged into this article or section. ... AT&T UNIX System V was one of the versions of the UNIX operating system. ... POSIX or Portable Operating System Interface[1] is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API) for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system. ... Linux (IPA pronunciation: ) is a Unix-like computer operating system. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... Sun UltraSPARC II Microprocessor Sun UltraSPARC T1 (Niagara 8 Core) SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture) is a RISC microprocessor instruction set architecture originally designed in 1985 by Sun Microsystems. ... DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor die photo Package for DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor Alpha AXP 21064 bare die mounted on a business card with some statistics The DEC Alpha, also known as the Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit RISC microprocessor originally developed and fabricated by Digital Equipment Corp... The Linux kernel is a Unix-like operating system kernel. ... The ext2 or second extended file system is a file system for the Linux kernel. ... The ext3 or third extended filesystem is a journalled file system that is commonly used by the Linux operating system. ... The ext4, or fourth extended filesystem is a journalled file system that was revealed on October 10, 2006 by Andrew Morton as a compatible improvement to the ext3, featuring support for volumes up to 1024 petabytes and added extent (allocation of an area for a file to use) support. ... ReiserFS is a general-purpose, journaled computer file system designed and implemented by a team at Namesys led by Hans Reiser who is referred to as the projects Benevolent Dictator for Life. ... File Allocation Table (FAT) is a partially patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and was the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ... Network File System (NFS) is a network file system protocol originally developed by Sun Microsystems in 1984, allowing a user on a client computer to access files over a network as easily as if the network devices were attached to its local disks. ... It has been suggested that Monolithic system be merged into this article or section. ... The many Linux distributions differ for various reasons including technical, organizational, and philosophical. ... POSIX or Portable Operating System Interface[1] is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API) for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system. ... Inferno is an operating system for creating and supporting distributed services. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... Sun UltraSPARC II Microprocessor Sun UltraSPARC T1 (Niagara 8 Core) SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture) is a RISC microprocessor instruction set architecture originally designed in 1985 by Sun Microsystems. ... DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor die photo Package for DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor Alpha AXP 21064 bare die mounted on a business card with some statistics The DEC Alpha, also known as the Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit RISC microprocessor originally developed and fabricated by Digital Equipment Corp... A MIPS R4400 microprocessor made by Toshiba. ... 9P, or the Plan 9 Filesystem Protocol, is a network protocol developed for the Plan 9 distributed operating system as the means of connecting the components of a Plan 9 system (site). ... 9P, or the Plan 9 Filesystem Protocol, is a network protocol developed for the Plan 9 distributed operating system as the means of connecting the components of a Plan 9 system (site). ... File Allocation Table (FAT) is a partially patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and was the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... It has been suggested that Monolithic system be merged into this article or section. ... An operating system usually segregates the available system memory into kernel space and user space. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Motorola 680x0/0x0/m68k/68k/68K family of CISC microprocessor CPU chips were 32-bit from the start, and were the primary competition for the Intel x86 family of chips in personal computers of the 1980s and early 1990s. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... HFS Plus or HFS+ is a file system developed by Apple Computer to replace their Hierarchical File System (HFS) as the primary file system used on Macintosh computers. ... Hierarchical File System (HFS), is a file system developed by Apple Computer for use on computers running Mac OS. Originally designed for use on floppy and hard disks, it can also be found on read-only media such as CD-ROMs. ... The Apple Filing Protocol (AFP) is a layer 6 (presentation layer) network protocol that offers file services for Mac OS X and Classic Mac OS. In Mac OS X, AFP is one of several file services supported including Server Message Block (SMB), Network File System (NFS), File Transfer Protocol (FTP... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... File Allocation Table (FAT) is a partially patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and was the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ... The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ... It has been suggested that Monolithic system be merged into this article or section. ... Software Update is a software tool by Apple Computer that install the latest version of Apple software on computers running Mac OS X (there was also a Software update tool for classic Mac OS). ... Carbon is the codename of Apple Computers APIs for the Macintosh operating system, which permits a good degree of backward compatibility between source code written to run on the classic Mac OS, and the newer Mac OS X. The APIs are published and accessed in the form of C... Mac OS X (official IPA pronunciation: ) is a line of proprietary, graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... HFS Plus or HFS+ is a file system developed by Apple Computer to replace their Hierarchical File System (HFS) as the primary file system used on Macintosh computers. ... Hierarchical File System (HFS), is a file system developed by Apple Computer for use on computers running Mac OS. Originally designed for use on floppy and hard disks, it can also be found on read-only media such as CD-ROMs. ... The UNIX file system (UFS) is a file system used by many Unix and Unix-like operating systems. ... The Apple Filing Protocol (AFP) is a layer 6 (presentation layer) network protocol that offers file services for Mac OS X and Classic Mac OS. In Mac OS X, AFP is one of several file services supported including Server Message Block (SMB), Network File System (NFS), File Transfer Protocol (FTP... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... File Allocation Table (FAT) is a partially patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and was the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ... The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ... Network File System (NFS) is a network file system protocol originally developed by Sun Microsystems in 1984, allowing a user on a client computer to access files over a network as easily as if the network devices were attached to its local disks. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... NTFS (New Technology File System) is the standard file system of Windows NT, including its later versions Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, and Windows Vista. ... “FTP” redirects here. ... WebDAV was a working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). ... In computing, ZFS is a file system originally created by Sun Microsystems for the Solaris Operating System. ... Graphical overview of a hybrid kernel Hybrid kernel is a kernel architecture based on combining aspects of microkernel and monolithic kernel architectures used in computer operating systems. ... Installer is an application included in Mac OS X which extracts and installs files out of . ... Software Update is a software tool by Apple Computer that install the latest version of Apple software on computers running Mac OS X (there was also a Software update tool for classic Mac OS). ... Carbon is the codename of Apple Computers APIs for the Macintosh operating system, which permits a good degree of backward compatibility between source code written to run on the classic Mac OS, and the newer Mac OS X. The APIs are published and accessed in the form of C... A Cocoa application being developed using Xcode. ... BSD redirects here; for other uses see BSD (disambiguation). ... POSIX or Portable Operating System Interface[1] is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API) for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system. ... In computing, the X Window System (commonly X11 or X) is a windowing system for bitmap displays. ... NetBSD is a freely redistributable, open source version of the Unix-like BSD computer operating system. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... Sun UltraSPARC II Microprocessor Sun UltraSPARC T1 (Niagara 8 Core) SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture) is a RISC microprocessor instruction set architecture originally designed in 1985 by Sun Microsystems. ... The Motorola 680x0/0x0/m68k/68k/68K family of CISC microprocessor CPU chips were 32-bit from the start, and were the primary competition for the Intel x86 family of chips in personal computers of the 1980s and early 1990s. ... DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor die photo Package for DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor Alpha AXP 21064 bare die mounted on a business card with some statistics The DEC Alpha, also known as the Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit RISC microprocessor originally developed and fabricated by Digital Equipment Corp... The UNIX file system (UFS) is a file system used by many Unix and Unix-like operating systems. ... UNIX file system (UFS) is a file system used by many unix operating systems. ... The ext2 or second extended file system is a file system for the Linux kernel. ... File Allocation Table (FAT) is a partially patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and was the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... Network File System (NFS) is a network file system protocol originally developed by Sun Microsystems in 1984, allowing a user on a client computer to access files over a network as easily as if the network devices were attached to its local disks. ... The Log-Structured Filesystem (or LFS) is an implementation of a log-structured file system for NetBSD. It appears to be no longer completely functional as of NetBSD 2. ... It has been suggested that Monolithic system be merged into this article or section. ... pkgsrc (package source) is a package management system for Unix-like operating systems. ... The Concurrent Versions System (CVS), also known as the Concurrent Versioning System, is an open-source version control system invented and developed by Dick Grune in the 1980s. ... CVSup is a is a computer program which synchronises files and directories from one location to another while minimizing data transfer using file-type specific delta encoding when appropriate. ... In computing, rsync is a computer program for Unix systems which synchronizes files and directories from one location to another while minimizing data transfer using delta encoding when appropriate. ... BSD redirects here; for other uses see BSD (disambiguation). ... POSIX or Portable Operating System Interface[1] is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API) for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system. ... NetWare is a network operating system developed by Novell, Inc. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... Novell Storage Services (NSS) is a file system used by Novells NetWare Operating system and recently ported to Linux. ... NetWare File System (NWFS), is a file system, based on a heavily-modified version of FAT. It was used in the Novell NetWare operating system. ... File Allocation Table (FAT) is a partially patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and was the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ... Network File System (NFS) is a network file system protocol originally developed by Sun Microsystems in 1984, allowing a user on a client computer to access files over a network as easily as if the network devices were attached to its local disks. ... The Apple Filing Protocol (AFP) is a layer 6 (presentation layer) network protocol that offers file services for Mac OS X and Classic Mac OS. In Mac OS X, AFP is one of several file services supported including Server Message Block (SMB), Network File System (NFS), File Transfer Protocol (FTP... The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ... Server message block (SMB) is a network protocol mainly applied to share files, printers, serial ports, and miscellaneous communications between nodes on a network. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... Graphical overview of a hybrid kernel Hybrid kernel is a kernel architecture based on combining aspects of microkernel and monolithic kernel architectures used in computer operating systems. ... RPM Package Manager (originally Red Hat Package Manager, abbreviated RPM) is a package management system. ... In computing, the X Window System (commonly X11 or X) is a windowing system for bitmap displays. ... Red Carpet is a software management tool for Linux that was developed as part of the Ximian desktop. ... Novell Open Enterprise Server (OES) is a network software product by Novell, Inc. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... PPC can be: prospective parliamentary candidate 4-phenyl-4-(1-piperidinyl)cyclohexanol PowerPC, a microcomputer implementation and architecture Pocket PC, Microsofts specification for handheld devices production possibilities curve (in economics) Pay per click, a method of charging for advertising on the Internet Peripheral pin controller, a feature present in... Novell Storage Services (NSS) is a file system used by Novells NetWare Operating system and recently ported to Linux. ... Network File System (NFS) is a network file system protocol originally developed by Sun Microsystems in 1984, allowing a user on a client computer to access files over a network as easily as if the network devices were attached to its local disks. ... The Apple Filing Protocol (AFP) is a layer 6 (presentation layer) network protocol that offers file services for Mac OS X and Classic Mac OS. In Mac OS X, AFP is one of several file services supported including Server Message Block (SMB), Network File System (NFS), File Transfer Protocol (FTP... The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ... Server message block (SMB) is a network protocol mainly applied to share files, printers, serial ports, and miscellaneous communications between nodes on a network. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... It has been suggested that Monolithic system be merged into this article or section. ... RPM Package Manager (originally Red Hat Package Manager, abbreviated RPM) is a package management system. ... In computing, the X Window System (commonly X11 or X) is a windowing system for bitmap displays. ... Red Carpet is a software management tool for Linux that was developed as part of the Ximian desktop. ... OpenBSD is a Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... Sun UltraSPARC II Microprocessor Sun UltraSPARC T1 (Niagara 8 Core) SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture) is a RISC microprocessor instruction set architecture originally designed in 1985 by Sun Microsystems. ... The Motorola 680x0/0x0/m68k/68k/68K family of CISC microprocessor CPU chips were 32-bit from the start, and were the primary competition for the Intel x86 family of chips in personal computers of the 1980s and early 1990s. ... DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor die photo Package for DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor Alpha AXP 21064 bare die mounted on a business card with some statistics The DEC Alpha, also known as the Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit RISC microprocessor originally developed and fabricated by Digital Equipment Corp... VAX is a 32-bit computing architecture that supports an orthogonal instruction set (machine language) and virtual addressing (i. ... In computing, the Berkeley Fast File System (or FFS) is a file system used mostly by BSD-derivative Unix variants. ... The ext2 or second extended file system is a file system for the Linux kernel. ... File Allocation Table (FAT) is a partially patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and was the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... Network File System (NFS) is a network file system protocol originally developed by Sun Microsystems in 1984, allowing a user on a client computer to access files over a network as easily as if the network devices were attached to its local disks. ... It has been suggested that Monolithic system be merged into this article or section. ... Ports collections (or ports trees, or just ports) are the sets of makefiles and patches provided by the BSD-based operating systems, FreeBSD, NetBSD and OpenBSD, as a simple method of installing software or creating binary packages. ... BSD redirects here; for other uses see BSD (disambiguation). ... POSIX or Portable Operating System Interface[1] is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API) for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system. ... OpenVMS[1] (Open Virtual Memory System or just VMS) is the name of a high-end computer server operating system that runs on the VAX[2] and Alpha[3] family of computers developed by Digital Equipment Corporation of Maynard, Massachusetts (DIGITAL was then purchased by Compaq, and is now owned... VAX is a 32-bit computing architecture that supports an orthogonal instruction set (machine language) and virtual addressing (i. ... DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor die photo Package for DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor Alpha AXP 21064 bare die mounted on a business card with some statistics The DEC Alpha, also known as the Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit RISC microprocessor originally developed and fabricated by Digital Equipment Corp... In computing, IA-64 (short for Intel Architecture-64) is a 64-bit processor architecture developed cooperatively by Intel Corporation and Hewlett-Packard (HP), and implemented in the Itanium and Itanium 2 processors. ... Files-11, also known as on-disk structure, is the filesystem used by Hewlett-Packards OpenVMS operating system, and also (in a simpler form) by the older RSX-11. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... Network File System (NFS) is a network file system protocol originally developed by Sun Microsystems in 1984, allowing a user on a client computer to access files over a network as easily as if the network devices were attached to its local disks. ... It has been suggested that Monolithic system be merged into this article or section. ... Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... HPFS or High Performance File System is a file system created specifically for the OS/2 operating system to improve upon the limitations of the FAT file system. ... JFS is a journaling filesystem created by IBM. It is available under an open source license. ... File Allocation Table (FAT) is a partially patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and was the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ... Network File System (NFS) is a network file system protocol originally developed by Sun Microsystems in 1984, allowing a user on a client computer to access files over a network as easily as if the network devices were attached to its local disks. ... It has been suggested that Monolithic system be merged into this article or section. ... PC-BSD is a Unix-like, desktop-oriented operating system based on FreeBSD similar to DesktopBSD. It aims to be easy to install by using a graphical installation program, and easy- and ready-to-use immediately by providing KDE as the default, pre-installed graphical user interface. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... UNIX file system (UFS) is a file system used by many unix operating systems. ... The ext2 or second extended file system is a file system for the Linux kernel. ... The ext3 or third extended filesystem is a journalled file system that is commonly used by the Linux operating system. ... File Allocation Table (FAT) is a partially patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and was the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ... Network File System (NFS) is a network file system protocol originally developed by Sun Microsystems in 1984, allowing a user on a client computer to access files over a network as easily as if the network devices were attached to its local disks. ... ReiserFS is a general-purpose, journaled computer file system designed and implemented by a team at Namesys led by Hans Reiser who is referred to as the projects Benevolent Dictator for Life. ... XFS is a high-performance journaling file system created by Silicon Graphics for their IRIX operating system. ... It has been suggested that Monolithic system be merged into this article or section. ... Ports collections (or ports trees, or just ports) are the sets of makefiles and patches provided by the BSD-based operating systems, FreeBSD, NetBSD and OpenBSD, as a simple method of installing software or creating binary packages. ... CVSup is a is a computer program which synchronises files and directories from one location to another while minimizing data transfer using file-type specific delta encoding when appropriate. ... BSD redirects here; for other uses see BSD (disambiguation). ... POSIX or Portable Operating System Interface[1] is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API) for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system. ... Plan 9 from Bell Labs is a distributed operating system, primarily used as a research vehicle. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor die photo Package for DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor Alpha AXP 21064 bare die mounted on a business card with some statistics The DEC Alpha, also known as the Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit RISC microprocessor originally developed and fabricated by Digital Equipment Corp... A MIPS R4400 microprocessor made by Toshiba. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... Sun UltraSPARC II Microprocessor Sun UltraSPARC T1 (Niagara 8 Core) SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture) is a RISC microprocessor instruction set architecture originally designed in 1985 by Sun Microsystems. ... Fossil is the default file system in Plan 9 from Bell Labs. ... Venti is a network storage system that permanently stores data blocks. ... 9P, or the Plan 9 Filesystem Protocol, is a network protocol developed for the Plan 9 distributed operating system as the means of connecting the components of a Plan 9 system (site). ... The ext2 or second extended file system is a file system for the Linux kernel. ... File Allocation Table (FAT) is a partially patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and was the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... It has been suggested that Monolithic system be merged into this article or section. ... An operating system usually segregates the available system memory into kernel space and user space. ... replica is a client server data replication system for Plan 9 from Bell Labs. ... Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... POSIX or Portable Operating System Interface[1] is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API) for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system. ... ReactOS is a project to develop an operating system that is binary-compatible with application software and device drivers for Microsoft Windows NT version 5. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple-IBM-Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... File Allocation Table (FAT) is a partially patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and was the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ... Graphical overview of a hybrid kernel Hybrid kernel is a kernel architecture based on combining aspects of microkernel and monolithic kernel architectures used in computer operating systems. ... The Windows API, informally WinAPI, is the name given by Microsoft to the core set of application programming interfaces (APIs) available in the Microsoft Windows operating systems. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The ARM architecture (previously, the Advanced RISC Machine, and prior to that Acorn RISC Machine) is a 32-bit RISC processor architecture developed by ARM Limited that is widely used in a number of embedded designs. ... The Advanced Disc Filing System (ADFS) is a computing file system particular to the Acorn computer range and RISC OS based successors. ... Econet is an abbreviation of Economy Network. ... File Allocation Table (FAT) is a partially patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and was the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... In computer science, an interrupt is a signal from a device which typically results in a (register) context switch: that is, the processor sets aside what its doing and does something else. ... Solaris is a computer operating system developed by Sun Microsystems. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... Sun UltraSPARC II Microprocessor Sun UltraSPARC T1 (Niagara 8 Core) SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture) is a RISC microprocessor instruction set architecture originally designed in 1985 by Sun Microsystems. ... The UNIX file system (UFS) is a file system used by many Unix and Unix-like operating systems. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The ext2 or second extended file system is a file system for the Linux kernel. ... File Allocation Table (FAT) is a partially patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and was the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ... Network File System (NFS) is a network file system protocol originally developed by Sun Microsystems in 1984, allowing a user on a client computer to access files over a network as easily as if the network devices were attached to its local disks. ... QFS is a filesystem sold by Sun Microsystems. ... It has been suggested that Monolithic system be merged into this article or section. ... AT&T UNIX System V was one of the versions of the UNIX operating system. ... POSIX or Portable Operating System Interface[1] is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API) for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system. ... The XTS-400 is a multi-level secure computer system. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... It has been suggested that Monolithic system be merged into this article or section. ... RPM Package Manager (originally Red Hat Package Manager, abbreviated RPM) is a package management system. ... AT&T UNIX System V was one of the versions of the UNIX operating system. ... POSIX or Portable Operating System Interface[1] is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API) for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system. ... Windows Server 2003 is a server operating system produced by Microsoft. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... In computing, IA-64 (short for Intel Architecture-64) is a 64-bit processor architecture developed cooperatively by Intel Corporation and Hewlett-Packard (HP), and implemented in the Itanium and Itanium 2 processors. ... NTFS (New Technology File System) is the standard file system of Windows NT, including its later versions Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, and Windows Vista. ... File Allocation Table (FAT) is a partially patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and was the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ... The ext2 or second extended file system is a file system for the Linux kernel. ... The ext3 or third extended filesystem is a journalled file system that is commonly used by the Linux operating system. ... ReiserFS is a general-purpose, journaled computer file system designed and implemented by a team at Namesys led by Hans Reiser who is referred to as the projects Benevolent Dictator for Life. ... HFS may stand for: Hierarchical File System Washington High Fidelity Stereo (WHFS) Hemifacial spasm HFS Group - A loan company based in Macclesfield, UK. High-fructose syrup This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... Graphical overview of a hybrid kernel Hybrid kernel is a kernel architecture based on combining aspects of microkernel and monolithic kernel architectures used in computer operating systems. ... The Windows Installer (previously known as Microsoft Installer, codename Darwin) is an engine for the installation of programs on Microsoft Windows systems. ... Windows Update version 5 through Netscape Browser 8. ... The Windows API, informally WinAPI, is the name given by Microsoft to the core set of application programming interfaces (APIs) available in the Microsoft Windows operating systems. ... The Microsoft . ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... NTFS (New Technology File System) is the standard file system of Windows NT, including its later versions Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, and Windows Vista. ... File Allocation Table (FAT) is a partially patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and was the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ... The ext2 or second extended file system is a file system for the Linux kernel. ... The ext3 or third extended filesystem is a journalled file system that is commonly used by the Linux operating system. ... ReiserFS is a general-purpose, journaled computer file system designed and implemented by a team at Namesys led by Hans Reiser who is referred to as the projects Benevolent Dictator for Life. ... HFS may stand for: Hierarchical File System Washington High Fidelity Stereo (WHFS) Hemifacial spasm HFS Group - A loan company based in Macclesfield, UK. High-fructose syrup This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... Graphical overview of a hybrid kernel Hybrid kernel is a kernel architecture based on combining aspects of microkernel and monolithic kernel architectures used in computer operating systems. ... The Windows Installer (previously known as Microsoft Installer, codename Darwin) is an engine for the installation of programs on Microsoft Windows systems. ... Windows Update version 5 through Netscape Browser 8. ... The Windows API, informally WinAPI, is the name given by Microsoft to the core set of application programming interfaces (APIs) available in the Microsoft Windows operating systems. ... The Microsoft . ... The correct title of this article is . ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... The Be File System (BFS, occasionally misnamed as BeFS) is the native file system for the BeOS operating system. ... File Allocation Table (FAT) is a partially patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and was the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ... Hierarchical File System (HFS), is a file system developed by Apple Computer for use on computers running Mac OS. Originally designed for use on floppy and hard disks, it can also be found on read-only media such as CD-ROMs. ... The Apple Filing Protocol (AFP) is a layer 6 (presentation layer) network protocol that offers file services for Mac OS X and Classic Mac OS. In Mac OS X, AFP is one of several file services supported including Server Message Block (SMB), Network File System (NFS), File Transfer Protocol (FTP... The ext2 or second extended file system is a file system for the Linux kernel. ... Server message block (SMB) is a network protocol mainly applied to share files, printers, serial ports, and miscellaneous communications between nodes on a network. ... NTFS (New Technology File System) is the standard file system of Windows NT, including its later versions Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, and Windows Vista. ... ReiserFS is a general-purpose, journaled computer file system designed and implemented by a team at Namesys led by Hans Reiser who is referred to as the projects Benevolent Dictator for Life. ... Graphical overview of a hybrid kernel Hybrid kernel is a kernel architecture based on combining aspects of microkernel and monolithic kernel architectures used in computer operating systems. ... SoftwareValet is a software installer for BeOS, originally developed by Starcode Software. ... POSIX or Portable Operating System Interface[1] is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API) for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system. ... The BeOS API, often called the Be API after Be, Incorporated, is the application programming interface required to write graphical native applications on BeOS, and hence its derivatives such as yellowTAB Zeta. ... A typical vision of a computer architecture as a series of abstraction layers: hardware, firmware, assembler, kernel, operating system and applications (see also Tanenbaum 79). ... It has been suggested that Crash counting be merged into this article or section. ... A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ... Source lines of code (SLOC) is a software metric used to measure the amount of code in a software program. ... A graphical user interface (GUI) is a type of user interface which allows people to interact with a computer and computer-controlled devices which employ graphical icons, visual indicators or special graphical elements called widgets, along with text labels or text navigation to represent the information and actions available to... Illustration of a package management system being used to download new software. ... An application programming interface (API) is a source code interface that a computer system or program library provides to support requests for services to be made of it by a Length. ... KDE 3. ... KDE 3. ... Ports collections (or ports trees, or just ports) are the sets of makefiles and patches provided by the BSD-based operating systems, FreeBSD, NetBSD and OpenBSD, as a simple method of installing software or creating binary packages. ... Explore2fs is an Explorer-like program for Microsoft Windows that is capable of reading ext2 and ext3 (Linux) hard disk partitions. ... AmigaOS is the default native operating system of the Amiga personal computer. ... For the programming language, see Lisp (programming language). ... Aminet is the worlds largest archive of Amiga related software and files. ... The ZIP file format is a popular data compression and archival format. ... In computing, CAB is the Microsoft Windows native compressed archive format. ... LHA is a freeware compression utility and associated file format. ... LZX is the name of an LZ77 family compression algorithm. ... RPM Package Manager (originally Red Hat Package Manager, abbreviated RPM) is a package management system. ...


Security

Resource access control Subsystem isolation mechanisms Integrated firewall Encrypted file systems No execute (NX) page flag Known unpatched vulnerabilities9
hardware emulation number oldest
AIX Unix, ACLs chroot IP Filter, IPSec VPNs, basic IDS No ? 3 2002-10-11
FreeBSD Unix, ACLs, MAC chroot, jail, MAC Partitions IPFW2, IPFilter, PF Yes ? 4 2006-10-11
HP-UX Unix, ACLs chroot IPFilter No ? 4 2002-12-12
Inferno Unix Namespaces ? ? No No n/a
GNU/Linux Unix, ACLs10, MAC chroot, Capability-based security11, seccomp, SELinux, IPSec Netfilter/Varied by distribution Yes Yes No12 16; 1 2004-05-10; 2004-10-22
Mac OS Classic none none none No No No 0 -
Mac OS X Unix, ACLs13 chroot ipfw Yes No Yes (Intel Only) 5 2006-11-22
NetBSD Unix, Veriexec chroot, systrace IPFilter, PF Yes Yes No n/a
NetWare Directory-enabled ACLs Protected Address Spaces IPFLT.NLM Yes Yes No n/a
OES-Linux Directory-enabled ACLs chroot IPFilter Yes Yes No n/a
OpenBSD Unix chroot, systrace PF Yes Yes Yes 0 -
OpenVMS ACLs, Privileges logical name tables ? ? ? 0 -
OS/2 ACLs14 none none No ? n/a
PC-BSD Unix, ACLs, MAC chroot, jail, MAC Partitions IPFW2, IPFilter, PF Yes18 ? 1 2006-09-26
Plan 9 Unix (?) Namespaces ipmux Yes No No n/a
Solaris Unix, RBAC, ACLs, Privileges, Trusted Extension chroot, Containers15 IPFilter Yes19 Yes No 13 2005-04-13
Windows Server 2003 ACLs, Privileges, RBAC Win32 WindowStation, Desktop, Job objects Windows Firewall,IPSec TCPIP Filtering Yes Yes Yes 10 2003-04-22
Windows ACLs Win32 WindowStation, Desktop, Job objects Windows Firewall, TCPIP Filtering, IPSec Yes (NTFS Only) Yes Yes 2 2007-02-23
ZETA Unix 16 none none No No No n/a
STOP 6 / XTS-40017 Unix, Multilevel security, Biba mandatory integrity, ACLs, Privileges, subtype mechanism Multilevel security, Biba Integrity Model, subtype mechanism customer would have to install their own application No No No 0 -
Resource access control Subsystem isolation mechanisms Integrated firewall Encrypted file systems hardware emulation number oldest
Data execution prevention Known unpatched vulnerabilities9

Note 9: Comparison of known unpatched vulnerabilities is based on Secunia vulnerabilities reports with a severity of less critical and above. Updated automatically.
Note 10: Posix ACL support is included in Linux 2.6, but requires a file system capable of storing them (such as ext3, XFS or ReiserFS).
Note 11: A jail mechanism is available separately in the Linux-VServer project, but is not integrated into any mainline Linux kernel.
Note 12: The Exec Shield and PaX extensions provide NX emulation on x86 hardware. They are not yet integrated inside the mainline kernel but are available as patches or separate kernels
Note 13: ACLs were added to Mac OS X beginning with version 10.4.
Note 14: ACLs are available only in OS/2 Server versions with HPFS386 filesystem.
Note 15: "Solaris Containers" (including "Zones") are a jail-type mechanism introduced with Solaris 10.
Note 16: Zeta has full Unix file permissions, but the OS is single user, and users always run as superuser.
Note 17: STOP 6 is certified under Common Criteria at EAL5+.
Note 18: Additionally swap space may be encrypted during installation, uses memory based tmp file storage by default.
Note 19: Through ZFS Firewall separating zones of trust A firewall is a hardware or software device which is configured to permit, deny or proxy data through a computer network which has different levels of trust. ... The NX bit, which stands for No eXecute, is a technology used in CPUs to segregate areas of memory for use by either storage of processor instructions (aka code) or for storage of data, a feature normally only found in Harvard architecture processors. ... AIX (Advanced Interactive eXecutive) is a proprietary operating system developed by IBM based on UNIX System V. Before the product was ever marketed, the acronym AIX originally stood for Advanced IBM UNIX. AIX has pioneered numerous network operating system enhancements, introducing new innovations later adopted by Unix-like operating systems... Most modern file systems have methods of administering permissions or access rights to specific users and groups of users. ... In computer security, an access control list (ACL) is a list of permissions attached to an object. ... A chroot on Unix operating systems is an operation which changes the root directory. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through the 386BSD and 4. ... Most modern file systems have methods of administering permissions or access rights to specific users and groups of users. ... In computer security, an access control list (ACL) is a list of permissions attached to an object. ... In computing, a mandatory access control (MAC) technique protects and contains computer processes, data, and system devices from misuse. ... A chroot on Unix operating systems is an operation which changes the root directory. ... In computing, a mandatory access control (MAC) technique protects and contains computer processes, data, and system devices from misuse. ... ipfirewall or ipfw is a FreeBSD IP packet filter and traffic accounting facility. ... IPFilter (commonly referred to as ipf) is a software package that can be used to provide network address translation (NAT) or firewall services. ... PF (Packet Filter) is OpenBSDs stateful packet filter, written by Daniel Hartmeier. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... HP-UX (Hewlett Packard UniX) is Hewlett-Packards proprietary implementation of the Unix operating system, based on System V (initially System III). ... Most modern file systems have methods of administering permissions or access rights to specific users and groups of users. ... In computer security, an access control list (ACL) is a list of permissions attached to an object. ... A chroot on Unix operating systems is an operation which changes the root directory. ... IPFilter (commonly referred to as ipf) is a software package that can be used to provide network address translation (NAT) or firewall services. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Inferno is an operating system for creating and supporting distributed services. ... Most modern file systems have methods of administering permissions or access rights to specific users and groups of users. ... GNU (pronounced ) is a computer operating system composed entirely of free software. ... Linux (IPA pronunciation: ) is a Unix-like computer operating system. ... Most modern file systems have methods of administering permissions or access rights to specific users and groups of users. ... In computer security, an access control list (ACL) is a list of permissions attached to an object. ... In computing, a mandatory access control (MAC) technique protects and contains computer processes, data, and system devices from misuse. ... A chroot on Unix operating systems is an operation which changes the root directory. ... Capability-based security is a concept in the design of secure computing systems. ... seccomp is a simple sandboxing mechanism for the Linux kernel. ... Security-Enhanced Linux (SELinux) is a version of the Linux kernel and utilities, which contains support for mandatory access controls based on the principle of least privilege. ... IPsec (IP security) is a suite of protocols for securing Internet Protocol (IP) communications by authenticating and/or encrypting each IP packet in a data stream. ... In computer networking, netfilter, along with its companion iptables, are collectively a software extension to the Linux operating system that implements a stateful firewall framework. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Mac OS X (official IPA pronunciation: ) is a line of proprietary, graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... Most modern file systems have methods of administering permissions or access rights to specific users and groups of users. ... In computer security, an access control list (ACL) is a list of permissions attached to an object. ... A chroot on Unix operating systems is an operation which changes the root directory. ... Not to be confused with IPFW, Indiana University—Purdue University Fort Wayne. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... NetBSD is a freely redistributable, open source version of the Unix-like BSD computer operating system. ... Most modern file systems have methods of administering permissions or access rights to specific users and groups of users. ... Veriexec is a file-signing scheme for the NetBSD operating system. ... A chroot on Unix operating systems is an operation which changes the root directory. ... Systrace is a computer security utility which monitors and limits an applications access to the system by enforcing access policies for system calls under various Unix-like operating systems. ... IPFilter (commonly referred to as ipf) is a software package that can be used to provide network address translation (NAT) or firewall services. ... PF (Packet Filter) is OpenBSDs stateful packet filter, written by Daniel Hartmeier. ... NetWare is a network operating system developed by Novell, Inc. ... In computer security, an access control list (ACL) is a list of permissions attached to an object. ... Novell Open Enterprise Server (OES) is a network software product by Novell, Inc. ... In computer security, an access control list (ACL) is a list of permissions attached to an object. ... A chroot on Unix operating systems is an operation which changes the root directory. ... IPFilter (commonly referred to as ipf) is a software package that can be used to provide network address translation (NAT) or firewall services. ... OpenBSD is a Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Most modern file systems have methods of administering permissions or access rights to specific users and groups of users. ... A chroot on Unix operating systems is an operation which changes the root directory. ... Systrace is a computer security utility which monitors and limits an applications access to the system by enforcing access policies for system calls under various Unix-like operating systems. ... PF (Packet Filter) is OpenBSDs stateful packet filter, written by Daniel Hartmeier. ... OpenVMS[1] (Open Virtual Memory System or just VMS) is the name of a high-end computer server operating system that runs on the VAX[2] and Alpha[3] family of computers developed by Digital Equipment Corporation of Maynard, Massachusetts (DIGITAL was then purchased by Compaq, and is now owned... In computer security, an access control list (ACL) is a list of permissions attached to an object. ... A privilege is an honour, or permissive activity granted by another person or even a government. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In computer security, an access control list (ACL) is a list of permissions attached to an object. ... PC-BSD is a Unix-like, desktop-oriented operating system based on FreeBSD similar to DesktopBSD. It aims to be easy to install by using a graphical installation program, and easy- and ready-to-use immediately by providing KDE as the default, pre-installed graphical user interface. ... Most modern file systems have methods of administering permissions or access rights to specific users and groups of users. ... In computer security, an access control list (ACL) is a list of permissions attached to an object. ... In computing, a mandatory access control (MAC) technique protects and contains computer processes, data, and system devices from misuse. ... A chroot on Unix operating systems is an operation which changes the root directory. ... In computing, a mandatory access control (MAC) technique protects and contains computer processes, data, and system devices from misuse. ... ipfirewall or ipfw is a FreeBSD IP packet filter and traffic accounting facility. ... IPFilter (commonly referred to as ipf) is a software package that can be used to provide network address translation (NAT) or firewall services. ... PF (Packet Filter) is OpenBSDs stateful packet filter, written by Daniel Hartmeier. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Plan 9 from Bell Labs is a distributed operating system, primarily used as a research vehicle. ... Most modern file systems have methods of administering permissions or access rights to specific users and groups of users. ... Solaris is a computer operating system developed by Sun Microsystems. ... Most modern file systems have methods of administering permissions or access rights to specific users and groups of users. ... In computer systems security, role-based access control (RBAC) is an approach to restricting system access to authorized users. ... In computer security, an access control list (ACL) is a list of permissions attached to an object. ... A privilege is an honour, or permissive activity granted by another person or even a government. ... Trusted Solaris is a security-evaluated operating system based on Solaris by Sun Microsystems, featuring a mandatory access control model. ... A chroot on Unix operating systems is an operation which changes the root directory. ... Solaris Containers (formerly known as Solaris Zones) is a virtualization feature first available with Solaris 10. ... IPFilter (commonly referred to as ipf) is a software package that can be used to provide network address translation (NAT) or firewall services. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Windows Server 2003 is a server operating system produced by Microsoft. ... In computer security, an access control list (ACL) is a list of permissions attached to an object. ... A privilege is an honour, or permissive activity granted by another person or even a government. ... In computer systems security, role-based access control (RBAC) is an approach to restricting system access to authorized users. ... Windows Firewall icon in Windows Vista Windows Firewall is a personal firewall, included with Microsofts Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, and Windows Vista operating systems. ... IPsec (IP security) is a suite of protocols for securing Internet Protocol (IP) communications by authenticating and/or encrypting each IP packet in a data stream. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... In computer security, an access control list (ACL) is a list of permissions attached to an object. ... Windows Firewall icon in Windows Vista Windows Firewall is a personal firewall, included with Microsofts Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, and Windows Vista operating systems. ... IPsec (IP security) is a suite of protocols for securing Internet Protocol (IP) communications by authenticating and/or encrypting each IP packet in a data stream. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The correct title of this article is . ... Most modern file systems have methods of administering permissions or access rights to specific users and groups of users. ... The XTS-400 is a multi-level secure computer system. ... Most modern file systems have methods of administering permissions or access rights to specific users and groups of users. ... Multilevel Security (also written as multi-level security or abbreviated as MLS) is the application of a computer system to process information with different sensitivities (i. ... Biba was an iconic and popular fashion store in the 1960s and 1970s. ... In computer security, an access control list (ACL) is a list of permissions attached to an object. ... A privilege is an honour, or permissive activity granted by another person or even a government. ... Multilevel Security (also written as multi-level security or abbreviated as MLS) is the application of a computer system to process information with different sensitivities (i. ... This model was developed to circumvent a weakness in the Bell La Padula computer operating system protection model which did not include the possibility of implicit deletion of security objects by writing to them. ... Firewall separating zones of trust A firewall is a hardware or software device which is configured to permit, deny or proxy data through a computer network which has different levels of trust. ... The NX bit, which stands for No eXecute, is a technology used in CPUs to segregate areas of memory for use by either storage of processor instructions (aka code) or for storage of data, a feature normally only found in Harvard architecture processors. ... Secunia is a Danish computer security service provider best known for tracking vulnerabilities in more than 12,000 pieces of software and operating systems. ... The access control list (ACL) is a concept in computer security, used to enforce privilege separation. ... The ext3 or third extended filesystem is a journalled file system that is commonly used by the Linux operating system. ... XFS is a high-performance journaling file system created by Silicon Graphics for their IRIX operating system. ... ReiserFS is a general-purpose, journaled computer file system designed and implemented by a team at Namesys led by Hans Reiser who is referred to as the projects Benevolent Dictator for Life. ... Linux-VServer is a virtual private server implementation done by adding operating system-level virtualization capabilities to the Linux kernel. ... Exec-shield is a kernel patch enabling new security features in the Linux operating system. ... In computer security, PaX is a patch for the Linux kernel that implements least privilege protections for memory pages. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... Mac OS X (official IPA pronunciation: ) is a line of proprietary, graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... HPFS or High Performance File System is a file system created specifically for the OS/2 operating system to improve upon the limitations of the FAT file system. ... Solaris Containers (formerly known as Solaris Zones) is a virtualization feature first available with Solaris 10. ... Solaris is a computer operating system developed by Sun Microsystems. ... The Common Criteria (CC) is an international standard (ISO 15408) for computer security. ... An Evaluation Assurance Level (EAL) is an assurance requirement as defined by Common Criteria, an international standard in effect since 1999, to replace the ratings (e. ... In computing, ZFS is a file system originally created by Sun Microsystems for the Solaris Operating System. ...


References

  1. ^ Jobs, Steve (August 2006). Live from WWDC 2006: Steve Jobs Keynote. Retrieved on 2007-02-16. “86 million lines of source code that was ported to run on an entirely new architecture with zero hiccups.”

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

This is a table comparing the various open source operating systems. ... The many Linux distributions differ for various reasons including technical, organizational, and philosophical. ... Caution! This Article Is Under Construction However, you are welcome to assist in its construction by editing it as well. ... There are a number of Unix-like operating systems based on, or descended from, the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) series of Unix variants. ... Operating systems can be categorized by technology, ownership, licensing, working state, usage, and by many other characteristics. ... The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of file systems. ... Computer Operating Systems (OSes) have at their core, kernels. ... It has been suggested that Apple evangelist be merged into this article or section. ... The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of FTP clients, and related clients that use other file transfer protocols. ... Comparison of Windows and Linux (two computer operating systems) has become a common topic of discussion among their respective users. ... XvsXP.com / MacVsWindows. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Operating system (Linux Reviews) (3481 words)
Apart from the kernel, an operating system is often distributed with system software that manages a graphical user interface (although Windows and Macintosh have integrated these programs into the operating system), as well as utility programs for tasks such as managing files and configuring the operating system.
Like the term "operating system" itself, the question of what exactly the "kernel" should manage is subject to some controversy, with debates over whether things like file systems should be included in the kernel.
Mainframe operating systems, such as IBM's z/OS, and embedded operating systems such as VxWorks, eCos, and Palm OS, are usually unrelated to Unix and Windows, except for Windows CE, Windows NT Embedded 4.0 and Windows XP Embedded which are descendants of Windows, and several *BSDs, and Linux distributions tailored for embedded systems.
Comparison of BSD operating systems: Information from Answers.com (2332 words)
Most of the current BSD operating systems are open source and available for download, free of charge, under the BSD License, the most notable exception being Mac OS X. They also generally use a monolithic kernel architecture, apart from Mac OS X and DragonFly BSD which feature hybrid kernels.
Note that the operating system survey takers filled in for "other" may or may not be considered BSD operating systems by most people.
Operating systems where the GUI is not installed and turned on by default are often bundled with an implementation of the X Window System.
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