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Encyclopedia > Compact fluorescent lamp
A spiral-type compact fluorescent lamp. This style has slightly reduced efficiency compared to tubular fluorescent lamps, due to the excessively thick layer of phosphor on the lower side of the twist. Despite this, it has become one of the most popular types among North American consumers since its introduction in the mid 1990s.[1]

A compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), also known as a compact fluorescent light bulb (or less commonly as a compact fluorescent tube [CFT]) is a type of fluorescent lamp. Many CFLs are designed to replace an incandescent lamp and can fit in the existing light fixtures formerly used for incandescents. Solid State Lighting (SSL) refers to a type of lighting that utilizes light-emitting diodes (LEDs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), or polymer light-emitting diodes as sources of illumination rather than electrical filaments or gas. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (873x962, 286 KB)A compact flourescent light bulb. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (873x962, 286 KB)A compact flourescent light bulb. ... Green screen A phosphor is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of phosphorescence (sustained glowing after exposure to light or energised particles such as electrons). ... Fluorescent lamps Assorted types of fluorescent lamps. ... Light bulb redirects here. ... A chandelier light fixture A light fixture or luminaire is an electrical device used to create artificial light or illumination in architecture. ...


Compared to general service incandescent lamps giving the same amount of visible light, CFLs use less power and have a longer rated life. In the United States, a CFL can save over 30 USD in electricity costs over the lamp's lifetime compared to an incandescent lamp and save 2000 times its own weight in greenhouse gases.[2] The purchase price of a CFL is higher than that of an incandescent lamp of the same luminous output, but this cost is recovered in energy savings and replacement costs over the bulb's lifetime. Like all fluorescent lamps, CFLs contain mercury; this complicates the disposal of fluorescent lamps and causes a health risk when they are broken.[3] Luminous flux is a measure of the energy emitted by a light source in all directions. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... This article is about the element. ...


CFLs radiate a different light spectrum from that of incandescent lamps. Improved phosphor formulations have improved the subjective color of the light emitted by CFLs such that the best 'soft white' CFLs available in 2007 are subjectively similar in color to standard incandescent lamps.[4] Green screen A phosphor is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of phosphorescence (sustained glowing after exposure to light or energised particles such as electrons). ...

Contents

History

The parent to the modern compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) was invented in the late 1890s by Peter Cooper Hewitt.[5] The Cooper Hewitt lamps were used for photographic studios and industries.[5] Edmund Germer, Friedrich Meyer, and Hans Spanner then patented a high pressure vapor lamp in 1927.[5] George Inman later teamed with General Electric to create a practical fluorescent lamp, sold in 1938 and patented in 1941.[5] The modern CFL was invented by Ed Hammer, an engineer with General Electric, in response to the 1973 oil crisis. While it met its design goals, it would have cost GE about 25 million USD to build new factories to produce them and the invention was shelved.[6] The design was eventually leaked out and copied by others.[6] Peter Cooper Hewitt (May 5, 1861 - August 25, 1921) was an American electrical engineer, who demonstrated the mercury-vapor lamp for which he deposited a patent. ... Edmund Germer (August 24, 1901 - August 10, 1987) was a German inventor granted as the father of the fluorescent lamp for which he deposited U.S. Patent No 2,182,732 in 1926 with Friedrich Meyer and Hans J. Spanner. ... GE redirects here. ... Edward E. Hammer is an engineer who has been at the forefront of fluorescent lighting research. ... GE redirects here. ... The 1973 oil crisis began in earnest on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship petroleum...


Market

A compact fluorescent lamp used outside an office complex.

Globally introduced in the early 1980s, CFLs have steadily increased in sales volume. The most important advance in fluorescent lamp technology (including CFLs) has been the gradual replacement of electromagnetic ballasts with electronic ballasts; this has removed most of the flickering and slow starting traditionally associated with fluorescent lighting. There are two types of CFLs: integrated and non-integrated lamps. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... Fluorescent lamps Assorted types of fluorescent lamps. ... An automotive (ignition system) ballast resistor An electrical ballast (sometimes called control gear) is a device intended to limit the amount of current flowing in an electric circuit. ...


Integrated CFLs

Integrated lamps combine a tube, an electronic ballast and either an Edison screw or bayonet fitting in a single CFL unit. These lamps allow consumers to easily replace incandescent lamps with CFLs. Integrated CFLs work well in standard incandescent light fixtures. This lowers the cost of CFL use, since they can reuse the existing infrastructure. In addition, incandescent light fixtures are relatively inexpensive. An automotive (ignition system) ballast resistor An electrical ballast (sometimes called control gear) is a device intended to limit the amount of current flowing in an electric circuit. ... A 230/240 V AC incandescent light bulb with Edison E27 (27 mm) Male screw base. ...


Non-integrated CFLs

Non-integrated lamps allow for the replacement of consumable bulbs and the extended use of electrical ballasts in a light fixture. This fluorescent bulb itself does not include a ballast. Since the ballasts are placed in the light fixture they are larger and last longer, vis-a-vis the integrated ones. Non-integrated CFL housings can be both more expensive and sophisticated, providing options such as dimming, less flicker, faster starts, etc.[7][8] An automotive (ignition system) ballast resistor An electrical ballast (sometimes called control gear) is a device intended to limit the amount of current flowing in an electric circuit. ... Fluorescent lamps Assorted types of fluorescent lamps. ... A common dual dimmer manufactured by Electronic Theatre Controls (ETC) Another dimmer by Colortran Dimmers are devices used to vary the brightness of a light. ...


The ballasts make these light fixtures relatively expensive. They cost anywhere from 85 to 200 USD for each recessed can. If a ballast with dimming capabilities is desired the cost is anywhere from 125 to 300 USD per recessed can. Non-integrated CFLs are more popular for professional users, such as hotels and office buildings. The more advanced capabilities of these sophisticated external ballasts (e.g., faster starts, limited flicker, dimming, longer lifespans, etc.) are starting to appear in integrated CFLs. A recessed light or downlight is a ceiling light fixture that is installed into a hollow opening in the ceiling. ...


Another style of non-integrated fitting is the "two piece", where the initial system includes a base adapter and detachable fluorescent tube module, and subsequently only the tube unit is replaced. The Thorn 2D and some Philips PL versions are examples, but while replacement tubes are generally still available, it is rare to see the complete kit on sale, having been overshadowed by cut-price one-piece units.


CFL power sources

CFLs are produced for both alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) input. DC CFLs are popular for use in recreational vehicles and off-the-grid housing. Some families in developing countries are using DC CFLs (with car batteries and small solar panels) and/or wind generators, to replace kerosene lanterns. City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... “RV” redirects here. ... The term off the grid refers to a method of construction that relies on renewable energy sources rather than traditional public utility sources provided by the utility grid. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... Lead-acid car battery A car battery is a type of rechargeable battery that supplies electric energy to an automobile[1]. Usually this refers to a SLI battery (Starting - Lighting - Ignition) to power the starter motor, the lights and the ignition system of a vehicle’s engine. ... A photovoltaic module is composed of individual PV cells. ... Swiss kerosene lamp. ...


CFLs can also be operated with solar powered street lights, using solar panels located on the top or sides of a pole and luminaires that are specially wired to use the lamps. Solar power describes a number of methods of harnessing energy from the light of the sun. ... A high pressure sodium vapor street lamp from Australia. ...


Comparison with incandescent lamps

Lifespan

Modern CFLs typically have a lifespan of between 6,000 and 15,000 hours, whereas incandescent lamps are usually manufactured to have a lifespan of 750 hours or 1,000 hours.[9] These lifetimes are quoted according to IEC60969,[10] which specifies that "life to 50% of failures shall be not less than value declared by the manufacturer". Some incandescent bulbs claim long rated lifespans of 20,000 hours [11] with reduced light output (approximately 500 versus 800 lumens). [12] The lifetime of any lamp depends on many factors including operating voltage, manufacturing defects, exposure to voltage spikes, mechanical shock, frequency of cycling on and off and ambient operating temperature, among other factors. The life of a CFL is significantly shorter if it is only turned on for a few minutes at a time: In the case of a 5-minute on/off cycle the lifespan of a CFL can be up to 85% shorter, reducing its lifespan to the level of an incandescent lamp.[13][14][15] The US Energy Star program says to leave them on at least 15 minutes at a time to mitigate this problem. Service life refers to the expected lifetime of a product. ... Light bulb redirects here. ... Voltage spikes are fast, short duration surges in the electric potential in a given circuit. ... In mechanics, a shock is a sudden acceleration or deceleration caused, for example, by impact or explosion. ...


CFLs give less light later in their life than they do at the start. The light output depreciation is exponential, with the fastest losses being soon after the lamp was new. By the middle to end of their lives, CFLs can be expected to produce 70-80% of their original light output. [16] The response of the human eye to light is logarithmic: Each f-number (or photographic 'f-stop') reduction represents a halving in actual light, but is subjectively quite a small change.[17] A 20-30% reduction over many thousands of hours represents a change of about half an f-stop, which is barely noticeable in everyday life.[18] A quantity is said to be subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its value. ... A logarithmic scale is a scale of measurement that uses the logarithm of a physical quantity instead of the quantity itself. ... A 35mm lens set to f/11, as indicated by the white dot above the f-stop scale on the aperture ring In photography the f-number (focal ratio) expresses the diameter of the diaphragm aperture in terms of the effective focal length of the lens. ...


Energy efficiency

The chart shows the energy usage for different types of light bulbs operating at different light outputs. Points lower on the graph correspond to lower energy use.
The chart shows the energy usage for different types of light bulbs operating at different light outputs. Points lower on the graph correspond to lower energy use.

For a given light output, CFLs use between one fifth and one quarter of the power of an equivalent incandescent lamp.[19] For example, lighting accounted for approximately 9% of household electricity usage in the United States in 2001,[20] so widespread use of CFLs could save most of this, for a total energy saving of about 7% from household usage. The incandescent light bulb uses a glowing wire filament heated to white-hot by electrical resistance, to generate light (a process known as thermal radiation). ...


If incandescent lamps are replaced by CFLs the heat produced by the building's lighting system will be reduced. At times when the building requires both heating and lighting, the building's central heating system will then supply the heat. Depending on the fuel used for heating and for electricity production, this may result in either a small increase or a small decrease in the total cost and environmental impact of changing to CFLs. For the Grand Central Records albums, see Central Heating (Grand Central album) and Central Heating 2. ... Per capita greenhouse gas emissions A carbon footprint is a measure of the impact human activities have on the environment in terms of the amount of green house gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide.[1] It is meant to be useful for individuals and organizations to conceptualize their...


In contrast, if the building requires both illumination and cooling, then CFLs will use less electricity themselves and will also reduce the load on the cooling system compared to incandescent lamps. This results in two concurrent savings, and since most air conditioners are also electrically powered, they are directly comparable. Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ... Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ...


There is a third case where electric lighting is used with natural ventilation and without either heating or cooling. In this case the energy savings due to CFLs are simpler to estimate, as described above.

For more details on this topic, see Luminous efficacy.

In order to compare the actual energy efficiency of CFLs with various other lamp technologies such as incandescent, LED and halogen, factors to compare include total lumens, the usefulness of different frequencies of light, the distribution of light around the lamps and other factors. Luminous efficacy is a property of light sources, which indicates what portion of the emitted electromagnetic radiation is usable for human vision. ... tytytrtyty This article is about energy efficiency as a ratio. ...


Cost

In addition to the above savings on energy costs, the average life of a CFL is between 8 and 15 times that of incandescents.[21] While the purchase price of a CFL is typically 3 to 10 times greater than that of an equivalent incandescent lamp, the extended lifetime (fewer lamps to replace and reduced labor) and lower energy use will compensate for the higher initial cost in many applications.[22] A US article stated "A household that invested $90 in changing 30 fixtures to CFLs would save $440 to $1,500 over the five-year life of the bulbs, depending on your cost of electricity. Look at your utility bill and imagine a 12% discount to estimate the savings."[23]


Cost-Effectiveness in Commercial Buildings

CFLs are extremely cost-effective in commercial buildings. A CFL replacing a 75 W incandescent fixture offers an average yearly savings of $22 when the impact of replacing incancesdents HVAC systems and other operating expenses are accounted for. The capital investment of $2 per fixture is typically paid back in about one month. Savings are greater and payback periods shorter in regions with higher than average electric rates and, to a lesser extent, higher than average cooling requirements.[24]


Noise

CFLs, much as other fluorescent lights, may emit a high-pitched buzzing sound, where incandescents do not. Such sounds are particularly noticeable in quiet rooms, and can be annoying under these circumstances. Newer compact fluorescent light bulbs are nearly noiseless, but some poorly made CFLs may still emit a buzzing sound.


Radio Frequency

As with all fluorescent lights, CFLs also generate some higher electrical frequencies which both radiate from the light unit itself, and transfer along the interconnecting electrical wiring. This is not generally considered to be a significant problem, but it can result in electronic interference with some other devices.


Starting time

Incandescents give light almost immediately upon the application of voltage. CFLs take a perceptible time to achieve full brightness, and can take much longer in very cold temperatures. Certain styles of lamp using a mercury amalgam can take up to three minutes to reach full output. Coupling this with the shorter life of CFLs when turned on and off for short amounts of time may make incandescent bulbs more attractive for applications such as outdoor or motion-activated lighting. This article is about mixtures (alloys) of mercury with other elements. ...


Cleanup of broken bulbs

Broken CFL bulbs release mercury vapors which are harmful to human and ecological health. The EPA has a page dedicated to clean-up of broken CFL Bulbs.[3] Although mercury in these bulbs is a health hazard[3], special handling upon breakage is currently not printed on the packaging of household CFL bulbs in many countries. It is important to note that the amount of mercury released by one bulb can exceed U.S. federal guidelines for chronic exposure. [25] [26]


Comparison with alternative technologies

Solid-state lighting has already filled a few specialist niches such as traffic lights and may have the potential to compete with CFLs in the near future. LED lamps have current efficiencies of 30% with higher levels attainable (recently up to 85 lm/w LEDs are available), and a lifetime of around 50,000 hours. Currently LED lamps do not deliver the intensity of light output for domestic uses at a reasonable cost.[27][28][29] Solid State Lighting (SSL) refers to a type of lighting that utilizes light-emitting diodes (LEDs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), or polymer light-emitting diodes as sources of illumination rather than electrical filaments or gas. ... Traffic lights will sometimes differ where there are several lanes of traffic. ... LED Lamp with GU10 twist lock fitting, intended to replace halogen reflector lamps. ...


General Electric is attempting to develop more efficient incandescent bulbs that can produce the same light output as a 60-watt bulb (~800 lumens) but with half the wattage (30 watt). Their ultimate goal is to manufacture an incandescent bulb that will match the CFL's performance (a 15 watt bulb outputting 60-watt equivalency). [30] [3] GE redirects here. ...


CFL availability

Standard/Integrated CFLs

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) run the Energy Star program, which evaluates the energy efficiency of electrical components, including integrated CFLs. Those CFLs with a recent Energy Star certification start in less than one second and do not flicker. There is ongoing work in improving the 'quality' (color-rendering index) of their light. EPA redirects here. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... The ENERGY STAR logo is placed on energy-efficient products ENERGY STAR is a United States government program to promote energy efficient consumer products. ... The Color Rendering Index (CRI) (sometimes called Color Rendition Index), is a measure of the ability of a light source to reproduce the colors of various objects being lit by the source. ...

  • Energy Star List of Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs is a list of the thousands of Energy Star qualified CFLs.[31] This list of lamps can be downloaded as an Excel file, which shows Lamp model, lumens, light quality (CRI), Watts, and test dates.
  • List of Standard CFLs from Energy Federated Incorporated, most of which have Energy Star certification.

Dimmable CFLs

As of 2007, dimmable CFLs are an emerging category. The dimming range of CFLs is usually between 20% and 80%. By way of comparison, incandescent lamps have a 0-100% range.

  • List of Reflector CFLs that work well in recessed lights. These lights tend to have a very high temperature environment, which used to shorten lamp lifespan.
  • List of Dimmable CFLs from the Environmental Defense Fund - most do not yet have Energy Star certification.

There is not much data yet on whether dimmable CFLs will work on standard incandescent dimmable circuits. There have been reports of limited range of dimming and buzzing. The Noli Control Systems claim that their CFLs work on standard incandescent circuits. On the other hand, Leviton sells a dimmer designed to work specifically with Philip's dimmable CFLs.[32] A recessed light or downlight is a ceiling light fixture that is installed into a hollow opening in the ceiling. ...


Colors

A photograph of various lamps illustrates the effect of color temperature differences (left to right): (1) Compact Fluorescent: General Electric, 13 watt, 6500 K (2) Incandescent: Sylvania 60-Watt Extra Soft White (3) Compact Fluorescent: Bright Effects, 15 watts, 2644 K (4) Compact Fluorescent: Sylvania, 14 watts, 3000 K
A photograph of various lamps illustrates the effect of color temperature differences (left to right): (1) Compact Fluorescent: General Electric, 13 watt, 6500 K (2) Incandescent: Sylvania 60-Watt Extra Soft White (3) Compact Fluorescent: Bright Effects, 15 watts, 2644 K (4) Compact Fluorescent: Sylvania, 14 watts, 3000 K

Color temperature can be indicated in kelvins or mireds (1 million divided by the color temperature in kelvins). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1282x1651, 1063 KB) Picture taken by Quintote. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1282x1651, 1063 KB) Picture taken by Quintote. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 178 KB)A Sanax 15W black light bulb. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 178 KB)A Sanax 15W black light bulb. ... BlackLight Is a Rock Band set up April 2006. ... The CIE 1931 x,y chromaticity space, also showing the chromaticities of black-body light sources of various temperatures, and lines of constant correlated color temperature Color temperature is a characteristic of visible light that has important applications in photography, videography, publishing and other fields. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Derived from the term micro reciprocal degree, the mired (M) is a unit of measurement equal to 1,000,000 (one million) divided by the given color temperature, as per the formula: where M is the mired value desired, and T is the color temperature. ...

Color temperature kelvin mired
'Warm white' or 'Soft white' ≤ 3000 K ≥ 333 M
'White' or 'Bright White' 3500 K 286 M
'Cool white' 4000 K 250 M
'Daylight' ≥ 5000 K ≤ 200 M

Color temperature is a quantitative measure. The higher the number in kelvins, the 'cooler', i.e., bluer, the shade. Color names associated with a particular color temperature are not standardized for modern CFLs and other triphosphor lamps like they were for the older-style halophosphate fluorescent lamps. Variations and inconsistencies exist among manufacturers. For example, Sylvania's Daylight CFLs have a color temperature of 3500 K, while most other lamps with a 'daylight' label have color temperatures of at least 5000 K. Some vendors do not include the kelvin value on the package, but this is beginning to change now that the Energy Star Criteria for CFLs is expected to require such labeling in its 4.0 revision. The CIE 1931 x,y chromaticity space, also showing the chromaticities of black-body light sources of various temperatures, and lines of constant correlated color temperature Color temperature is a characteristic of visible light that has important applications in photography, videography, publishing and other fields. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Derived from the term micro reciprocal degree, the mired (M) is a unit of measurement equal to 1,000,000 (one million) divided by the given color temperature, as per the formula: where M is the mired value desired, and T is the color temperature. ... A scale for measuring mass A quantitative property is one that exists in a range of magnitudes, and can therefore be measured. ... The ENERGY STAR logo is placed on energy-efficient products ENERGY STAR is a United States government program to promote energy efficient consumer products. ...


Some manufacturers now label their CFLs with a 3 digit code to specify the color rendering index (CRI) and color temperature of the lamp. The first digit represents the CRI measured in tens of percent, while the second two digits represent the color temperature measured in hundreds of kelvins. For example, a CFL with a CRI of 83% and a color temperature of 2700 K would be given a code of 827.[33] Colour rendering index, or CRI, is a measure of the quality of colour light, devised by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE). ...


CFLs are also produced, less commonly, in other colors:

Black light CFLs, those with UVA generating phosphor, are much more efficient than incandescent black light lamps, since the amount of UV light that the filament of the incandescent lamp produces is only a fraction of the generated spectrum. Bright light therapy is a common treatment for seasonal affective disorder. ... Spectrum of a fluorescent black light source. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... Special effects (also called SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to realize scenes that cannot be achieved by live action or normal means. ...


Being a gas discharge lamp, a CFL will not generate all frequencies of visible light; the actual color rendering index is a design compromise (see below). With less than perfect color rendering, CFLs can be unsatisfactory for inside lighting, but modern, high quality designs are proving acceptable for home use.[citation needed] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Fluorescent lamp. ... Visible light redirects here. ... Colour rendering index, or CRI, is a measure of the quality of colour light, devised by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE). ...


Other terms that apply to CFLs:

  • Full Spectrum
  • High Definition

Full-spectrum light is light that covers the entire electromagnetic spectrum from low infrared to ultraviolet and above; in particular, sunlight is considered full spectrum, even though the solar spectral distribution reaching Earth varies with time of day, latitude, and atmospheric conditions. ...

Environmental issues

Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ...

Energy savings

Since CFLs use less power to supply the same amount of light as an incandescent lamp of the same lumen rating, they can be used to decrease energy consumption at the location in which they are used. In countries where electricity is largely produced from burning fossil fuels, the savings reduces emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants; in other countries the reduction may help reduce negative impacts from radioactive waste, hydroelectric plants, or other sources; see environmental concerns with electricity generation for details. Fossil fuels are hydrocarbon-containing natural resources such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Radioactive wastes are waste types containing radioactive chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose. ... Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. ... Modern technology uses large amounts of electrical power. ...


While CFLs require more energy in manufacturing than incandescent lamps, this is said to be offset by the fact that they last longer and use less energy during their lifespan.[34][35]

Mercury use of compact fluorescent lamp vs. incandescent lamp if powered by electricity generated completely from coal, though coal accounts for only about half of the power production in the United States.
Mercury use of compact fluorescent lamp vs. incandescent lamp if powered by electricity generated completely from coal, though coal accounts for only about half of the power production in the United States.

However there is no standard way to calculate the amount of energy 'embodied' in a device (e.g. Should one include the energy consumption/transport of workers in the factory?), and currently there is little in the way of trustworthy evidence to demonstrate the differences between the manufacturing, delivery, and retailing consumption of energy in the different forms of lighting. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ...


A comparison of energy consumption and carbon dioxide production, also needs to specify whether this is in hot, medium or cold climates. The 'inefficiencies' of incandescent lightbulbs in cold countries are virtually zero, since the generated heat offsets some of the need for central heating.


Mercury emissions

CFLs, like all fluorescent lamps (e.g., long tubular lamps common in offices and kitchens), contain small amounts of mercury[36][37] and it is a concern for landfills and waste incinerators where the mercury from lamps is released and contributes to air and water pollution. In the USA, lighting manufacturer members of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) have made a voluntary commitment to cap the amount of mercury used in CFLs: A compact fluorescent lamp A fluorescent lamp is a type of electric lamp that excites argon and mercury vapor to create luminescence. ... This article is about the element. ... Look up landfill in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... This article is about the standards association NEMA. For other uses, see Nema. ...

Under the voluntary commitment, effective 15 April 2007, NEMA members will cap the total mercury content in CFLs of less than 25 watts at 5 milligrams (mg) per unit. The total mercury content of CFLs that use 25 to 40 watts of electricity will be capped at 6 mg per unit.[38] is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

A June 2007 article calculated that the overall mercury emission by CFLs is less than the mercury released into the atmosphere by coal-fired power generation for series of equivalent incandescent lamps over the same period.[39] Of course, not all electricity is coal-fire generated, but the mercury from spent CFLs in landfills is not released into air if the bulbs are transported in a way so that they don't break, and with proper disposal, will not be released into the subsurface or groundwater in the foreseeable future. Yet at the moment it is calculated that only 3% of CFL bulbs are properly disposed of or recycled. It is important to note that this comparison also only refers to the statistics of one CFL bulb surviving for a full 5 years of use. For example: If the CFL were to break or burn out a total of 3 times in that 5 year period there would be an additional 12mg of mercury used.[40]


Although they make up only 19% of power generation in Canada,[41] coal power plants are "the largest uncontrolled industrial source of mercury emissions in Canada".[42] According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), (when coal power is used) the mercury released from powering an incandescent lamp for five years exceeds the total of (a) the mercury released by powering a comparably luminous CFL for the same period and (b) the mercury contained in the lamp.[43] It should be noted, however, that the "EPA is implementing policies to reduce airborne mercury emissions. Under regulations issued in 2005, coal-fired power plants will need to reduce their emissions by 70% by 2018."[44] In places like Canada where 81% of power generation is from sources other than coal fired plants, the use of these bulbs effectively increases the net amount of mercury potentially available to the environment, especially if they are not disposed of in an environmentally conscious manner. Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Mohave Generating Station, a 1,580 MW coal power plant near Laughlin, Nevada A fossil fuel power plant is an energy conversion center that burns fossil fuels to produce electricity, designed on a large scale for continuous operation. ...


Some manufacturers such as Philips, GE and Turolight make very low mercury content CFLs.[45] In 2007, Turolight claimed its new Genesis Fusion line contained only 1mg of mercury, making it the lowest EnergyStar approved bulb in North America.


Safe disposal requires storing the bulbs unbroken until they can be processed. Consumers should seek advice from local authorities. Usually, one can either: Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state or province. ...

  • Return used CFLs to where they were purchased, so the store can recycle them correctly; or
  • Take used CFLs to a local recycling facility.

Broken CFLs are an immediate health hazard due to the evaporation of mercury into the atmosphere. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommends that, in the absence of local guideline, fluorescent bulbs be double-bagged in plastic bags before disposal.[3] The international recycling symbol. ... The mission of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to protect human health and to safeguard the natural environment: air, water, and land. ...


The first step of processing CFLs involves crushing the bulbs in a machine that uses negative pressure ventilation and a mercury-absorbing filter or cold trap to contain and treat the contaminated gases. Many municipalities are purchasing such machines. The crushed glass and metal is stored in drums, ready for shipping to recycling factories. Pressure is defined in terms of a force applied over an area. ... A cryopump is a vacuum pump that traps gases and vapours by condensing them on a cold surface. ...


According to the Northwest Compact Fluorescent Lamp Recycling Project, because household users have the option of disposing of these products in the same way they dispose of other solid waste, "a large majority of household CFLs are going to municipal solid waste". They additionally note that an EPA report on mercury emissions from fluorescent tube lamp disposal indicates the percentage of total mercury released from the following disposal options: municipal waste landfill 3.2%, recycling 3%, municipal waste incineration 17.55% and hazardous waste disposal 0.2%.[46]


How they work

Parts

Electronic ballast of a compact fluorescent lamp
Electronic ballast of a compact fluorescent lamp

There are two main parts in a CFL: the gas-filled tube (also called bulb or burner) and the magnetic or electronic ballast. Electrical energy in the form of an electrical current from the ballast flows through the gas, causing it to emit ultraviolet light. The ultraviolet light then excites a white phosphor coating on the inside of the tube. This coating emits visible light. CFLs that flicker when they start have magnetic ballasts; CFLs with electronic ballasts are now much more common. See Fluorescent lamp. Image File history File links Integrated electronic ballast (starter) of a fluorescent lamp. ... Image File history File links Integrated electronic ballast (starter) of a fluorescent lamp. ... A ballast is a device used to start a gas discharge lamp, and, once the lamp is started, to limit the flow of electric current. ... A ballast is a device used to start a gas discharge lamp, and, once the lamp is started, to limit the flow of electric current. ... Electrical energy can refer to several closely related things. ... This box:      Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... Green screen A phosphor is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of phosphorescence (sustained glowing after exposure to light or energised particles such as electrons). ... Fluorescent lamps Assorted types of fluorescent lamps. ...


Electronic ballasts contain a small circuit board with rectifers, a filter capacitor and usually two switching transistors connected as a high-frequency resonant series DC to AC inverter. The resulting high frequency, around 40 kHz or higher, is applied to the lamp tube. Since the resonant converter tends to stabilize lamp current (and light produced) over a range of input voltages, standard CFLs do not respond well in dimming applications and special lamps are required for dimming service. See Capacitor (component) for a discussion of specific types. ... Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. ... An inverter may be: inverter (electrical), which converts direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC) inverter (logic gate), also called a NOT gate. ...


End of life

Both the ballast and the lamp tube are subject to failure from normal use. A detailed description of the failure modes of fluorescent lamps is given in the Fluorescent lamp article. Additionally, the electronic ballast may fail since it has a number of component parts; such failures may be accompanied by discoloration or distortion of the ballast enclosure, odors, or smoke. The lamps are internally protected and are meant to fail safely at the end of their lives. Industry associations are working toward advising consumers of the different failure mode of CFLs compared to incandescent lamps, and to develop lamps with inoffensive failure modes. [47] Fluorescent lamps Assorted types of fluorescent lamps. ...


Spent lamps should be recycled to contain the small amount of mercury in each lamp, in preference to disposal in landfills. At end of life, CFLs should be recycled by specialist firms. In the European Union, CFLs are one of many products subject to the WEEE recycling scheme. The retail price includes an amount to pay for recycling, and manufacturers and importers have an obligation to collect and recycle CFLs. WEEE Man The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE Directive) is the European Community directive 2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment which, together with the RoHS Directive 2002/95/EC, became European Law in February 2003, setting collection, recycling and recovery targets for all types of... In economics and business, the price is the assigned numerical monetary value of a good, service or asset. ...


Design issues

The primary purposes of CFL design are high electrical efficiency and durability. However, there are some other areas of CFL design and operation that are problematic: The efficiency of an entity (a device, component, or system) in electronics and electrical engineering is defined as useful power output divided by the total electrical power consumed (a fractional expression). ...

  • Quality of light: A phosphor emits light in a narrow frequency range, unlike an incandescent filament, which emits the full spectrum, though not all colors equally, of visible light. A mix of phosphors gives a good approximation of daylight or incandescent light can be reached. However, every extra phosphor added to the coating mix causes a loss of efficiency and increased cost. Good quality consumer CFLs use three or four phosphors to achieve a 'white' light with color-rendering indices (CRI) of around 80, where 100 represents the appearance of colors under daylight.
  • Size: CFL light output is roughly proportional to phosphor surface area, and high output CFLs are often larger than their incandescent equivalents. This means that the CFL may not fit well in existing light fixtures.
  • Electronics: Dimming control can be added to the lamp with support from the driver electronics. Using regular CFLs with a dimmer can shorten bulb life and will void the warranty of certain manufacturers.[48] According to BC Hydro[49] and Environmental Defense,[50] dimmable screw-in fluorescent lamps are now available. Westinghouse claims to have released a dimmer that can dim non-dimmable CFLs.[51]
  • Heat: Higher luminosity CFLs, such as those designed to replace 100W GLS lamps, get warm in operation. As a result, many such CFLs are recommended not to be run with the electronics/ballast above the bulb/tube, as the heat generated will significantly shorten the ballast's service lifetime. This makes such CFLs unsuitable for use in pendant lamps and especially unsuitable for recessed lighting fixtures. CFLs intended for use in such fixtures are available.[52]

CFLs can fail prematurely if overheated and so current recommendations for fully enclosed, unventilated light fixtures, such as those found recessed into some insulated ceilings, are either to use 'reflector CFLs' (R-CFL)[53][54] or to replace such fixtures with those designed for CFLs.[53] Green screen A phosphor is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of phosphorescence (sustained glowing after exposure to light or energised particles such as electrons). ... The frequency range is defined as the range of frequencies in which the device is allowed to operate. ... Look up daylight in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Color Rendering Index (CRI) (sometimes called Color Rendition Index), is a measure of the ability of a light source to reproduce the colors of various objects being lit by the source. ... A common dual dimmer manufactured by Electronic Theatre Controls (ETC) Another dimmer by Colortran Dimmers are devices used to vary the brightness of a light. ... Relating to the concave triangular segments composing the structure of a dome, something pendent may be viewed as any member of a support system (i. ... A recessed light or downlight is a ceiling light fixture that is installed into a hollow opening in the ceiling. ...

  • Large deployments of CFLs require specialized electronics with low levels of electronic distortion to avoid disturbing the electricity supply.[55] This is usually not a problem with home use because of the few lamps deployed per site.
  • Time to achieve full brightness: Compact fluorescent lamps may provide as little as 50-80% of their rated light output at initial switch on[56] and can take up to three minutes to warm up, and color cast may be slightly different immediately after being turned on.[57] This compares to around 0.1 seconds for incandescent lamps, and microseconds for LED lamps, although LED response speed can vary depending on the LED and the electronics that drive it. (For example, LED stoplights have a 0.01 second response rating.[58]). In practice, this varies between brands/types. It is more of a problem with older lamps, 'warm (color) tone' lamps and at low ambient temperatures.
  • Use with timers: Electronic or digital (but not mechanical) timers can interfere with the electronic ballast in CFLs and can shorten their lifespan.[60]
  • Fire hazard: Inferior quality electronic components used in some CFLs can cause excessive heat or fire. In some cases the components are outright underrated for the task. [61]
  • Outdoor use: CFLs that are not designed for outdoor use may perform poorly in cold weather; CFLs are available with cold-weather ballasts, which may be rated to as low as -23°C (-10°F).[62][dead link]Standard compact fluorescents may fail to operate at low temperatures. Light output drops at low temperatures.[63]
  • Differences among manufacturers: There are large differences among quality of light, cost, and turn-on time among different manufacturers, even for lamps that appear identical and have the same color temperature.
  • Fluorescent lamps get dimmer over their lifetime,[64] so what starts out as an adequate luminosity may become inadequate. In one test by the US Department of Energy of 'Energy Star' products in 2003-4, one quarter of tested CFLs no longer met their rated output after 40% of their rated service life.[65][66]

Power factor correction (PFC) is a technique of counteracting the undesirable effects of electric loads that create a power factor (p. ... LED Lamp with GU10 twist lock fitting, intended to replace halogen reflector lamps. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Remote control (disambiguation). ... Power line communication (PLC), also called Broadband over Power Lines (BPL), is wireline method of communication using the existing electric power transmission and electricity distribution lines. ... A solid-state, analog shortwave receiver Shortwave radio operates between the frequencies of 3 MHz (3,000 kHz) and 30 MHz (30,000 kHz) [1] and came to be referred to as such in the early days of radio because the wavelengths associated with this frequency range were shorter than... Mediumwave radio transmissions (sometimes called Medium frequency or MF) are those between the frequencies of 300 kHz and 3000 kHz. ... The CIE 1931 x,y chromaticity space, also showing the chromaticities of black-body light sources of various temperatures, and lines of constant correlated color temperature Color temperature is a characteristic of visible light that has important applications in photography, videography, publishing and other fields. ...

Other CFL technologies

Another type of fluorescent lamp is the electrodeless fluorescent, known as a radiofluorescent lamp or fluorescent induction lamp. Unlike virtually all other conventional lamps that have hardwired electrical connections to transfer energy to the lamp core, the electrodeless fluorescent accomplishes this solely by electromagnetic induction. The induction is effected by means of a wire-wound ferrite core that projects upward into the bulb encased in an inverted U-shaped glass cover. The wire is energized with high frequency electricity often 2.65 or 13.6 MHz; this ionizes the mercury vapor, exciting the phosphor and producing light. Induction lamps also have greater efficiencies per watt, higher powers than CFLs and a lifetime currently between 15,000 and 100,000 hours.[67] By 2007, several manufacturers have already introduced dimmable induction lamps, making their application even more flexible and accommodating. In contrast with all other electrical lamps that use electrical connections through the lamp envelope to transfer power to the lamp, in electrodeless lamps the power needed to generate light is transferred from the outside of the lamp envelope by means of (electro)magnetic fields. ... For magnetic induction, see Magnetic field. ... High frequency (HF) radio frequencies are between 3 and 30 MHz. ...


Currently, this type of light source is struggling with a high cost of production, stability of the products produced in China, establishing an internationally recognized standard and problems with EMC[68] and RFI. Induction lighting is excluded from Energy Star standard for 2007 by the EPA. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) is the branch of electrical sciences which studies the unintentional generation, propagation and reception of electromagnetic energy with reference to the unwanted effects that such an energy may induce. ... Electromagnetic interference (or EMI, also called radio frequency interference or RFI) is a (usually undesirable) disturbance caused in a radio receiver or other electrical circuit by electromagnetic radiation emitted from an external source. ...


Another variation on existing CFL technologies are bulbs with an external nano-particle coating of titanium dioxide. Titanium dioxide is a photocatalyst, becoming ionized when exposed to UV light produced by the CFL. It is thereby capable of converting oxygen to ozone and water to hydroxyl radicals, which neutralize odors and kill bacteria, viruses, and mold spores. Flash point non-flammable Related Compounds Other cations Titanium(II) oxide Titanium(III) oxide Titanium(III,IV) oxide Zirconium dioxide Hafnium dioxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium...


The Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp (CCFL) is one of the newest forms of CFL. CCFLs use electrodes without a filament. The voltage of CCFLs is about 5 times higher than CFLs and the current is about 10 times lower. CCFLs have a diameter of about 3 millimeters. The lifetime of CCFLs is about 50,000 hours. The lumens-per-watt value is about half that of CFLs. Note: Principles are mostly the same for cold cathode ion sources as in particle accelerators to create electrons. ...


CCFLs were initially used for thin monitors and backlighting, but they are now also manufactured for use as lamps. The efficacy (lumens/watt) is actually lower than that of CFLs. Their advantages are that they are instant-on, like incandescents, they are compatible with timers, photocells and dimmers, and they have a long life of approximately 50,000 hours. CCFLs are a convenient transition technology for those who are not comfortable with the short lag time associated with the initial lighting of CFLs. They are also an effective and efficient replacement for lighting that is turned on and off frequently with little extended use (e.g. a bathroom or closet).


Efforts to encourage adoption

Due to the potential to reduce electric consumption and hence pollution, various organizations have undertaken measures to encourage the adoption of CFLs and other efficient lighting devices, with efforts ranging from publicity to encourage awareness and make CFLs more widely available to direct measures to provide CFLs to the public. Some electric utilities and local governments have subsidized CFLs or provided them free to customers as a means of reducing electric demand (and thereby delaying additional investments in generation).


More controversially, some governments are considering stronger measures to encourage adoption of CFLs or even entirely displace incandescents; some proposed efforts involve tax measures, while others have gone further by instituting bans on future production of incandescent light bulbs. Ireland has announced it intends in 2009 to be the first country to implement such a ban, but the proposal is yet to be subject to public consultation and EU approval. Norway has abandoned attempts to introduce a ban which it calls 'virtually irreconcilable' with EU market rules. It has opted for voluntary agreements. Elsewhere Australia has announced a plan to phase out the use of incandescent lamps by 2010 while Canada has also committed to phasing out incandescent lamps starting in 2012.


In the United States and Canada, the Energy Star program labels compact fluorescent lamps that meet a set of standards for starting time, life expectancy, color, and consistency of performance. The intent of the program is to reduce consumer concerns due to variable quality of products. [69] The ENERGY STAR logo is placed on energy-efficient products ENERGY STAR is a United States government program to promote energy efficient consumer products. ...


Voluntary measures

The Home Depot gave away 1,000,000 n:vision CFLs on Earth Day 2007. The Home Depot (NYSE: HD), headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, is a big-box home improvement retailer that aims for both the do-it-yourself consumer and the professional in home improvement and construction. ... Unofficial Earth Day flag, by John McConnell, including a NASA photo. ...


IKEA in the UK gave 6 free CFLs to staff, and will replace them free when they run out in a 'bulb for life' campaign as part of World Environment Day. IKEA in Sweden has also handed out free CFLs to their customers. World Map showing locations of IKEA stores in 2007. ...


Wal-Mart announced in September 2006 that it was starting a campaign to endorse CFLs. The store aims to sell one CFL to every one of their 100 million customers within the next year.[70] Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ...


In Ottawa, Canada, there is an effort to get every household to change at least one lamp. Project Porchlight went door-to-door to provide one CFL to every household for free. More than 225,000 bulbs were delivered in 2005 and 2006. Project Porchlight is undertaking similar campaigns in the provinces of Alberta and Ontario and in the Yukon Territory in 2007. This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian territory. ...


In other locations in Canada, local utilities regularly undertake 'energy audits' to customers to suggest ways to reduce consumption (and reducing investment requirements for the utilities); CFLs are often given away or provided at subsidized prices to raise awareness of the potential savings.


The Ontario Power Authority has a voluntary program providing immediate cash rebates via coupons for the purchase of CFLs. The campaign is driven by posters, ads and their web site Every Kilowatt Counts. The Ontario Power Authority (OPA) was established through the Electricity Restructuring Act, 2004 (Bill 100). ...


The US-based nonprofit Environmental Defense initiated a campaign in June 2006 called Make the Switch to encourage the public to switch from incandescent lamps to compact fluorescent lamps. It asked every household in the US to replace three 60-watt incandescent lamps with CFLs. Environmental Defense claims that if every household were to do this, the change could reduce pollution as much as taking 3.5 million cars off the road. In the Netherlands, Greenpeace is attempting to mobilize people to Change 1 million light bulbs to CFLs. Environmental Defense (formerly known as the Environmental Defense Fund or EDF), is a US-based nonprofit environmental advocacy group. ... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ...


In February 2007, the 18seconds campaign was launched with leaders from business (Yahoo! and Walmart) and US Government (EPA and DOE) to increase awareness of energy efficient lamps as a way to slow global climate change . The coalition was named 18seconds to reflect the amount of time it takes for one person to change a lamp. To coincide with the launch of this campaign, Yahoo has created a Web site 18seconds.org that will track lamp sales and energy savings nationwide and encourage lamp switching competition among cities and states.[71] Yahoo redirects here. ... Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ... ... EPA redirects here. ... Doe is the term used for the females of various species of animal, including: some species of deer rabbits In job and classified ads, DOE is an acronym for Depending On Experience and usually indicated in pay rates. ... The term climate change is used to refer to changes in the Earths climate. ... Yahoo! - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


In South Africa, the main electricity supply company Eskom has launched a program to exchange incandescent lamps for CFLs for free. Its aim is to reduce the electrical demand at peak times. [4]


Recognizing that lower income households are less likely to lay out the significantly greater retail price for compact fluorescent lamps, which can cost 5 to 6 times the cost of an incandescent lamp, the non-profit organization Wattsaver [5] is accepting donations that will be used to give compact fluorescent lamps to these lower income households.


In New Zealand an organisation called Energy Mad[72] was established in 2004. Energy Mad is promoting CFL adoption with a target of introducing five of their branded ecobulbs[73] into 55% of New Zealand homes.[74] They are using various promotions with retailers and discount coupons to attempt to achieve this. By utilizing these vouchers, users give Energy Mad the carbon credits due to the implied replacement of an incandescent lamp with the CFL.[75]


In Australia a company [76] offers residents in selected municipalities free compact fluorescent lamps to replace their incandescent lightbulbs, including free installation. Residents have to sign over to them the carbon credits resulting from energy savings over the expected life of the compact fluorescent lamps.


In October 2007, electro distribution companies in Slovenia will give away 800,000 21W Osram CFL light bulbs (one to every household in Slovenia). Project initiator is Slovenian power plant holding - HSE Group.[6] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Government efforts to encourage adoption of CFLs

Flag of Australia Australia

On 20 February 2007, the Federal Government announced that by 2010, incandescent light bulbs would be banned in Australia, making it the first country in the world to announce such a ban.[77][78] It is estimated that greenhouse gas emissions will be cut by 800,000 tonnes (Australia's current emission total is 564.7 million tonnes), a saving of approximate 0.14%. The Government has not announced any concurrent recycling program for old incandescent lamps.[79] The South Australian government has published an energy saving calculator in order to help people calculate their individual benefits. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... For the song, see South Australia (song). ...


Flag of Belgium Belgium

The Environment Minister Bruno Tobback is intent on banning incandescent light bulbs, and thinks the ban on incandescent light bulbs should be included in the list of measures under the Kyoto Protocol.[80][81] Former energy Minister Kris Peeters supports this position as well.[82] Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Bruno Tobback (born August 22, 1969) is the Minister of Environment and Pensions in the Belgian federal government since 2004. ... Kris Peeters (May 18, 1962) is a Flemish politician and member of the Christian Democratic and Flemish party who is currently serving as Flemish Minister for Public Works, Energy, the Environment and Nature. ...


Flag of Canada Canada

On 2007-04-18, the Ontario government's Minister of Energy Dwight Duncan announced that it was planning to ban the sale of inefficient lighting in 2012 to cut the local energy consumption.[83][84] The Ontario Power Authority has a voluntary program providing immediate cash rebates via coupons for the purchase of CFLs. The campaign is driven by posters, ads and their web site Every Kilowatt Counts (this program ended on Nov 30, 2007). Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Ministry of Energy in the Canadian province of Ontario is responsible for managing and improving the provincial energy utilities, Hydro One and Ontario Power Generation. ... The Honourable Dwight Duncan, MBA , BA (born January 3, 1959 in Windsor, Ontario) is a politician in Ontario, Canada. ... The Ontario Power Authority (OPA) was established through the Electricity Restructuring Act, 2004 (Bill 100). ...


Following the announcement, the province of Nova Scotia has also pondered a similar ban.[85] However, Energy Minister Bill Dooks said he expects it would be 4 or 5 years before a ban is in place. Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Bill Dooks (born January 24, 1956 in Musquodoboit Harbour, Nova Scotia) is a Canadian politician, who currently serves as Minister of Energy in the legistlative assembly of Nova Scotia. ...


The territory of Nunavut is planning to ban incandescent lamps in May 2007.[86] For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ...


Hydro-Québec offers mail-in rebates for many Energy Star appliances including the fluorescent lamp. They have a vigorous advertising campaign that includes radio, television and bus shelter billboard advertisements. They are currently offering up to $25 in mail-in rebates for their customers who buy the bulbs.[87] Hydro-Québec is a crown corporation that provides hydroelectric power for Quebec, Canada and the north-eastern parts of the United States. ...


A week later, on 2007-04-25, the federal government's Environment Minister John Baird announced plans to ban the sale of incandescent lamps by 2012 all over Canada. According to the minister, Canada will save 3-4 billion CAD over the lifetime of the new bulbs.[88][89] Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Russell Baird, PC, MP (born May 26, 1969) is a Canadian politician. ... C$ redirects here. ...


Flag of Europe European Union

The European Union has proposed a ban on incandescent light bulbs, planned to come into effect in the near future, but this will not affect existing incandescent bulbs, only the production of new bulbs.[90] However, the proposal has yet to be approved by all member states or the European Parliament. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


Flag of Finland Finland

On the 26 September 2007, Swedish People's Party MP Christina Gestrin, has posted a bill through the Eduskunta for banning incandescent light bulbs in Finland by 2011. It is estimated that the ban would save Finland around to 200,000 tonnes on carbon dioxide emissions.[91] Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Swedish Peoples Party can mean: Swedish Peoples Party - a political party in Finland Liberal Peoples Party - a political party in Sweden This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A bill is a proposed new law introduced within a legislature that has not been ratified, adopted, or received assent. ... The Eduskunta in Finnish, or the Riksdag in Swedish, is the parliament of Finland. ...


Flag of Germany Germany

Germany's Environment Minister Sigmar Gabriel has urged the European Commission to ban inefficient light bulbs in the EU in the fight against global warming. The EU could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 25 million tonnes a year if energy saving light bulbs such as CFLs were used in both the domestic and services sectors. .[92] Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Sigmar Gabriel, February 2, 2003 in Hanover (Landtag of Lower Saxony) Sigmar Gabriel (born September 12, 1959 in Goslar) is a German politician (SPD). ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ...


Flag of Ireland Ireland

On 6 December 2007, Ireland's Environment minister John Gormley, delivered his Carbon Budget in Dáil Éireann. Minister Gormley announced that the country would stop using incandescent bulbs by January 2009, making it the first country to implement such a ban. These changes will result in savings of 700,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions from residential lighting and will result in Irish consumers saving over €185 million a year in electricity costs.[93] However the proposal has yet to undergo public consultation and receive EU approval under market rules. Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Minister for the Environment, Heritage and Local Government is the senior minister at the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government (Irish: ) in the Irish Government. ... John Gormley (born August 4, 1959) is an Irish Green Party politician. ... This article is about the current Irish body. ...


Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands

The Netherlands is moving ahead with plans to ban incandescent light bulbs as well. The Environment minister Jacqueline Cramer wants a ban on incandescent light bulbs by 2011.[94] Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Jacqueline Marian Cramer (Amsterdam, 1951) is Minister of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment in the Fourth Balkenende cabinet for the PvdA.[1]. Previously she was a professor of sustainable entrepreneurship at the Utrecht University and professer of environmental management at the Erasmus University. ...


Flag of New Zealand New Zealand

In response to the Australian ban, New Zealand is considering similar measures. Climate Change Minister David Parker said, "The Australians are talking about looking at banning ordinary light bulbs in 3 years' time. I think by the time that is implemented in Australia - if it is - we will be doing something very similar."[95] Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... For other persons of the same name, see David Parker. ...


Flag of India India

In India, Fluorescent lamps have been the de-facto standard for urban home illumination for decades. However, many lower middle class homes do not have the electrical wiring that is compatible with FL devices. Since low income households generally cannot afford to rewire their homes, they were compelled to use inefficient tungsten filament (incandescent) bulbs. In recent years, there has been a drive to popularize and implement CFLs in the country. CFLs are compatible with the incandescent bulb sockets and so can be retrofitted into homes with such sockets.Studies have been undertaken by the independent academics, as well as the Indian Administrative Service and the Indian Institute of Technology that recommend an aggressive implementation of the prescription for Education, Policy support, Standards, Demonstrations and Industry involvement for popularising CFLs.[96][97] Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Fluorescent lamps Assorted types of fluorescent lamps. ... The (IAS) is one of the three All India Services of the Government of India; other two services being the Indian Police Service (IPS) and the Indian Forest Service (IFS). ... Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) are the premier educational institutions for science and technology spread all over India . ...


Flag of Pakistan Pakistan

During Pakistan's 2007 summer season, when energy demand is at its peak, the government of Pakistan repeatedly asked the public to use fluorescent lamps (commonly known as energy savers in Pakistan). There were talks of making fluorescent lamps available on subsidised rates. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


The newly elected government headed by Mr. Yousuf Raza Gilani (Prime minister) announced its first 100 days plan, and instructed to arrange 10 million pcs of energy saver bulbs at lowest possible price. Which shall give immediate relief against 2200 MW power deficit causing load sheding throughout the country.


[98]


Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom

In the UK, Dr Matt Prescott of Banthebulb.org first proposed a ban in February 2005 and has since lobbied Parliament to tax, phase out and ban domestic incandescent lamps, a measure that has generated controversy. Recently, the light bulb manufacturer Philips has also set up a web site called aSimpleSwitch.com in support of a ban of high energy incandescent light bulb, but the continued use of high efficiency incandescents and halogens; other commentators oppose any proposed ban.[99] The Government itself focuses its efforts to improve household energy efficiency through its establishment and funding of the Energy Saving Trust. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... tytytrtyty This article is about energy efficiency as a ratio. ... Energy Saving Trust is a non-profit organistion jointly funded by the British Government and the private sector in order to promote the sustainable use of energy and to cut carbon dioxide emissions in the UK. Official website http://www. ...


The Co-op have also stopped selling incandescent lamps in 50 pilot stores, with a view to withdrawing them completely in the future. They have also reduced the prices of their CFLs to make them more attractive in the short term.[100] The Co-operative Group, the trading name of Co-operative Group Ltd, is a United Kingdom consumers co-operative, and the worlds largest consumer-owned business. ...


On the 27 September 2007, the government announced plans to phase out the sale of incandescent light bulbs by 2011. Retailers will not replace 150 watt bulbs from January 2008, 100 watt bulbs from January 2009, 40 watt bulbs in 2010, and all remaining high power bulbs by 2011. These plans are voluntary, however they have wide support from retailers such as Currys, Habitat, Woolworths, Co-op, Asda, Morrisons, Sainsbury's and Tesco. This initiative has been criticised by environmental groups such as Greenpeace, and other political parties, who think mandatory measures should be introduced. is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Currys is an electrical retailer in the UK and Republic of Ireland, and is owned by DSG International plc. ... Look up habitat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... F.W. Woolworth Company the original USA based chain of high street shops. ... This article is about the supermarket chain. ... For other uses, see Morrison. ... This article is about the supermarket business. ... , For other uses, see Tesco (disambiguation). ... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ...


Current building regulations also require some of the light fittings in new houses to be specially designed to only take CFLs. These fittings have a 2 or 4-pin socket, instead of the usual bayonet or screw fitting.


Flag of the United States United States of America

In January 2007, California State Assembly member Lloyd E. Levine (D-Van Nuys) announced that he would introduce the 'How Many Legislators does it take to Change a Light Bulb Act' (a reference to light bulb jokes), which would ban the sale of incandescent light bulbs in California starting in 2012.[101] That bill is now dead, though a competing bill by California State Assembly member Jared Huffman (D-Santa Rosa) was signed by Governor Schwarzenegger on 12 October.[102] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The California State Assembly chamber California State Assembly Chamber in the State Capitol The California State Assembly is the lower house of the California State Legislature. ... Lloyd Levine (born 1969) is a Democrat who has represented Californias 40th Assembly District since December of 2002. ... Van Nuys is a district within the city of Los Angeles, California, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The California State Assembly chamber California State Assembly Chamber in the State Capitol The California State Assembly is the lower house of the California State Legislature. ... Location in Sonoma County and the state of California Country State County Sonoma Area  - City 40. ...


A few days later, Connecticut state Representative Mary M. Mushinsky (D-Wallingford) proposed a similar ban for the state of Connecticut.[103][104] Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ...


On 8 February 2007, New Jersey Assemblyman Larry Chatzidakis introduced a bill that calls for the state to switch to fluorescent lighting in government buildings over the next three years. "The light bulb was invented a long time ago and a lot of things have changed since then," said Chatzidakis. "I obviously respect the memory of Thomas Edison, but what we're looking at here is using less energy."[105] This article is about the U.S. state. ... Assemblyman Larry Chatzidakis Larry Chatzidakis (born June 24, 1949) serves in the New Jersey General Assembly representing the 8th legislative district since 1997. ... Edison redirects here. ...


On 1 October 2007, West Virginia Governor Joe Manchin named 1 October 'Change a Light, Change the World Day', while giving a speech at West Virginia University. The university on the same day launched a massive program called WECAN, or West Virginia University Conservation Awareness Now. On launch day, there was a light bulb exchange in conjunction with Osram Sylvania at the university student union giving a compact fluorescent bulb for each regular incandescent bulb turned in.[106] This is a list of Governors of West Virginia List of people from West Virginia Categories: | | | ... Joseph (Joe) Manchin III (born August 24, 1947 in Farmington, West Virginia) was elected Governor of West Virginia in the 2004 election and took office on January 17, 2005. ... West Virginia University is an institution of higher learning based in Morgantown, West Virginia, USA. Other campuses include: West Virginia University at Parkersburg in Parkersburg; West Virginia University Institute of Technology in Montgomery; Potomac State College of West Virginia University in Keyser; and a clinical campus for the Universitys... OSRAM SYLVANIA INC. is the North American operation of lighting manufacturer Osram GmbH, which is owned by Siemens AG. The company produces a wide range of lighting products for home, business and automotive use. ...


On 19 December 2007, United States President George W. Bush signed the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Among other provisions, that law sets efficiency standards for electric lights that will see the incandescent light bulb phased off the US market beginning in 2012.[107] George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Flag of Ecuador Ecuador

Since 2002 the Government of Ecuador trough the project PROMEC www.promec.gov.ec has made efforts to introduce CFL technology for household use. In February 2007, the project of change six millions of CFL in donation directly to the population with low incomes with not access to this technology began, and trough this effort reduce 439000 tonCO2. It is expected that the distribution will happen before the end of 2008. The project has been designed to full fill the requirement of the United Nations and qualified as Clean Development Mechanism project. Other initiatives in this way is the energy efficiency projects in public buildings.www.meer.gov.ec Image File history File links Flag_of_Ecuador. ...


See also

Luminous efficacy is a property of light sources, which indicates what portion of the emitted electromagnetic radiation is usable for human vision. ... tytytrtyty This article is about energy efficiency as a ratio. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Philips Tornado Asian Compact Fluorescent. Philips. Retrieved on 2007-12-24.
  2. ^ Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs. Energy Star. Retrieved on 2007-12-24.
  3. ^ a b c d Mercury - spills, disposal and site cleanup - what to do if a fluorescent light bulb breaks. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2007-10-25). Retrieved on 2008-01-15.
  4. ^ Masamitsu, Emily (May 2007), "The Best Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs: PM Lab Test", Popular Mechanics, <http://www.popularmechanics.com/home_journal/home_improvement/4215199.html>. Retrieved on 15 May 2007 
  5. ^ a b c d Mary Bellis (2007), "The History of Fluorescent Lights", About.com, <http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bl_fluorescent.htm>. Retrieved on 13 February 2008 
  6. ^ a b Michael Kanellos (August 2007), "Father of the compact fluorescent bulb looks back", CNet News, <http://www.news.com/Father-of-the-compact-fluorescent-bulb-looks-back/2100-11392_3-6202996.html>. Retrieved on 17 July 2007 
  7. ^ Electronic Fluorescent Dimmers. Hunt Dimming. Retrieved on 2007-12-24.
  8. ^ Electronic Dimmable Ballasts. Advanced Buildings Technologies and Practices. Retrieved on 2007-12-24.
  9. ^ Osram Dulux EL Energy-Saving Lamps (PDF). Osram. Archived from the original on 2006-07-22. Retrieved on 2007-12-24.
  10. ^ IEC 60969 - Self-ballasted lamps for general lighting services - Performance requirements. Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program. Retrieved on 2007-12-24.
  11. ^ 60 Watt Light Bulbs - 1000-Bulbs - The Light Bulb Superstore
  12. ^ [1] Light output of long-life incandescent lamps
  13. ^ Minnesota's Energy Challenge
  14. ^ Low Energy Long Life CFL Light Bulbs Globe Style- Bayonet Cap and Edison Screwed Cap
  15. ^ Get the Most Life out of your CFL « KitchAnn Style
  16. ^ http://www.rightlight6.org/english/proceedings/Session_8/Performance_Standard_and_Inspection_Methods_of_CFL/f013guan.doc
  17. ^ Charles P. Halsted (March 1993). Brightness, Luminance, and Confusion. Information Display. Naval Air Warfare Center Warminster, PA. Retrieved on 2007-10-07. “If the luminance of a viewed light source is increased 10 times, viewers do not judge that the brightness has increased 10 times. The relationship is, in fact, logarithmic: the sensitivity of the eye decreases rapidly as the luminance of the source increases. It is this characteristic that allows the human eye to operate over such an extremely wide range of light levels.”
  18. ^ Krešimir Matković (December 1997). Color Science Basics: Human Vision (English). Tone Mapping Techniques and Color Image Difference in Global Illumination. Institut für Computergraphik eingereicht an der Technischen Universität Wien. Retrieved on 2007-10-07. “It is interesting, that despite the fact that incoming light can have a dynamic range of nearly 14 log units, the neural units can transfer the signal having the dynamic range of only about 1.5 log units. It is obvious that there is some adaptation mechanism involved in our vision. It means that we adapt to some luminance value, and then we can perceive data in a certain dynamic range near the adaptation level. One of the most important characteristics that changes with different adaptation levels is the just noticeable difference.”
  19. ^ FAQs: Compact Fluorescent: GE Commercial Lighting Products
  20. ^ US Household Electricity Report. US Energy Information Administration (2005).
  21. ^ National Energy Foundation - redirection page
  22. ^ Long Island Power Authority News | LIPA Encourages All Long Islanders to Join in the Change a Light, Change the World Campaign
  23. ^ FAQ: The End of the Light Bulb as We Know It. US News & World Report, 19 December 2007.
  24. ^ Chernoff, Harry (2008-01-23). The Cost-Effectiveness of Compact Fluorescents in Commercial Buildings. EnergyPulse. Retrieved on 2008-03-21.
  25. ^ Mercury leaks found as new bulbs break - The Boston Globe
  26. ^ http://maine.gov/dep/rwm/homeowner/cflreport.htm Maine study on broken CFLs and mercury retrieved 2008 Feb 28
  27. ^ Coghlan, Andy (2007), "It's lights out for household classic", New Scientist 193 (2597): 26-27, <http://environment.newscientist.com/channel/earth/mg19325975.600-its-lights-out-for-classic-household-bulb.html> 
  28. ^ LED Lifespan (html). Lunar Accents Design Corporation, Kennesaw, GA, United States. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
  29. ^ Powerful Little Light: LED With 1,000 Lumens. Siemens AG (2007-03-15). Retrieved on 2007-09-14.
  30. ^ Daley, Dan (February 2008), "Incandescent's Not-So-Dim Future", Projection Lights and Staging News (PLSN) (Timeless Communications Corp.) 09 (1): 46 
  31. ^ Energy Star List of Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs
  32. ^ Leviton SureSlide Wall Switch Dimmer
  33. ^ Color Temperature and CRI of Energy Saver Lamps
  34. ^ Salleh, Anna (2007-02-21). A toxic tinge to green light bulbs?. ABC Science Online. ABC. Retrieved on 2007-07-18.
  35. ^ A toxic tinge to green light bulbs? (2007-02-21). Retrieved on 2007-07-18.
  36. ^ Mercury Content Information Available for Lamps on the 2003 New Jersey Contract T-0192. Retrieved on 2007-05-15.
  37. ^ Canada-Wide Standard for Mercury-Containing Lamps (2001). Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  38. ^ NEMA Lamp Companies Announce Commitment to Cap CFL Mercury Content. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  39. ^ Compact Fluorescent Bulbs and Mercury: Reality Check. Popular Mechanics, 11 June 2007.
  40. ^ National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) Fluorescent Lamps and the Environment, NEMA01BR, January 2001 page 7
  41. ^ Power Generation in Canada.
  42. ^ Electricity Generation. Retrieved on 2003-03-23.
  43. ^ FACT SHEET: Mercury in Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs). Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  44. ^ Frequently Asked Questions, Information on Proper Disposal of Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs (CFLs). Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  45. ^ Philips announces reduction in mercury content of its CFLs to record Industry lows. Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  46. ^ Compact Fluorescent Lamp Recycling Project Phase I Draft Report Background Research and Program Options (pdf).
  47. ^ National Electrical Manufacturer's Association NEMA, Failure Modes for Self-Ballasted Compact Fluorescent Lamps, White paper no. LSD 40, retrieved from www.nema.org 2008 April 25
  48. ^ [2] GE Lighting FAQ for CFL retrieved 12 March 2007]]
  49. ^ BC Hydro - Power Smart for Business - Lighting Controls
  50. ^ Tips for Buying and Using Energy-Efficient Bulbs - Take the Pledge: Switch to Energy-Saving Bulbs - Environmental Defense
  51. ^ http://www.retex.com/resources/westinghouse.htm Westinghouse CFLs
  52. ^ What Compact Fluorescents To Use Where. Accessed 1 January 2008].
  53. ^ a b A Dealer Guide to ENERGY STAR: Putting Energy into Profits (PDF).
  54. ^ CFL Reflector Products. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (2007-10-02). Retrieved on 2007-12-24.
  55. ^ Anibal T. De Almeida: Understanding Power Quality, Home Energy Magazine, http://www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/93/931113.html
  56. ^ National Lighting Product Information Profram (NLPIP) Specifier Reports Screwbase Compact Fluorescent Lamp Products Volume 7 Number 1 June 1999 page 11. Retrieved on 2007-04-13.
  57. ^ GE Lighting Frequently Asked Questions - Compact Fluorescent (CFL): 4. Can I use a CFL in applications where I will be turning the lights on/off frequently?. Retrieved on 2007-04-13.
  58. ^ LED Stop Lamps Help Reduce the Number and Severity of Automobile Accidents:Application Note 1155-3. Retrieved on 2007-04-13.
  59. ^ Can CFLs interfere with electronic equipment? at ConsumerReports.org. Accessed 1 January 2008.
  60. ^ Can CFLs interfere with electronic equipment? at ConsumerReports.org. Accessed 1 January 2008.
  61. ^ [CPSC, Teng Fei Trading Inc. Announce Recall of Energy Saving Light Bulbs http://www.cpsc.gov/CPSCPUB/PREREL/prhtml05/05005.html]. U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission press release. Accessed 1 January 2008.
  62. ^ http://www.cleanairpartnership.org/cleanairguide/terms_definitions.htm
  63. ^ US Dept. of Energy, Greening Federal Facilities, 2nd Edition, 'Compact Fluorescent Lighting'. DOE/GO=102001-1165 page 87. Retrieved 22 February 2007
  64. ^ Topic and Discussions on the Performance Standard and Inspection Methods of CFL. Retrieved on 2007-04-13.
  65. ^ Energy Star Lighting Verification Program (Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting) Semi-annual report For the period of October 2003 to April 2004. Retrieved on 2007-04-13.
  66. ^ Quality Assurance in Energy Star Residential Lighting Programmes. Retrieved on 2007-04-13.
  67. ^ RF Lighting Tunes in Improved Illumination.
  68. ^ How It Works. Miser Lighting Inc..
  69. ^ Energy Star Program Requirements for CFLS Partner Commitments, 4th edition, dated 03/07/08, from http://www.energystar.gov retrieved 2008 April 25
  70. ^ How Many Light Bulbs Does it Take to Change the World? One. And You're Looking At It.. Fast Company. Retrieved on 2006-08-30.
  71. ^ San Mateo Daily Journal
  72. ^ Energy Mad | Lessening climate change through economical energy savings!
  73. ^ Ecobulb | Lessening climate change through economical energy savings!
  74. ^ Shell New Zealand - Shell NZ Ecobulb Promotion Seeks To Save Kiwis Millions
  75. ^ http://www.shell.com/static/nz-en/images/flybuys/shell_voucher_download.jpg|accessdate=2007-07-04
  76. ^ http://www.lowenergy.com.au Low Energy Supplies and Services
  77. ^ Light bulbs ban to slash emissions - The Sydney Morning Herald
  78. ^ World first! Australia slashes greenhouse gases from inefficient lighting
  79. ^ Don't be Dim. Light up your life. CFLs in Australia - Reprint of Canberra Times article.
  80. ^ Expats, international life, housing, jobs, classifieds, listings, yellow pages, news, features - Expatica
  81. ^ Bruno Tobback
  82. ^ minister-president Kris Peeters | Kabinet van minister Kris Peeters
  83. ^ Ban the bulb? What kind of bright idea is that? CBC News
  84. ^ Ontario to ban 'old' light bulbs, Toronto Star
  85. ^ Nova Scotia ponders light bulb switch, CBC News
  86. ^ Nunavut takes light bulb lead, Toronto Star
  87. ^ ENERGY STAR Canada
  88. ^ Lights to go out on inefficient bulbs by 2012 CBC News
  89. ^ globeandmail.com: National
  90. ^ BBC NEWS | Politics | Bulbs must be efficient 'by 2009'
  91. ^ Ban on incandescent lamps discussed by Finnish Parliament. Helsingin Sanomat. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
  92. ^ Barroso: Time to Act Against Climate Change in Europe. DW-World.de. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
  93. ^ Gormley unveils new carbon measures. ireland.com.
  94. ^ Minister Cramer wil verbod op gloeilamp - Het Parool
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  100. ^ Co-operative Group Pulls the Plug on Energy Inefficiency. Co-operatives UK. Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
  101. ^ 30 January 2007 - Levine Legislation to Make California First State in the Nation to Ban Incandescent Light Bulbs (HTML). Retrieved on 2007-06-06.
  102. ^ AB 1109 (Huffman) Lighting Efficiency & Toxics Reduction Act (HTML). Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
  103. ^ 02/05/2007 Editorial: A Light Bulb Went Off Over Their Heads Business New Haven
  104. ^ Bill Status
  105. ^ Edison's light bulb could be endangered. Associated Press, 9 February 2007.
  106. ^ Manchin, Garrison launch 'WE CAN'. Daily Athenaeum, 2 October 2007.
  107. ^ FAQ: The End of the Light Bulb as We Know It. US News & World Report, 19 December 2007.
  • R. J. Van der Plas, A. B. de Graaff, A comparison of lamps for domestic lighting in developing countries (Energy Ser. Pap. 6, Industry and Energy Department, World Bank, Washington, DC, 1988).
  • G. S. Dutt, Illumination and Sustainable Development, Energy Sustain Dev. 1 (1), 23 (1994).

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The adolescent Internet. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... NEMA can refer to several topics: National Electrical Manufacturers Association NEMA (machine), a Swiss rotor machine. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... NEMA can refer to several topics: National Electrical Manufacturers Association NEMA (machine), a Swiss rotor machine. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... West Virginia University is an institution of higher learning based in Morgantown, West Virginia, USA. Other campuses include: West Virginia University at Parkersburg in Parkersburg; West Virginia University Institute of Technology in Montgomery; Potomac State College of West Virginia University in Keyser; and a clinical campus for the Universitys... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... U.S. News & World Report is a weekly newsmagazine. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Compact fluorescent lamp
  • US government Energy Star's page on fluorescent bulbs
  • LampRecycle.org - for information on recycling spent mercury-containing lamps
  • Earth 911 - for fluorescent bulb recycling centers by US zip code
  • http://www.nofs.navy.mil/about_NOFS/staff/cbl/lumentab.html Typical Lumen Outputs and Energy Costs for Outdoor Lighting]
  • Spectra of Fluorescent Light Bulbs
  • Color Temperature and Color Rendering Index of CFLs explained
  • www.smartfuelchoices.com - Information on energy saving alternatives
  • Snopes Urban Legends Archive, regarding mercury exposure from a broken CFL
  • CFL environmental hazards and disposal.
  • New Light Bulbs in Plain English 3 minute explanatory video
  • Light Bulbs from Great Lakes Green Initiative. Differentiates various types of bulbs; considers mercury and recycling issues.
  • Who Saved Watt?! A public record of individuals switching from incandescent bulbs to CFs
For devices such as table lamps and reading lamps, see Light fixture. ... Not to be confused with lightning. ... Molten glassy material glows orange with incandescence in a vitrification experiment. ... Light bulb redirects here. ... The incandescent light bulb uses a glowing wire filament heated to white-hot by electrical resistance, to generate light (a process known as thermal radiation). ... Nernst lamp, complete, model B with cloche, DC-lamp 0. ... A Parabolic Aluminized Reflector light, or PAR light, is a type of light commonly used in motion picture production when a substantial amount of light is required for a scene. ... The Centennial Light hanging in the Livermore, California Firehouse. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 361 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1276 pixel, file size: 757 KB, MIME type: image/png) Other versions Original at Image:Gluehlampe 01 KMJ.jpg File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Fluorescence induced by exposure to ultraviolet light in vials containing various sized Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots. ... Fluorescent lamps Assorted types of fluorescent lamps. ... In contrast with all other electrical lamps that use electrical connections through the lamp envelope to transfer power to the lamp, in electrodeless lamps the power needed to generate light is transferred from the outside of the lamp envelope by means of (electro)magnetic fields. ... Germicidal lamps are simple low pressure mercury vapor discharges in a fused quartz envelope. ... 15 kW Xenon short-arc lamp used in IMAX projectors High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps include these types of electrical lamps: mercury vapor, metal halide (also HQI), high-pressure sodium (Son), low-pressure sodium (Sox) and less common, xenon short-arc lamps. ... A Mercury-vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp which uses mercury in an excited state to produce light. ... Example of a light source using a broad spectrum metal halide lamp pointing upward towards the sky. ... Lighting neon lamp, two 220/230 volt and 110 V neon lamps and a screwdriver with neon lamp inside A neon lamp is a gas discharge lamp containing primarily neon gas at low pressure. ... A low pressure sodium/sodium oxide (LPS/SOX) streetlamp at full power A low pressure sodium/sodium oxide (LPS/SOX) streetlamp at full power (detail) A sodium vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp which uses sodium in an excited state to produce light. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... Xenon flash lamp being fired. ... A 3000 volt electricity arc between two nails Electricity arcs between the power rail and electrical pickup shoe on a London Underground train An electric arc can melt calcium oxide An electric arc is an electrical breakdown of a gas which produces an ongoing plasma discharge, resulting from a current... The 300,000-watt Plasma Arc Lamp in the Infrared Processing Center (IPC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory An arc lamp is a device that produces light by the sparking (or arcing, from voltaic arc) of a high current between two carbon rod electrodes. ... A Yablochkov candle (sometimes electric candle) is a type of electric carbon arc lamp, invented in 1876 by Pavel Yablochkov. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... Lit carbide lamp A French manufactured Carbide of Calcium lamp on a bicycle Carbide of Calcium lamp in a coal mine Carbide lamps also known as Acetylene Gas lamps are simple lamps that produce and burn acetylene gas (C2H2) which is created by the reaction of calcium carbide (CaC2) with... The Argand lamp was invented and patented in 1780 by Aimé Argand . ... For other uses, see Candle (disambiguation). ... The Indian light festival Diwali is traditionally lit up by huge numbers of Diya (plural diyas). Diya is a contracted form of deep or light given by small earthen pots (also known as Pradeep), with wick made of cotton and dipped in ghee. ... Gas lighting is the process of burning piped natural gas or coal gas for illumination. ... Swiss kerosene lamp. ... For other uses, see Lantern (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Antique bronze oil lamp with Christian symbol (replica) A terra-cotta oil lamp, Antique oil lamp (replica) An oil lamp is a simple vessel used to produce light continuously for a period of time from a fuel source. ... Safety lamp is the name of a variety of lamps for safety in coal-mines against coal dust, methane, or firedamp, a highly explosive mixture of natural gas apt to accumulate in them. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Kerosene lamp. ... A Rushlight is a type of candle formed using the dried pith of the rush plant as its wick. ... Tilley Lamp TL10 from 1922-1946 The Tilley Lamp derives from John Tilley’s invention of the hydro-pneumatic blowpipe in 1813. ... This article is about portable open fires. ... LBNL researcher examines prototype sulfur lamp. ... LED redirects here. ... LED Lamp with GU10 twist lock fitting, intended to replace halogen reflector lamps. ... Solid State Lighting (SSL) refers to a type of lighting that utilizes light-emitting diodes (LEDs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), or polymer light-emitting diodes as sources of illumination rather than electrical filaments or gas. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Electroluminescent wire (often abbreviated to EL wire) is a thin copper wire coated in a phosphor which glows when an AC voltage is applied to it. ... A chemoluminescent reaction carried out in an erlenmeyer flask producing a large amount of light. ... Emission spectrum of an ultraviolet deuterium arc lamp clearly showing characteristic hydrogen emission lines (sharp peaks at 656 nm and 486 nm) and continuum emission in the ~160-400 nm region. ... Radioluminescence is the phenomenon by which luminescence is produced in a material by the bombardment of ionizing radiation such as beta particles. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Electrically conductive cylinder for improved starting of compact fluorescent lamp systems - Patent 6064152 (3243 words)
The fluorescent lamp system as set forth in claim 2, wherein the sealed lamp unit is multi-segmented, the electrically conductive material contacting at least one of the segments.
An inner wall of the lamp is coated with a material (e.g., a mixture of phosphors) which fluoresces when it is excited by ultra-violet radiation generated by the ionized mercury vapor.
A fluorescent lamp system includes a ballast unit, a sealed lamp unit which substantially surrounds a volume of space, first and second lamp electrodes located at respective end points of the lamp unit, and an electrically conductive material located within the volume of space surrounded by the lamp unit.
Compact Fluorescent Lamp Basics (735 words)
Compact fluorescent lamps are an energy-efficient option to common incandescent light bulbs.
With compact fluorescents, an integral lamp and ballast unit with screw-in base and capsule type enclosure providing the appearance of an incandescent source.Tubular, globe, or other shaped enclosures may be used.
Compact fluorescent lamps are an exception; many are available with screw-in bases for use in standard sockets.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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