FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Compact disc
Compact Disc

The closely spaced tracks on the readable surface of a Compact Disc cause light to diffract into a full visible colour spectrum
Media type: Optical disc
Encoding: Various
Capacity: Typically up to 700 MB
Read mechanism: 780 nm wavelength semiconductor laser
Developed by: Philips & Sony
Usage: Audio and data storage
Optical disc authoring
Optical media types
Standards

A Compact Disc or CD is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. The CD, available on the market since late 1982, remains the standard playback medium for commercial audio recordings to the present day, though it has lost ground in recent years to MP3 players. CD or C/D or Cd or cd may stand for: Compact Disc CD-ROM Certificate of deposit (time deposit) CD represents 400 in Roman numerals — meaning 100 (C) less than 500 (D). ... Image File history File links CDlogo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Visible light redirects here. ... “Optical media” redirects here. ... Graphical representations of electrical data: analog audio content format (red), 4-bit digital pulse code modulated content format (black). ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... In computing, optical disc authoring, including CD authoring and DVD authoring, known often as burning, is the process of recording source material—video, audio or other data—onto an optical disc (compact disc or DVD). ... “Optical media” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that ISO image be merged into this article or section. ... In computing, sound reproduction, and video, an optical disc is flat, circular, usually polycarbonate disc whereon data is stored. ... Optical disc authoring software is computer software for authoring optical discs including CD-ROMs and DVDs. ... Optical disc authoring requires a number of different technologies working in tandem, from the media to the firmware to the control electronics of the drive. ... In optical disc authoring, there are multiple modes for recording, including Disc-At-Once, Track-At-Once, and Session-At-Once. ... Packet writing is an optical disc recording technology used to allow writeable CD and DVD media to be used in a similar manner to a floppy disk. ... Not to be confused with disk laser, a type of solid-state laser in a flat configuration. ... CD redirects here. ... Photo Compact Disc (PCD) logo/trademark This image is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... Compact Disc ReWritable (CD-RW) is a rewritable optical disc format. ... VCD redirects here. ... Super Video Compact Disc (SVCD) is a format used for storing video on standard compact discs or CD-Rs. ... A CD+G (also known as CD+Graphics) is a special audio compact disc that contains graphics data in addition to the audio data on the disc. ... CD-Text is an extension of the Red Book standard for audio CDs. ... CD-i or Compact Disc Interactive is the name of an interactive multimedia CD player developed and marketed by Royal Philips Electronics N.V. CD-i also refers to the multimedia Compact Disc standard utilized by the CD-i console, also known as Green Book, which was co-developed by... See also IBMs VM operating system family, where minidisk refers to a logical unit of storage. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... A DVD+R disc The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... DVD-D is a self-destructing disposable DVD format. ... DVD-R DL (Dual Layer) (Also Known as DVD-R9) is a derivative of the DVD-R format standard. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... DVD+R DL (Double Layer), also known as DVD+R9, is a derivative of the DVD+R format created by the DVD+RW Alliance. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... JVC has announced they have gotten around to developing dual layered DVD-RW discs (DVD-RW DL). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... You can recognize a DVD-RAM immediately because visually there are lots of little rectangles distributed on the surface of the data carrier. ... A Blu-ray Disc (also called BDray) is a high-density optical disc format for the storage of digital information, including high-definition video. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data... HD DVD-R is the writable disc variant of HD DVD, and is now currently available with a single-layer capacity of 15GB. Currently, HD DVD-R has slower write speeds than the competing BD-R format (1–2x vs 1–4x) and lower storage capacity. ... HD DVD, or High-Definition DVD is a high-density optical disc format designed for the storage of data and high-definition video. ... An example of proposed HD DVD-RAM media. ... Ultra Density Optical (UDO) is a next-generation optical disc format designed for high-density storage of high-definition video and data. ... A UMD The Universal Media Disc (UMD) is an optical disc medium developed by Sony for use on the PlayStation Portable. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Holographic memory. ... Schematic representation of a cross-section through a 3D optical storage disc (yellow) along a data track (orange marks). ... Although research into optical data storage has been ongoing for many decades, the first popular system was CD-ROM, introduced in 1982, adapted to data storage (the CD-ROM format) with the 1985 Yellow Book, and re-adapted as the first mass market optical storage medium with CD-R and... The Rainbow Books are a collection of standards defining the allowed formats of Compact Discs. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... Joliet is the name of an extension to the ISO 9660 file system. ... The Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol (RRIP, IEEE P1282) is an extension to the ISO 9660 volume format which adds POSIX file system semantics. ... The Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol (RRIP, IEEE P1282) is an extension to the ISO 9660 volume format which adds POSIX file system semantics. ... The El Torito Bootable CD Specification is an extension to the ISO 9660 CD-ROM specification. ... Overview Apple Macintosh computers use the HFS (or HFS+) file system on hard disks, mainly. ... The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ... The Mount Rainier logo Mount Rainier is a format for re-writable optical discs which provides for packet writing and defect management. ... “Optical media” redirects here. ... A digital system is one that uses discrete values rather than a continuous spectrum of values: compare analog. ... Digital audio comprises audio signals stored in a digital format. ... Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ... A digital audio player (DAP) is a device that stores, organizes and plays digital music files. ...


An audio CD consists of one or more stereo tracks stored using 16-bit PCM coding at a sampling rate of 44.1 kHz. Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 mm and can hold approximately 80 minutes of audio. There are also 80 mm discs, sometimes used for CD singles, which hold approximately 20 minutes of audio. The technology was later adapted for use as a data storage device, known as a CD-ROM, and to include record-once and re-writable media (CD-R and CD-RW respectively). CD-ROMs and CD-Rs remain widely used technologies in the computer industry as of 2007. The CD and its extensions have been extremely successful: in 2004, the worldwide sales of CD audio, CD-ROM, and CD-R reached about 30 billion discs. By 2007, 200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide.[1] Label for 2. ... “Sound recorder” redirects here. ... In computer science, 16-bit is an adjective used to describe integers that are at most two bytes wide, or to describe CPU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. ... PCM redirects here. ... The sampling frequency or sampling rate defines the number of samples per second taken from a continuous signal to make a discrete signal. ... This article is about the SI unit of frequency. ... Many different consumer electronic devices can store data. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Compact Disc ReWritable (CD-RW) is a rewritable optical disc format. ...

Contents

History

In 1979, Philips Consumer Electronics and Sony set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. The task force, led by prominent members Kees Immink and Toshitada Doi, progressed the research into laser technology and optical discs that had been started by Philips in 1977.[2] After a year of experimentation and discussion, the taskforce produced the Red Book, the Compact Disc standard. Philips contributed the general manufacturing process, based on video LaserDisc technology. Philips also contributed Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation (EFM), which offers both a long playing time and a high resilience against disc defects such as scratches and fingerprints, while Sony contributed the error-correction method, CIRC. The Compact Disc Story,[3] told by a former member of the taskforce, gives background information on the many technical decisions made, including the choice of the sampling frequency, playing time, and disc diameter. According to Philips, the Compact Disc was thus "invented collectively by a large group of people working as a team."[4] Philips CE HQ in Amsterdam Philips Consumer Electronics is a part of Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (usually known as Philips; Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) and is one of the largest electronics companies in the world. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Kornelis (Kees) Antonie Schouhamer Immink is a Dutch scientist, inventor, and entepreneur. ... Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... Industrial processes are procedures involving chemical or mechanical steps to aid in the manufacture of an item or items, usually carried out on a very large scale. ... Not to be confused with disk laser, a type of solid-state laser in a flat configuration. ... Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation (EFM) is an encoding technique used by CDs and MiniDiscs. ... In computer science and information theory, error correction consists of using methods to detect and/or correct errors in the transmission or storage of data by the use of some amount of redundant data and (in the case of transmission) the selective retransmission of incorrect segments of the data. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


The first Compact Disc for commercial release rolled off the assembly line on August 17, 1982, at a Philips factory in Langenhagen, near Hanover, Germany. The first title released was ABBA's The Visitors (1981).[5] CDs and Sony's CD player CDP-101 reached the market on October 1, 1982 in Japan, and early the following year in the United States and other markets. This event is often seen as the "Big Bang" of the digital audio revolution. The new audio disc was enthusiastically received, especially in the early-adopting classical music and audiophile communities and its handling quality received particular praise. As the price of players sank rapidly, the CD began to gain popularity in the larger popular and rock music markets. The first artist to sell a million copies on CD was Dire Straits, with their 1985 album Brothers in Arms.[6] is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Langenhagen is a German city in the Hanover district of Lower Saxony. ... , Hanover(i) (German: , IPA: ), on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... Abba redirects here. ... For the French film, see Les Visiteurs The Visitors is the eighth and final album by Swedish pop group ABBA, released in 1981 (see 1981 in music). ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... CD, DVD and SACD player A Compact Disc player (often written as compact disc player), or CD player, is an electronic device which plays audio Compact Discs. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Big Bang (disambiguation). ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... An audiophile, from Latin audire[1] to hear and Greek philos[2] loving, can be generally defined as a person dedicated to achieving high fidelity in the recording and playback of music . ... For the music genre, see Pop music. ... For other uses, see Rock music (disambiguation). ... This article is about the band. ... Brothers in Arms is the fifth studio album by British rock band Dire Straits, released in 1985. ...


The CD was originally thought of as an evolution of the gramophone record, rather than primarily as a data storage medium. Only later did the concept of an "audio file" arise, and the generalising of this to any data file. From its origins as a music format, Compact Disc has grown to encompass other applications. In June 1985, the CD-ROM (read-only memory) and, in 1990, CD-Recordable were introduced, also developed by Sony and Philips. A 12-inch record (left), a 7-inch record (right), and a CD (above) Two 7 singles (left), two colored 7 singles (middle), and two 7 singles with large spindle holes (right). ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ...


Physical details

The optical lens of a CD drive.
The optical lens of a CD drive.

A Compact Disc is made from a 1.2 mm thick disc of almost pure polycarbonate plastic and weighs approximately 16 grams. A thin layer of aluminium or, more rarely, gold is applied to the surface to make it reflective, and is protected by a film of lacquer. The lacquer is normally spin coated directly on top of the reflective layer. On top of that surface, the label print is applied. Common printing methods for CDs are screen-printing and offset printing. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1896x1315, 559 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Compact Disc Optical disc Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1896x1315, 559 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Compact Disc Optical disc Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Polycarbonates are a particular group of thermoplastic polyesters. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Aluminium. ... A 24 Karat Gold CD A gold CD is one in which gold is used in place of the super purity aluminum commonly used as the reflective coating on regular CDs. ... In a general sense, lacquer is a clear or coloured coating, that dries by solvent evaporation only and that produces a hard, durable finish that can be polished to a very high gloss, and gives the illusion of depth. ... A label is any kind of tag attached with adhesive to something so as to identify the object or its contents. ... Screen-printing, also known as silkscreening or serigraphy, is a printmaking technique that creates a sharp-edged single-color image using a stencil and a porous fabric. ... Offset printing is a widely used printing technique where the inked image is transferred (or offset) from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface. ...


CD data is stored as a series of tiny indentations (pits), encoded in a tightly packed spiral track molded into the top of the polycarbonate layer. The areas between pits are known as "lands". Each pit is approximately 100 nm deep by 500 nm wide, and varies from 850 nm to 3.5 μm in length. A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer, symbol nm) (Greek: νάνος, nanos, dwarf; μετρώ, metrÏŒ, count) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre (or one millionth of a millimetre), which is the current SI base unit of length. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ...


The spacing between the tracks, the pitch, is 1.6 μm. A CD is read by focusing a 780 nm wavelength semiconductor laser through the bottom of the polycarbonate layer. The change in height between pits and lands results in a difference in intensity in the light reflected. By measuring the intensity change with a photodiode, the data can be read from the disc. For other uses, see Wavelength (disambiguation). ... A laser diode is a laser where the active medium is a semiconductor p-n junction similar to that found in a light-emitting diode. ... Photodiode closeup A photodiode A photodiode is a semiconductor diode that functions as a photodetector. ...


The pits and lands themselves do not directly represent the zeros and ones of binary data. Instead, Non-return-to-zero, inverted (NRZI) encoding is used: a change from pit to land or land to pit indicates a one, while no change indicates a zero. This in turn is decoded by reversing the Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation used in mastering the disc, and then reversing the Cross-Interleaved Reed-Solomon Coding, finally revealing the raw data stored on the disc. A Hexdump of a JPEG image. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Non-return-to-zero. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


While CDs are significantly more durable than earlier audio formats, they are susceptible to damage from daily usage and environmental factors. Pits are much closer to the label side of a disc, so that defects and dirt on the clear side can be out of focus during playback. Discs consequently suffer more damage because of defects such as scratches on the label side, whereas clear-side scratches can be repaired by refilling them with plastic of similar index of refraction, or by careful polishing. The refractive index of a material is the factor by which electromagnetic radiation is slowed down (relative to vacuum) when it travels inside the material. ...


Disc shapes and diameters

A Mini-CD is 8 centimeters in diameter.
A Mini-CD is 8 centimeters in diameter.

The digital data on a CD begins at the center of the disc and proceeds outwards to the edge, which allows adaptation to the different size formats available. Standard CDs are available in two sizes. By far the most common is 120 mm in diameter, with a 74 or 80-minute audio capacity and a 650 or 700 MB data capacity. 80 mm discs ("Mini CDs") were originally designed for CD singles and can hold up to 21 minutes of music or 184 MB of data but never really became popular. Today nearly all singles are released on 120 mm CDs, which is called a Maxi single. Image File history File linksMetadata Small_cdisk_ubt. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Small_cdisk_ubt. ... DIAMETER is a computer networking protocol for AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting). ... MiniCDs are smaller form-factor CDs Amongst the various formats are the CD single, an 80-mm disc. ... A collection of various CD singles In music, a single is a short recording of one or more separate tracks. ... A maxi single or maxi-single is a music single release with more than the usual two tracks (generally an a-side song and a b-side song). ...


"Shaped CD"

Novelty shaped CDs are also available in a number of shapes and sizes, and are mostly used for marketing. The most common variant is a "business card" CD, a CD-single with portions removed at the top and bottom to more closely resemble the form-factor of a business card. An audio CD in the shape of a heart. ... Attorney business card 1895 Business cards are cards bearing business information about a company or individual. ...

Physical size Audio Capacity CD-ROM Data Capacity
12 cm (standard) 74–80 min 650–703 MB
8 cm (mini-CD) 21–24 min 185–210 MB
"Business card" ~6 min ~55 MB

MB, Mb, mB or mb may mean: Mb (digraph) Megabit (1,000,000 bits) or mebibit (220 = 1,048,576 bits); the preferred symbols are Mb and Mibit, respectively¹ Megabyte (1,000,000 bytes) or mebibyte (220 = 1,048,576 bytes); the preferred symbols are MB and MiB, respectively¹ MB...

Logical formats

Audio CD

Compact Disc Digital Audio (CDDA)
Compact Disc Digital Audio (CDDA)

The logical format of an audio CD (officially Compact Disc Digital Audio or CD-DA) is described in a document produced in 1980 by the format's joint creators, Sony and Philips. The document is known colloquially as the "Red Book" after the color of its cover. The format is a two-channel 16-bit PCM encoding at a 44.1 kHz sampling rate. Four-channel sound is an allowed option within the Red Book format, but has never been implemented. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). ... PCM redirects here. ... The sampling frequency or sampling rate defines the number of samples per second taken from a continuous signal to make a discrete signal. ...


The selection of the sample rate was primarily based on the need to reproduce the audible frequency range of 20Hz - 20kHz. The Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem states that a sampling rate of double the maximum frequency to be recorded is needed, resulting in a 40 kHz rate. The exact sampling rate of 44.1 kHz was inherited from a method of converting digital audio into an analog video signal for storage on video tape, which was the most affordable way to transfer data from the recording studio to the CD manufacturer at the time the CD specification was being developed. The device that turns an analog audio signal into PCM audio, which in turn is changed into an analog video signal is called a PCM adaptor. This technology could store six samples (three samples per each stereo channel) in a single horizontal line. A standard NTSC video signal has 245 usable lines per field, and 59.94 fields/s, which works out at 44,056 samples/s/stereo channel. Similarly, PAL has 294 lines and 50 fields, which gives 44,100 samples/s/stereo channel. This system could either store 14-bit samples with some error correction, or 16-bit samples with almost no error correction. The Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem is a fundamental result in the field of information theory, in particular telecommunications and signal processing. ... The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ... High-quality PCM audio requires a significantly larger bandwidth than a regular FM audio signal. ... This article is about the spacecraft and the mission. ... NTSC is the analog television system in use in Canada, Japan, Mexico, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, the United States, and some other countries, mostly in the Americas (see map). ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ...


There was a long debate over whether to use 14 bit (Philips) or 16-bit (Sony) quantization, and 44,056 or 44,100 samples/s (Sony) or around 44,000 samples/s (Philips). When the Sony/Philips task force designed the Compact Disc, Philips had already developed a 14-bit D/A converter, but Sony insisted on 16 bit. In the end, 16 bits and 44.1 kilosamples per second prevailed. Philips found a way to produce 16-bit quality using their 14-bit DAC by using four times oversampling. Look up quantization in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC or D-to-A) is a device for converting a digital (usually binary) code to an analog signal (current, voltage or electric charge). ... In signal processing, oversampling is the process of sampling a signal with a sampling frequency significantly higher than twice the bandwidth or highest frequency of the signal being sampled. ...


Storage capacity and playing time

The original target storage capacity for a CD was an hour of audio content, and a disc diameter of 115 mm was sufficient for this. According to Philips, Sony vice-president Norio Ohga suggested extending the capacity to 74 minutes to accommodate a complete performance of Beethoven’s 9th Symphony;[7] Kees Immink of Philips, however, denies this.[3] The extra playing time subsequently required the change to a 120 mm disc. Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Norio Ohga (大賀典雄, ÅŒga Norio, otherwise spelt Norio Oga, born January 29, 1930) is a Japanese electronics businessman who originally trained as an opera singer. ... Composer Ludwig van Beethoven The Symphony No. ...


According to a Sunday Tribune interview, the story is slightly more involved. At that time (1979) Philips owned Polygram, one of the world’s largest distributors of music. Polygram had set up a large experimental CD plant in Hanover, Germany, which could produce huge amounts of CDs having, of course, a diameter of 115 mm. Sony did not yet have such a facility. If Sony had agreed on the 115 mm disc, Philips would have had a significant competitive edge in the market. Sony decided that something had to be done. The long playing time of Beethoven's Ninth imposed by Ohga was used to push Philips to accept 120 mm, so that Philips’ Polygram lost its edge on disc fabrication. PolyGram was the name from 1972 of the major label recording company started by Philips as a holding company for its music interests in 1945. ... , Hanover(i) (German: , IPA: ), on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ...


The 74-minute playing time of a CD, being much longer than the 15 to 20 minutes per side possible with long-playing vinyl albums, was often used to the CD’s advantage during the early years when CDs and LPs vied for commercial sales. CDs would often be released with one or more bonus tracks, enticing consumers to buy the CD for the extra material. However, attempts to combine double LPs onto one CD occasionally resulted in an opposing situation in which the CD would actually offer fewer tracks than the LP equivalent. An example is the 1987 album Kiss Me, Kiss Me, Kiss Me by The Cure, which states in the CD liner notes: "The track Hey You!!! which appears on the double album and cassette has been omitted so as to facilitate a single compact disc." The 2006 re-release of this album saw the re-inclusion of the missing track. Another example is the original late-1980s Warner Bros. Records reissue of Fleetwood Mac's Tusk album, which substituted the long album version of "Sara" with the shorter single version. Enough complaints were lodged to eventually convince Warner Bros. to remaster the album in the mid-1990s with the original contents intact. Kiss Me, Kiss Me, Kiss Me is the seventh studio album by British alternative rock band The Cure, released in 1987, this album put The Cure into the American mainstream, becoming their first album to reach the Billboard Top 40, by 1990 it had sold a million Stateside copies. ... This article is about the band. ... Warner Bros. ... This article is about the band. ... Tusk was a double album released in 1979 (see 1979 in music) by Fleetwood Mac. ...


Main physical parameters

The main parameters of the CD (taken from the September 1983 issue of the audio CD specification) are as follows: Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). ...

  • Scanning velocity: 1.2–1.4 m/s (constant linear velocity) – equivalent to approximately 500 rpm at the inside of the disc, and approximately 200 rpm at the outside edge. (A disc played from beginning to end slows down during playback.)
  • Track pitch: 1.6 μm
  • Disc diameter 120 mm
  • Disc thickness: 1.2 mm
  • Inner radius program area: 25 mm
  • Outer radius program area: 58 mm
  • Center spindle hole diameter: 15 mm

The program area is 86.05 cm² and the length of the recordable spiral is 86.05 cm² / 1.6 μm = 5.38 km. With a scanning speed of 1.2 m/s, the playing time is 74 minutes, or around 650 MB of data on a CD-ROM. If the disc diameter were only 115 mm, the maximum playing time would have been 68 minutes, i.e., six minutes less. A disc with data packed slightly more densely is tolerated by most players (though some old ones fail). Using a linear velocity of 1.2 m/s and a track pitch of 1.5 μm leads to a playing time of 80 minutes, or a capacity of 700 MB. Even higher capacities on non-standard discs (up to 99 minutes) are available at least as recordables, but generally the tighter the tracks are squeezed the worse the compatibility. Constant Linear Velocity (CLV) refers to how information is written to or read from a rotating data disk. ...


Data structure

The smallest entity in a CD is called a frame. A frame consists of 33 bytes and contains six complete 16-bit stereo samples (2 bytes × 2 channels × six samples equals 24 bytes). The other nine bytes consist of eight Cross-Interleaved Reed-Solomon Coding error correction bytes and one subcode byte, used for control and display. Each byte is translated into a 14-bit word using Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation, which alternates with 3-bit merging words. In total we have 33 × (14 + 3) = 561 bits. A 27-bit unique synchronization word is added, so that the number of bits in a frame totals 588 (of which only 192 bits are music). This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Besides digital audio, a Compact Disc contains digital data called subcode, which is multiplexed with the digital audio. ... Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation (EFM) is an encoding technique used by CDs and MiniDiscs. ...


These 588-bit frames are in turn grouped into sectors. Each sector contains 98 frames, totalling 98 × 24 = 2352 bytes of music. The CD is played at a speed of 75 sectors per second, which results in 176,400 bytes per second. Divided by 2 channels and 2 bytes per sample, this results in a sample rate of 44,100 samples per second.


For CD-ROM data discs, the physical frame and sector sizes are the same. Since error concealment cannot be applied to non-audio data in case the CIRC error correction fails to recover the user data, a third layer of error correction is defined, reducing the payload to 2048 bytes per sector for the Mode-1 CD-ROM format. To increase the data-rate for Video CD, Mode-2 CD-ROM, the third layer has been omitted, increasing the payload to 2336 user-available bytes per sector, only 16 bytes (for synchronisation and header data) less than available in Red-Book audio. VCD redirects here. ...


"Frame"

For the Red Book stereo audio CD, the time format is commonly measured in minutes, seconds and frames (mm:ss:ff), where one frame corresponds to one sector, or 1/75th of a second of stereo sound. Note that in this context, the term frame is erroneously applied in editing applications and does not denote the physical frame described above. In editing and extracting, the frame is the smallest addressable time interval for an audio CD, meaning that track start and end positions can only be defined in 1/75 second steps.


Logical structure

The largest entity on a CD is called a track. A CD can contain up to 99 tracks (including a data track for mixed mode discs). Each track can in turn have up to 100 indexes, though players which handle this feature are rarely found outside of pro audio, particularly radio broadcasting. The vast majority of songs are recorded under index 1, with the pre-gap being index 0. Sometimes hidden tracks are placed at the end of the last track of the disc, often using index 2 or 3. This is also the case with some discs offering "101 sound effects", with 100 and 101 being index 2 and 3 on track 99. The index, if used, is occasionally put on the track listing as a decimal part of the track number, such as 99.2 or 99.3. (Information Society's Hack was one of very few CD releases to do this, following a release with an equally-obscure CD+G feature.) The track and index structure of the CD carried forward to the DVD as title and chapter, respectively. Mixed-mode is a mode of opperation of a Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle in which a portion of the motive energy is supplied by the electric portion of the system whos batteries are recharged from an external source. ... A portable setup of various live audio production and recording equipment. ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ... The Pregap on a Red Book audio CD is the portion of the audio track that precedes index number 01 for a given song in the table of contents (TOC). ... In the field of recorded music, a hidden track is a piece of music which has been placed on a Compact Disc, audio cassette, vinyl record or other recorded medium in such a way as to avoid detection by the casual listener. ... Sound effects or audio effects are artificially created or enhanced sounds, or sound processes used to emphasize artistic or other content of movies, video games, music, or other media. ... For other uses, see Decimal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Information society (disambiguation). ... Hack is an album by synth-pop band Information Society. ...


Manufacturing tolerances

Current manufacturing processes allow an audio CD to contain up to 80 minutes (variable from one replication plant to another) without requiring the content creator to sign a waiver. Thus, in current practice, maximum CD playing time has crept higher by reducing minimum engineering tolerances, while still maintaining acceptable standards of reliability. A waiver is the voluntary relinquishment or surrender of some known right or privilege. ... In engineering, tolerance is the permissible limit of variation in 1) a physical dimension, 2) a measured value or property of a material, manufactured object, system, or service, or 3) other measured values (such as temperature, humidity, etc). ... Reliability concerns quality or consistency. ...


CD-Text

Main article: CD-Text

CD-Text is an extension of the Red Book specification for audio CD that allows for storage of additional text information (e.g., album name, song name, artist) on a standards-compliant audio CD. The information is stored either in the lead-in area of the CD, where there is roughly five kilobytes of space available, or in the subcode channels R to W on the disc, which can store about 31 megabytes. CD-Text is an extension of the Red Book standard for audio CDs. ... Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). ... CD re-directs here; see Cd for other meanings of CD. Image of a compact disc (pencil included for scale) A compact disc (or CD) is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. ... In computing, optical disc authoring, including CD authoring and DVD authoring, known often as burning, is the process of recording source material—video, audio or other data—onto an optical disc (compact disc or DVD). ... Besides digital audio, a Compact Disc contains digital data called subcode, which is multiplexed with the digital audio. ...

Compact Disc Text
Compact Disc Text

Image File history File links CDTXlogo. ... Image File history File links CDTXlogo. ...

CD + Graphics

Main article: CD+G

Compact Disc + Graphics (CD+G) is a special audio compact disc that contains graphics data in addition to the audio data on the disc. The disc can be played on a regular audio CD player, but when played on a special CD+G player, can output a graphics signal (typically, the CD+G player is hooked up to a television set or a computer monitor); these graphics are almost exclusively used to display lyrics on a television set for karaoke performers to sing along with. A CD+G (also known as CD+Graphics) is a special audio compact disc that contains graphics data in addition to the audio data on the disc. ... This article is about audible acoustic waves. ... CD redirects here. ... Graphic redirects here. ... For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ... Nineteen inch (48 cm) CRT computer monitor A computer display, monitor or screen is a computer peripheral device capable of showing still or moving images generated by a computer and processed by a graphics card. ... Look up lyrics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses see Karaoke (disambiguation) A karaoke machine Karaoke from Japanese kara, empty or void, and ōkesutora, orchestra) (pronounced IPA: or ; in Japanese IPA: ;  ) is a form of entertainment in which amateur singers sing along with recorded music using a microphone and a PA system. ...

Compact Disc Graphics
Compact Disc Graphics
Compact Disc Graphics Text

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

CD + Extended Graphics

Compact Disc + Extended Graphics (CD+EG, also known as CD+XG) is an improved variant of the Compact Disc + Graphics (CD+G) format. Like CD+G, CD+EG utilizes basic CD-ROM features to display text and video information in addition to the music being played. This extra data is stored in subcode channels R-W. Very few, if any, CD+EG discs have been published. Compact Disc + Extended Graphics (CD+EG, also known as CD+XG) is an improved variant of the Compact Disc + Graphics (CD+G) format. ... Besides digital audio, a Compact Disc contains digital data called subcode, which is multiplexed with the digital audio. ...

Compact Disc Extended Graphics
Compact Disc Extended Graphics

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Super Audio CD

Main article: Super Audio CD
Super Audio CD (SACD) is a read-only optical audio disc format aimed at providing much higher fidelity digital audio reproduction than the Red Book audio CD. Introduced in 2000, it was developed by Sony and Philips Electronics, the same companies that created the Red Book audio CD. SACD is currently in a format war with DVD-Audio. Although neither side has made significant progress toward acquiring consumer acceptance, SACD has an advantage over DVD-Audio in that most discs are hybrids compatible with existing CD players.

Super Audio CD (SACD) is a read-only optical audio disc format aimed at providing much higher fidelity digital audio reproduction than the compact disc. ... “Optical media” redirects here. ... Audio storage refers to techniques and formats used to store audio with the goal to reproduce the audio later using audio signal processing to something that resembles the original. ... High Fidelity is also the title of a book by Nick Hornby and a film directed by Stephen Frears, based upon Hornbys book. ... Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). ... A format war describes competition between mutually incompatible data storage devices and recording formats for electronic media, often forcing content publishers to take sides. ... DVD-Audio also known as DVDA is a digital format for delivering very high-fidelity audio content on a DVD. The first discs entered the marketplace in 2000. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (875x611, 33 KB) Official Super Audio CD logo, from a Philips document. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (875x611, 33 KB) Official Super Audio CD logo, from a Philips document. ...

CD-MIDI

Compact Disc MIDI or CD-MIDI is a type of audio CD where sound is recorded in MIDI format, rather than the PCM format of Red Book audio CD. This provides much greater capacity in terms of playback duration, but MIDI playback is typically less realistic than PCM playback.
Compact Disc MIDI

MIDI redirects here. ... PCM is an initialism which can have different meanings: Phase Change Material Pulse-code modulation, a way to digitally encode signals representing sound and their video counterparts Potential Cancer Marker Communist Party of Mexico Plug Compatible Manufacturer Power-train control module, a computer in a car which controls the car... Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

CD-ROM

Main article: CD-ROM

For its first few years of existence, the Compact Disc was purely an audio format. However, in 1985 the Yellow Book CD-ROM standard was established by Sony and Philips, which defined a non-volatile optical data computer data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... Categories: Rainbow Books | Computer storage | Stub ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Video CD

Compact Disc Digital Video (VCD)
Compact Disc Digital Video (VCD)
Main article: Video CD

Video CD (aka VCD, View CD, Compact Disc digital video) is a standard digital format for storing video on a Compact Disc. VCDs are playable in dedicated VCD players, most modern DVD-Video players, and some video game consoles. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... VCD redirects here. ... For other uses, see Digital (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Video (disambiguation). ... CD redirects here. ... DVD-Video format logo DVD-Video is a consumer video format used to store digital video on DVD (DVD-ROM) discs, and is currently the dominant form of consumer video formats in the United States, Canada, Europe and Australia. ...


The VCD standard was created in 1993 by Sony, Philips, Matsushita, and JVC and is referred to as the White Book standard. Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... Logo for the Panasonic brand Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. ... Victor Company of Japan, Limited ) (TYO: 6792 ), usually referred to as JVC, is an international consumer and professional electronics corporation based in Yokohama, Japan which was founded in 1927. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Rainbow Books. ...


Overall picture quality is intended to be comparable to VHS video, though VHS has twice as many scanlines (approximately 480 NTSC and 580 PAL) and therefore double the vertical resolution. Poorly compressed video in VCD tends to be of lower quality than VHS video, but VCD exhibits block artifacts rather than analog noise. Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard. ...


Super Video CD

Compact Disc Super Video (SVCD)
Compact Disc Super Video (SVCD)
Main article: Super Video CD

Super Video CD (Super Video Compact Disc or SVCD) is a format used for storing video on standard compact discs. SVCD was intended as a successor to Video CD and an alternative to DVD-Video, and falls somewhere between both in terms of technical capability and picture quality. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Compact Disc Super Video (SVCD) logo/trademark Super Video CD (Super Video Compact Disc or SVCD) is a format used for storing video on standard compact discs. ... For other uses, see Video (disambiguation). ... CD redirects here. ... VCD redirects here. ... DVD-Video format logo DVD-Video is a consumer video format used to store digital video on DVD (DVD-ROM) discs, and is currently the dominant form of consumer video formats in the United States, Canada, Europe and Australia. ...


SVCD has two-thirds the resolution of DVD, and over 2.7 times the resolution of VCD. One CD-R disc can hold up to 60 minutes of standard quality SVCD-format video. While no specific limit on SVCD video length is mandated by the specification, one must lower the video bitrate, and therefore quality, in order to accommodate very long videos. It is usually difficult to fit much more than 100 minutes of video onto one SVCD without incurring significant quality loss, and many hardware players are unable to play video with an instantaneous bitrate lower than 300 to 600 kilobits per second. Display standards comparison The display resolution of a digital television or computer display typically refers to the number of distinct pixels in each dimension that can be displayed. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... VCD redirects here. ... A kilobit is a unit of information, abbreviated kbit, sometimes also kb. ...


Photo CD

Photo Compact Disc (PCD)
Photo Compact Disc (PCD)
Main article: Photo CD

Photo CD is a system designed by Kodak for digitizing and storing photos in a CD. Launched in 1992, the discs were designed to hold nearly 100 high quality images, scanned prints and slides using special proprietary encoding. Photo CD discs are defined in the Beige Book and conform to the CD-ROM XA and CD-i Bridge specifications as well. They are intended to play on CD-i players, Photo CD players and any computer with the suitable software irrespective of the operating system. The images can also be printed out on photographic paper with a special Kodak machine. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Photo CD is a system designed by Kodak for digitising and storing photos in a CD. Launched in 1992, the disks were designed to hold nearly 100 high quality images, scanned prints and slides using special proprietary encoding. ... Eastman Kodak Company (NYSE: EK) is a large multinational public company producing photographic equipment. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The Rainbow Books are a collection of standards defining the allowed formats of Compact Discs. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ...


Picture CD

Main article: Picture CD

Picture CD is another photo product by Kodak, following on from the earlier Photo CD product. It holds photos from a single roll of color film, stored at 1024×1536 resolution using JPEG compression. The product is aimed at consumers. Software to view and perform simple edits to images is included on the CD. Picture CD is a product by Kodak, following on from the earlier Photo CD product. ... Eastman Kodak Company (NYSE: EK) is a large multinational public company producing photographic equipment. ... JPG redirects here. ...


CD Interactive

Main article: Green Book (CD-interactive standard)

The Philips "Green Book" specifies the standard for interactive multimedia Compact Discs designed for CD-i players. This Compact Disc format is unusual because it hides the initial tracks which contains the software and data files used by CD-i players by omitting the tracks from the disc's Table of Contents. This causes audio CD players to skip the CD-i data tracks. This is different from the CD-i Ready format, which puts CD-i software and data into the pregap of Track 1. The Philips Green Book specifies the standard for interactive, multimedia compact discs designed for CD-i players[1]. This compact disc format is unusual, because it hides the initial tracks which contains the software and data files used by the CD-i players. ... CD-i or Compact Disc Interactive is the name of an interactive multimedia CD player developed and marketed by Royal Philips Electronics N.V. CD-i also refers to the multimedia Compact Disc standard utilized by the CD-i console, also known as Green Book, which was co-developed by... Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). ... CD-i Ready is a compact disc format based on the CD-i format. ... The pregap on a Red Book audio CD is the portion of the audio track that precedes index 01 for a given track in the table of contents (TOC). ...

Compact Disc Interactive
Compact Disc Interactive

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Enhanced CD

Main article: Enhanced CD

Enhanced CD, also known as CD Extra and CD Plus, is a certification mark of the Recording Industry Association of America for various technologies that combine audio and computer data for use in both compact disc and CD-ROM players. Enhanced CD is a certification mark of the Recording Industry Association of America for various technologies that combine audio and computer data for use in both compact disc and CD-ROM players. ... A certification mark on a commercial product indicates five things: The existence of a legal follow-up or product certification agreement between the manufacturer of a product and an organisation with national accreditation for both testing and certification, Legal evidence that the product was successfully tested in accordance with a... The RIAA Logo. ... CD redirects here. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ...


The primary data formats for Enhanced CD disks are mixed mode (Yellow Book/Red Book), CD-i, hidden track, and multisession (Blue Book). A Mixed Mode CD is a Compact disc in which two different data types are combined. ... Categories: Rainbow Books | Computer storage | Stub ... Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). ... CD-i or Compact Disc Interactive is the name of an interactive multimedia CD player developed and marketed by Royal Philips Electronics N.V. CD-i also refers to the multimedia Compact Disc standard utilized by the CD-i console, also known as Green Book, which was co-developed by... The Blue Book or Enhanced Music CD specification describes the Enhanced Music CD disc format. ...

Enhanced Music Compact Disc
Enhanced Music Compact Disc
Compact Disc Enhanced Text

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Manufacture

Main article: CD manufacturing

Replicated CDs are mass-produced initially using a hydraulic press. Small granules of raw polycarbonate plastic are fed into the press while under heat. A screw forces the liquified plastic into the mold cavity. The mold closes with a metal stamper in contact with the disc surface. The plastic is allowed to cool and harden. Once opened, the disc substrate is removed from the mold by a robotic arm, and a 15 mm diameter center hole (called a stacking ring) is removed. The cycle time, the time it takes to "stamp" one CD, is usually 2–3 seconds. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


This method produces the clear plastic blank part of the disc. After the metallic layer is applied to the clear blank substrate, the disc goes under a UV light for drying and it is ready to go to press. To press the CD, first a glass master is cut using a high-power laser on a device similar to a CD writer. This glass master is a positive master. After testing, it is used to make a die by pressing it against a metal disc.


The die then becomes a negative image: a number of them can be made depending on the number of pressing mills that are to be running off copies of the final CD. The die then goes into the press and the image is pressed onto the blank CD, leaving a final positive image on the disc. A small circle of lacquer is then applied as a ring around the center of the disc, and a fast spin spreads it evenly over the surface. The disc can then be printed and packed.


Manufactured CDs that are sold in stores are wrapped/sealed via a process called "polywrapping" or are shrink wrapped. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Shrinkwrap is a material made up of polymer plastic, usually PVC with a mix of polyesters. ...


Recordable CD

Compact Disc Recordable (CDR)
Compact Disc Recordable (CDR)
700 MB CD-R
700 MB CD-R
Main article: CD-R

Recordable compact discs, CD-Rs, are injection moulded with a "blank" data spiral. A photosensitive dye is then applied, after which the discs are metalized and lacquer coated. The write laser of the CD recorder changes the color of the dye to allow the read laser of a standard CD player to see the data as it would an injection moulded compact disc. The resulting discs can be read by most (but not all) CD-ROM drives and played in most (but not all) audio CD players. Image File history File links CDRlogo. ... Image File history File links CDRlogo. ... An image of a compact disc - Pencil included for scale Picture taken by me on March 21, 2004 Released here under the GFDL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... An image of a compact disc - Pencil included for scale Picture taken by me on March 21, 2004 Released here under the GFDL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A CD-R (Compact Disc-Recordable) is a thin (1. ... A compact disc player or CD player is an electronic device to play audio from compact discs. ...


CD-R recordings are designed to be permanent. Over time the dye's physical characteristics may change, however, causing read errors and data loss until the reading device cannot recover with error correction methods. The design life is from 20 to 100 years depending on the quality of the discs, the quality of the writing drive, and storage conditions. However, testing has demonstrated such degradation of some discs in as little as 18 months under normal storage conditions.[8][9] This process is known as CD rot. CD rot (or DVD rot) is a common phrase describing the tendency of CD or DVD disks to become unreadeable within a few years of manufacture. ...


CD-Rs follow the Orange Book standard. The Rainbow Books are a collection of standards defining the allowed formats of Compact Discs. ...


Recordable Audio CD

The Recordable Audio CD is designed to be used in a consumer audio CD recorder, which won't (without modification) accept standard CD-R discs. These consumer audio CD recorders use SCMS (Serial Copy Management System), an early form of digital rights management (DRM), to conform to the AHRA (Audio Home Recording Act). The Recordable Audio CD is typically somewhat more expensive than CD-R due to (a) lower volume and (b) a 3% AHRA royalty used to compensate the music industry for the making of a copy.[10]
Compact Disc Recordable Audio

The Serial Copy Management System or SCMS was created in response to the digital audio tape (DAT) invention, in order to prevent DAT recorders from making second-generation or serial copies. ... Digital rights management (DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to access control technologies used by publishers and other copyright holders to limit usage of digital media or devices. ... The Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 (AHRA) amended the United States copyright law by adding chapter 10 Digital Audio Recording Devices and Media. ... The Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 (AHRA) amended the United States copyright law by adding chapter 10 Digital Audio Recording Devices and Media. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

High Capacity Recordable CD

A somewhat higher density recording format that can hold about:
  • 98.5 minutes of audio on a 12 cm disc (compared to about 80 minutes for Red Book audio).
  • 30 minutes of audio on an 8 cm disc (compared to about 24 minutes for Red Book audio).

Not 100% compatible with the Red Book standard, but can be played on a majority of audio CD players.[citation needed] Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). ... Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). ... Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). ...


Not widely adopted.

Compact Disc High Capacity Recordable

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Multi Speed Recordable CD

Abstract of United States Patent 20060209665 issued to Philips:
The invention relates to an information carrier comprising at least a first area (12) comprising a first recordable material having thermal properties suitable for writing at a first recording speed and a second area (13) comprising a second recordable material having thermal properties suitable for writing at a second recording speed. The second recording speed is greater than the first recording speed.

The purpose is to optimize the disc for writing with either:

  • Low power and speed (e.g., battery powered mobile device)
  • High power and speed (e.g., AC powered device)
Multi Speed Compact Disc Recordable

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

ReWritable CD

Main article: CD-RW
CD-RW is a re-recordable medium that uses a metallic alloy instead of a dye. The write laser in this case is used to heat and alter the properties (amorphous vs. crystalline) of the alloy, and hence change its reflectivity. A CD-RW does not have as great a difference in reflectivity as a pressed CD or a CD-R, and so many earlier CD audio players cannot read CD-RW discs, although most later CD audio players and stand-alone DVD players can.

CD-RWs follow the Orange Book standard. Compact Disc ReWritable (CD-RW) is a rewritable optical disc format. ... Compact Disc ReWritable (CD-RW) is a rewritable optical disc format. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... The Rainbow Books are a collection of standards defining the allowed formats of Compact Discs. ...

Compact Disc ReWritable (CDRW)
Compact Disc ReWritable (CDRW)
Compact Disc Recordable ReWritable

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

High Speed ReWritable CD

Due to technical limitations, the original ReWritable CD could be written no faster than 4x speed. High Speed ReWritable CD has a different design that permits writing at speeds ranging from 4x to 12x.

Original CD-RW drives can only write to original ReWritable CD discs. High Speed CD-RW drives can typically write to both original ReWritable CD discs and High Speed ReWritable CD discs. Both types of CD-RW discs can be read in most CD drives.


Even higher speed CD-RW discs, Ultra Speed (16x to 24x write speed) and Ultra Speed+ (32x write speed), are now available.

High Speed Compact Disc ReWritable
High Speed Compact Disc ReWritable
Ultra Speed Compact Disc ReWritable
Ultra Speed Plus Compact Disc ReWritable

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links CDUSRWlogo. ... Image File history File links CDUSRWlogo. ... Image File history File links CDUSPRWlogo. ... Image File history File links CDUSPRWlogo. ...

ReWritable Audio CD

The ReWritable Audio CD is designed to be used in a consumer audio CD recorder, which won't (without modification) accept standard CD-RW discs. These consumer audio CD recorders use SCMS (Serial Copy Management System), an early form of digital rights management (DRM), to conform to the AHRA (Audio Home Recording Act). The ReWritable Audio CD is typically somewhat more expensive than CD-RW due to (a) lower volume and (b) a 3% AHRA royalty used to compensate the music industry for the making of a copy.[11]
Compact Disc ReWritable Audio
Compact Disc Recordable ReWritable Audio

The Serial Copy Management System or SCMS was created in response to the digital audio tape (DAT) invention, in order to prevent DAT recorders from making second-generation or serial copies. ... Digital rights management (DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to access control technologies used by publishers and other copyright holders to limit usage of digital media or devices. ... The Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 (AHRA) amended the United States copyright law by adding chapter 10 Digital Audio Recording Devices and Media. ... The Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 (AHRA) amended the United States copyright law by adding chapter 10 Digital Audio Recording Devices and Media. ... Image File history File links CDRWAlogo. ... Image File history File links CDRWAlogo. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Copy protection

The Red Book audio specification, except for a simple 'anti-copy' bit in the subcode, does not include any serious copy protection mechanism. Starting in early 2002, attempts were made by record companies to market "copy-protected" non-standard compact discs, which cannot be ripped (copied) to hard drives or easily converted to MP3s. One major drawback to these copy-protected discs is that most will not play on computer CD-ROM drives, as well as some standalone CD players that use CD-ROM mechanisms. Philips has stated that such discs are not permitted to bear the trademarked Compact Disc Digital Audio logo because they violate the Red Book specification. Moreover, there has been great public outcry over copy-protected discs because many see it as a threat to fair use. Numerous copy-protection systems have been countered by readily-available, often free, software. CD/DVD copy protection is a set of copy protection mechanisms that prevent users from copying compact discs (CDs) or digital video discs (DVDs). ... Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). ... Copy prevention, also known as copy protection, is any technical measure designed to prevent duplication of information. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... For the process of sawing wood along the grain, see Rip saw. ... For other uses, see MP3 (disambiguation). ... “(TM)” redirects here. ... For fair use in trademark law, see Fair use (US trademark law). ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The DTS-CD, DTS Audio CD or 5. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with audio storage. ... Audio storage refers to techniques and formats used to store audio with the goal to reproduce the audio later using audio signal processing to something that resembles the original. ... Bit rot is a colloquial computing term used either to describe gradual decay of storage media or to facetiously describe the spontaneous degradation of a software program over time. ... CD-Text is an extension of the Red Book standard for audio CDs. ... CD Video (also known as CDV, CD-V, or CD+V) was a format introduced in the mid-1980s that combined the technologies of compact disc and laserdisc. ... A CD+G (also known as CD+Graphics) is a special audio compact disc that contains graphics data in addition to the audio data on the disc. ... Compact Disc ReWritable (CD-RW) is a rewritable optical disc format. ... CD, DVD and SACD player A Compact Disc player (often written as compact disc player), or CD player, is an electronic device which plays audio Compact Discs. ... A disk image emulator is computer software designed to emulate a disk image, usually of a CD or DVD, on a local hard drive. ... DualDisc is a type of double-sided optical disc product developed by a group of record companies including EMI Music, Universal Music Group, Sony/BMG Music Entertainment, Warner Music Group, and 5. ... DVD-Audio also known as DVDA is a digital format for delivering very high-fidelity audio content on a DVD. The first discs entered the marketplace in 2000. ... Enhanced CD is a certification mark of the Recording Industry Association of America for various technologies that combine audio and computer data for use in both compact disc and CD-ROM players. ... Categories: Computer stubs ... High Fidelity is also the title of a book by Nick Hornby and a film directed by Stephen Frears, based upon Hornbys book. ... A 3 metres/119 inch projection screen with a high-definition television image. ... Contents // Categories: Stub ... Not to be confused with disk laser, a type of solid-state laser in a flat configuration. ... // Description MiniCDs are compact discs with a smaller form factor. ... An audio CD in the shape of a heart. ... An MP3 CD is a term used to refer to compact discs (CD-R or CD-RW) that contain MP3 files. ... “Optical media” redirects here. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... The Rainbow Books are a collection of standards defining the allowed formats of Compact Discs. ... Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). ... Categories: Rainbow Books | Computer storage | Stub ... SPARS is an acronym for the Society of Professional Audio Recording Studios. ... Super Audio CD (SACD) is a read-only optical audio disc format aimed at providing much higher fidelity digital audio reproduction than the compact disc. ... Compact Disc Super Video (SVCD) logo/trademark Super Video CD (Super Video Compact Disc or SVCD) is a format used for storing video on standard compact discs. ... VCD redirects here. ... Video Single Disc (abbreviated as VSD) was a disc-based format that carried the same analog video information as a laserdisc, but on a 5-inch audio CD-sized disc. ...

References

  1. ^ Compact Disc hits 25th birthday
  2. ^ How the CD was developed. BBC News (August 17, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
  3. ^ a b Kees A. Schouhamer Immink (1998). "The CD Story" (html). Journal of the AES 46: 458–465. Retrieved on 2007-02-09. 
  4. ^ The Inventor of the CD. Philips research. Retrieved on 2007-02-09.
  5. ^ Royal Philips Electronics (2007-08-16). Philips celebrates 25th anniversary of the compact disc. Press release.
  6. ^ Maxim Magazine, 2004
  7. ^ Philips. Beethoven's Ninth Symphony of greater importance than technology. Retrieved on 2007-02-09.
  8. ^ CD-R Unreadable in Less Than Two Years. cdfreaks.com. Retrieved on 2007-02-01.
  9. ^ CD-R ROT. PC-Active.com via archive.org. Retrieved on 2007-02-01.
  10. ^ Andy McFadden (2007-08-08). CD-Recordable FAQ. Retrieved on 2007-09-20.
  11. ^ Andy McFadden (2007-08-08). CD-Recordable FAQ. Retrieved on 2007-09-20.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Ecma International is an international, private (membership-based) standards organization for information and communication systems. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Molecular Expressions: Electricity and Magnetism - Interactive Java Tutorials: How a Compact Disc Works (401 words)
The compact disc, although appearing to be stationary in the tutorial, should actually be envisioned as rotating at high speed.
As the disc rotates, the beam encounters a series of pits and landings that determine whether the beam is reflected back into the detector (from a landing) or scattered (a pit).
As the disc rotates, light reflected from landings on the disk strikes the photo sensor producing a series of electrical pulses that are coordinated with a timing circuit to generate a stream of 1s and 0s that produce the binary code of information on the disc.
Compact Disc Terminology (902 words)
Compact Disc, a digital medium formed of a 12cm polycarbonate substrate, a reflective metalized layer, and a protective lacquer coating.
These discs are made of a polycarbonate substrate, a layer of organic dye, a metalized reflective layer, and a protective lacquer coating.
CD-R discs do not have true pits and lands, but the unmelted, clear areas and melted, opaque places in the dye layer fulfill the same function as pits and lands on a pressed disc.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m