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Encyclopedia > Compact cassette
Compact Cassette
Typical 60-minute Compact Cassette
Typical 60-minute Compact Cassette
 
Media type magnetic tape
Encoding analog signal
Capacity variable
Common tape lengths:
23 minutes per side (C46)
30 minutes per side (C60)
45 minutes per side (C90)
50 minutes per side (C100)
60 minutes per side (C120)
Read mechanism tape head
Write mechanism magnetic recording head
Usage audio and data storage

The Compact Cassette, often referred to as audio cassette, cassette tape, cassette, or simply tape, is a magnetic tape sound recording format. Although it was originally intended as a medium for dictation, improvements in fidelity led the Compact Cassette to supplant reel-to-reel tape recording in most non-professional applications.[1] Its uses ranged from portable audio to home recording to data storage for early microcomputers. Between the early 1970s and late 1990s, the cassette was one of the two most common formats for prerecorded music, first alongside the LP and later the Compact Disc.[2] The word cassette is a French word meaning "little box." Image File history File links CompactCassetteLogo. ... typical Audio Cassette - File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Compact audio cassette Magnetic tape is a non-volatile storage medium consisting of a magnetic coating on a thin plastic strip. ... Graphical representations of electrical data: analog audio content format (red), 4-bit digital pulse code modulated content format (black). ... An analog or analogue signal is any time continuous signal where some time varying feature of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity. ... A tape head is a type of transducer used in tape recorders to convert electrical signals to magnetic fluctuations and vice versa. ... In physics, magnetism is a phenomenon by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... A recording head is the physical interface between a recording apparatus and a moving recording medium. ... Compact audio cassette Magnetic tape is a non-volatile storage medium consisting of a magnetic coating on a thin plastic strip. ... Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ... Speech recognition technologies allow computers equipped with a source of sound input, such as a microphone, to interpret human speech, e. ... For the financial services company, see Fidelity Investments. ... A reel-to-reel tape recorder (Sony TC-630), typical of those which were once common audiophile objects. ... The Commodore 64 was one of the most popular microcomputers of its era, and is the best selling model of home computer of all time. ... A 12-inch record (left), a 7-inch record (right), and a CD (above) Two 7 singles (left), two colored 7 singles (middle), and two 7 singles with large spindle holes (right). ... CD redirects here. ...


Compact Cassettes consist of two miniature spools, between which a magnetic tape is passed and wound. These spools and their attendant parts are held inside a protective plastic shell. Two stereo pairs of tracks (four total) or two monaural audio tracks are available on the tape; one stereo pair or one monophonic track is played or recorded when the tape is moving in one direction and the second pair when moving in the other direction. This reversal is achieved either by manually flipping the cassette or by having the machine itself change the direction of tape movement ("auto-reverse").[3] Spool can mean the following: Bobbin, cylinder or reel for winding yarn, thread, cable, or film. ... Label for 2. ... Label for 1. ...

Contents

History

Philips introduced the compact audio cassette medium for audio storage in Europe in 1963, and in the United States in 1964, under the trademark name Compact Cassette. Although there were other magnetic tape cartridge systems at the time, the Compact Cassette became dominant as a result of Philips's decision (in the face of pressure from Sony) to license the format free of charge. It went on to become a popular (and re-recordable) alternative to the turntable for LP records during the late 1970s.[2] Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... Audio storage refers to techniques and formats used to store audio with the goal to reproduce the audio later using audio signal processing to something that resembles the original. ... “(TM)” redirects here. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... To licence or grant licence is to give permission. ... Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ... Tonearm redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gramophone_record. ...


Introduction of music cassettes

The mass production of compact audio cassettes began in 1964 in Hanover, Germany. Prerecorded music cassettes (also known as Musicassettes; M.C. for short) were launched in Europe in late 1965. The Mercury Record Company, a U.S. affiliate of Philips, introduced M.C to the U.S. in September 1966. The initial offering consisted of 49 titles.[4] , Hanover(i) (German: , IPA: ), on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ...


However, the system had been initially designed for dictation and portable use, with the audio quality of early players not well suited for music. Some early models also had unreliable mechanical design. In 1971 the Advent Corporation introduced their Model 201 tape deck that combined Dolby type B noise reduction and chromium dioxide (CrO2) tape. This resulted in the format being taken more seriously for musical use, and started the era of high-fidelity cassettes and players.[1] Henry Kloss (1929, Altoona, PA–January 31, 2002, Cambridge, MA) was a prominent audio engineer and businessman who helped advance high fidelity loudspeaker and radio receiver technology beginning in the 1950s. ... Dolby NR is a noise reduction system developed by Dolby Laboratories for use in analogue magnetic tape recording. ... Chromium dioxide is a synthetic magnetic mono-crystal invented by E.I. DuPont by decomposing chromium trioxide in the presence of water at a temperature of 900 degrees Fahrenheit. ... This article is about audiophile sound systems. ...


During the 1980s, the cassette's popularity grew further as a result of portable pocket recorders and hi-fi players such as Sony's Walkman, which used a body not much larger than the cassette tape itself, with mechanical keys on one side, or electronic buttons or display on the face. Some would partially collapse if they were not actually holding a cassette. Sony Walkman Official Logo (2000 — present) Various products of the Walkman line Walkman is a popular Sony brand used to market its portable audio and video players. ...

As the transistor radio defined small music in the 1960s, the portable CD player in the 1990s, and the MP3 player in the 2000s, so did the Walkman define very small portable music in the 1980s, with cassette sales overtaking those of LPs.[5][2] Total vinyl record sales remained higher well into the 1980s due to greater sales of singles, although cassette singles achieved popularity for a period in the 1990s.[5] Image File history File links WalkmanTPS-L2. ... Image File history File links WalkmanTPS-L2. ... SONY Recorder Walkman (TCM-S68V) MD Walkman The Sony Walkman personal stereo was a transistorized miniature portable cassette tape player invented by Akio Morita, Masaru Ibuka and Kozo Ohsone, and manufactured by Sony Corporation. ... Apple iPod, the best-selling hard drive-based player An embedded hard drive-based player (Creative ZEN Vision:M) An MP3 CD player (Philips Expanium) More commonly referred to as an MP3 player, a digital audio player or DAP is a portable, handheld digital music player that stores, organizes and... A 12-inch record (left), a 7-inch record (right), and a CD (above) Two 7 singles (left), two colored 7 singles (middle), and two 7 singles with large spindle holes (right). ... A 12-inch record (left), a 7-inch record (right), and a CD (above) Two 7 singles (left), two colored 7 singles (middle), and two 7 singles with large spindle holes (right). ... Insert from the Winter cassette single by Tori Amos The cassette single was a music recording format that debuted in the 80s. ...


Apart from the purely technical advances cassettes brought, they also served as catalysts for social change. Their durability and ease of copying helped bring underground rock and punk music behind the Iron Curtain, creating a foothold for Western culture among the younger generations.[6] For similar reasons, cassettes became popular in developing nations. Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ...


One of the most famous political uses of cassette tapes was the dissemination of sermons by the Ayatollah Khomeini throughout Iran before the 1979 Iranian revolution, in which Khomeini urged the overthrow of the regime of the Shah. Grand Ayatullah Sayid Ruhullah Musawi Khomeini ( ) (Persian: RÅ«ullāh MÅ«sawÄ« KhumaynÄ« (September 21, 1900 [1]– June 3, 1989) was a senior Shi`i Muslim cleric, Islamic philosopher and marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... His Majesty Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (اعلیحضرت محمدرضا شاه پهلوی; October 26, 1919 – July 27, 1980) also knows as Aryamehr, was the last Shah of Iran, ruling from 1941 until 1979. ...


In 1970s India, they were blamed for bringing unwanted secular influences into traditionally religious areas. Cassette technology created a booming market for pop music in India, drawing criticism from conservatives while at the same time creating a huge market for legitimate recording companies and pirated tapes.[7] In some countries, particularly in the developing countries, cassettes still remain the dominant medium for purchasing and listening to music.[8]  High human development Medium human development Low human development Unavailable (colour-blind compliant map)   Developing countries not listed as least developed countries or as newly industrialized countries, in their respective articles. ...


Decline

In many Western countries, the market for cassettes has declined sharply since its peak in the late 1980s. This has been particularly noticeable with pre-recorded cassettes, whose sales were overtaken by those of Compact Discs during the early 1990s. By 1993, annual shipments of CD players had reached 5 million, up 21% from the year before, while cassette player shipments had dropped 7% to approximately 3.4 million.[9] The decline continued such that in 2001 cassettes accounted for only 4% of all music sold. Since then, the pre-recorded market has undergone further decline, with few retailers stocking them because they are no longer issued by the major music labels.[8] Sales of music cassettes in the U.S. dropped from 442 million in 1990 to about 700,000 in 2006. [10] However, as of early 2008, blank cassettes are still being produced and are sold at many retail stores, and facilities for cassette duplication remain available. Cassette recorders and players are gradually becoming scarcer, but are still widely available and still feature in a notable percentage of Hi-Fi systems.[11] CD redirects here. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Cassettes remained popular for specific applications, such as car audio, well into the 1990s. Cassettes and their players were typically more rugged and resistant to dust, heat and shocks than the main digital competitor (the CD). Their lower fidelity was not considered a serious drawback inside the typically noisy automobile interior of the time. However, the advent of "shock proof" buffering technology in CD players, the reduction in in-car noise levels and the general heightening of consumer expectations meant that by the late 1990s, the CD had replaced the cassette as the default audio component in the majority of new vehicles in Europe and America. It has been suggested that In car entertainment be merged into this article or section. ... In computing, a buffer is a region of memory used to temporarily hold output or input data, comparable to buffers in telecommunication. ...


While digital voice recorders are now common, Compact Cassette (or frequently microcassette) recorders tend to be cheaper and of sufficient quality to serve as adjuncts or substitutes for note taking in business and educational settings. Audiobooks, church services, and other spoken word material are still frequently sold on cassette, as lower fidelity is generally not a drawback for such content. While most publishers sell CD audiobooks, they usually also offer a cassette version at the same price. In the audiobooks application, where recordings may span several hours, cassettes also have the advantage of holding up to 120 minutes of material whereas the average CD holds less than 80.[11] A microcassette in front of a compact audio cassette. ... An audio book is a recording of the contents of a book read aloud. ...


While cassettes and related equipment have become increasingly marginal in commercial music sales, recording on analog tape remains a desirable option for some.


Features of the cassette

The cassette was a great step forward in convenience from reel-to-reel audio tape recording, though because of the limitations of the cassette's size and speed, it initially compared poorly in quality. Unlike the 4-track stereo open reel format, the two stereo tracks of each side lie adjacent to each other rather than being interleaved with the tracks of the other side. This permitted monaural cassette players to play stereo recordings "summed" as mono tracks and permitted stereo players to play mono recordings through both speakers. The tape is 3.81 mm (0.150 in) wide, with each stereo track 0.6 mm wide and an unrecorded guard band between each track. The tape moves at 4.76 cm/s (1 7/8 in/s) from left to right.[12] For comparison, the typical open reel format in consumer use was ¼ inch (6.35 mm) wide, each stereo track nominally 116 inch (1.59 mm) wide, and running at either 9.5 or 19 cm/s (3.75 or 7.5 in/s). A reel-to-reel tape recorder (Sony TC-630), typical of those which were once common audiophile objects. ... A guard band is a small part of the radio spectrum in between radio bands, for the purpose of preventing interference. ... Inches per second is a unit of speed or velocity. ...


Cassette types

Notches on the top surface of the audio cassette indicate its type. The top cassette, with only write protect notches (here covered by write protect tabs), is a Type I. The next cassette down, with additional notches adjacent to the write protect notch, is a Type II. The bottom two cassettes, featuring the Type II notches plus an additional pair in the middle of the cassette are type IV (metal); note the removal of the tabs on the second of these, meaning the tape is write-protected.
Notches on the top surface of the audio cassette indicate its type. The top cassette, with only write protect notches (here covered by write protect tabs), is a Type I. The next cassette down, with additional notches adjacent to the write protect notch, is a Type II. The bottom two cassettes, featuring the Type II notches plus an additional pair in the middle of the cassette are type IV (metal); note the removal of the tabs on the second of these, meaning the tape is write-protected.

The original magnetic material was based on gamma ferric oxide (Fe2O3). Circa 1970, 3M Company developed a cobalt volume-doping process combined with a double-coating technique to enhance overall tape output levels. This product was marketed as "High Energy" under its Scotch brand of recording tapes.[13] Inexpensive cassettes are commonly labeled "low-noise", but typically are not optimized for high frequency response. ImageMetadata File history File links Cassette_Write_Protect_IV.jpg Summary Cassette tapes, showing write protect tabs removed on bottom tape, type IV (metal). ... ImageMetadata File history File links Cassette_Write_Protect_IV.jpg Summary Cassette tapes, showing write protect tabs removed on bottom tape, type IV (metal). ... Iron(III) oxide - also known as ferric oxide, red iron oxide, synthetic maghemite, rouge,or rust - is one of several oxide compounds of iron, and is most notable for its ferromagnetic properties. ... This article is about the American company, for the Russian company involved in a pyramid scheme, see MMM (pyramid) 3M Company (NYSE: MMM) (originally Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company) is an American corporation with a worldwide presence that produces over 55,000 products, including adhesives, abrasives, laminates, electronic circuits and... Frequency response is the measure of any systems response to frequency, but is usually used in connection with electronic amplifiers and similar systems, particularly in relation to audio signals. ...


At about the same time chromium dioxide (CrO2) was introduced by BASF,[14] and then coatings using magnetite (Fe3O4) such as TDK's Audua were produced in an attempt to approach the sound quality of vinyl records. Cobalt-adsorbed iron oxide (Avilyn) was introduced by TDK in 1974 and proved very successful. Finally pure metal particles (as opposed to oxide formulations) were introduced in 1979 by 3M under the trade name Metafine. The tape coating on most Cassettes sold today as either "Normal" or "Chrome" consists of Ferric Oxide and Cobalt mixed in varying ratios (and using various processes); there are very few cassettes on the market that use a pure (CrO2) coating.[2] Chromium dioxide is a synthetic magnetic mono-crystal invented by E.I. DuPont by decomposing chromium trioxide in the presence of water at a temperature of 900 degrees Fahrenheit. ... This article is about the German chemical company. ... Magnetite is a ferrimagnetic mineral with chemical formula Fe3O4, one of several iron oxides and a member of the spinel group. ... TDK Corporation (TDK株式会社), formerly Tokyo Denkikagaku Kogyo K.K. (東京電気化学工業株式会社), (TYO: 6762), NYSE: TDK, LSE: TDK is a Japanese company that manufactures electronic materials, electronic components, and recording and data-storage media. ... A gramophone record, (also phonograph record - often simply record) is an analog sound recording medium: a flat disc rotating at a constant angular velocity, with inscribed spiral grooves in which a stylus or needle rides. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ...


Simple voice recorders are designed to work with standard ferric formulations. High fidelity tape decks are usually built with switches or detectors for the different bias and equalization requirements for high performance tapes. The most common, iron oxide tapes (defined by an IEC standard as "Type I"), use 120 µs playback equalization, while chrome and cobalt-absorbed tapes (IEC Type II) require 70 µs playback equalization. The recording "bias" equalizations were also different (and had a much longer time constant). Sony tried a dual layer tape with both ferric oxide and chrome dioxide known as 'ferrichrome' (FeCr) (IEC Type III) but these were only available for a short time in the 1970s. Metal Cassettes (IEC Type IV), also use 70 µs playback equalization, and provide still further improvements in sound quality, as well as improved resistance to wear.[13] The quality is normally reflected in the price; Type I cassettes are generally cheapest, and Type IV usually the most expensive. BASF developed a chrome cassette designed for use with 120 µs (type I) playback equalization (for improved compatability with equipment lacking a 70µs setting) but this idea only caught on for commercially pre-recorded cassettes.[2] Tape bias is a high-frequency signal (generally from 40 to 150 kHz) added to the audio signal recorded on an analog tape recorder. ... For information about Canadas fiscal transfer system, see Equalization payments. ... The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization dealing with electrical, electronic and related technologies. ... Look up second in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ...


Notches on top of the cassette shell indicate the type of tape within. Type I cassettes only have write-protect notches, Type II have an additional pair next to the write protection ones, and Type IV (metal) have a third set in the middle of the cassette shell. These allow cassette decks to automatically detect the tape type and select the proper bias and equalization. Many inexpensive models (and the majority of those manufactured recently) may lack this feature. Playback of Type II and IV tapes on such a player will produce exaggerated treble, but it may not be noticeable because typically such devices have amplifiers that lack extended high frequency output. Recording on these units however results in very low sound reproduction and sometimes distortion and hiss is heard. Also, these cheaper units cannot erase high bias or metal bias tapes. Attempting to do so will result in "print-through". Write protection, (also known as record protection) is a mechanism that prevents erasure of valuable data by the accidental recording or storing of new data. ... A typical front loading consumer autoreverse hi-fi cassette deck from lte 1980s (SONY TC-RX55), features full electronic transport, Dolby B, C noise reduction and HXPro dynamic headroom expansion A cassette deck is a type of tape recorder for playing or recording audio compact cassettes. ... Print-through (sometimes referred to as bleed-through) is a generally undesirable effect that arises in the use of magnetic tape for storing analogue information, in particular music. ...


Playback length

Cassettes of varying tape quality and playing time
Cassettes of varying tape quality and playing time

Tape length is usually measured in minutes of total playing time. The most popular varieties are C46 (23 minutes per side), C60 (30 minutes per side), C90, and C120. The C46 and C60 lengths are typically 15–16 µm thick, but C90s are 10–11 µm and C120s are just 9 µm thick, rendering them more susceptible to stretching or breakage. Some vendors are more generous than others, providing 132 meters or 135 meters rather than 129 meters of tape for a C90 cassette. C180 and even C240 tapes were available at one time, but these were extremely thin and fragile and suffered badly from effects such as print-through, which made them unsuitable for general use. Other lengths are (or were) also available from some vendors, including C10 and C15 (useful for saving data from early home computers), C30, C50, C54, C64, C70, C74, C80, C84, C100, C105, and C110.[13] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2440x1452, 1780 KB) Description: A photograph showing three types of compact audio cassette. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2440x1452, 1780 KB) Description: A photograph showing three types of compact audio cassette. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length. ... Print-through (sometimes referred to as bleed-through) is a generally undesirable effect that arises in the use of magnetic tape for storing analogue information, in particular music. ...


Some companies included a complimentary blank cassette with their portable cassette recorders in the early 1980s. Panasonic's was a C14 and came with a song recorded on side one, and a blank side two. Except for C74 and C100, such non-standard lengths have always been hard to find, and tend to be more expensive than the more popular lengths. Home taping enthusiasts may have found certain lengths useful for fitting an album neatly on one or both sides of a tape. For instance, the initial maximum playback time of Compact Discs was 74 minutes, explaining the relative popularity of C74 cassettes.

Inside a cassette. "Supply reel" and "takeup reel" are from the point of view of the player looking at the back of the cassette: when viewed from the front of the machine, the tape "plays" from left to right (though of course an auto-reverse deck can play in either direction). The tape is pressed into close contact with the head by the pressure pad; guide rollers help keep the tape in the correct position. Smooth running is assisted by a slippery liner between the spools and the shell; here the liner is transparent. The magnetic shield reduces pickup of stray signals by the heads of the player.
Inside a cassette. "Supply reel" and "takeup reel" are from the point of view of the player looking at the back of the cassette: when viewed from the front of the machine, the tape "plays" from left to right (though of course an auto-reverse deck can play in either direction). The tape is pressed into close contact with the head by the pressure pad; guide rollers help keep the tape in the correct position. Smooth running is assisted by a slippery liner between the spools and the shell; here the liner is transparent. The magnetic shield reduces pickup of stray signals by the heads of the player.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (994x752, 123 KB) Summary I made this. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (994x752, 123 KB) Summary I made this. ...

Write-protection

All cassettes include a write protection mechanism to prevent re-recording and accidental erasure of important material. Each side of the cassette has a plastic tab on the top that may be broken off, leaving a small indentation in the shell. This indentation allows the entry of a sensing lever that prevents the operation of the recording function when the cassette is inserted into a cassette deck. If the cassette is held with one of the labels facing the user and the tape opening at the bottom, the write-protect tab for the corresponding side is at the top-left. Occasionally, manufacturers provided a movable panel that could be used to enable or disable write-protect on tapes. Write protection, (also known as record protection) is a mechanism that prevents erasure of valuable data by the accidental recording or storing of new data. ...


If later required, a piece of adhesive tape can be placed over the indentation to bypass the protection, or (on some decks), the lever can be manually depressed to record on a protected tape. Extra care is required to avoid covering the additional indents on high bias tape cassettes adjacent to the write-protect tabs. Two rolls of adhesive tape. ... Tape bias is a high-frequency signal (generally from 40 to 150 kHz) added to the audio signal recorded on an analog tape recorder. ...


Cassette players and recorders

The first cassette machines were simple mono record and playback units. Early machines required attaching an external dynamic microphone. Most units after the 1970s also incorporated built-in condenser microphones, which have extended high frequency response, but may also pick up noises from the recorder motor. A common portable recorder format still common today is a long box, the width of a cassette, with a speaker at the top, a cassette bay in the middle, and "piano key" controls at the bottom edge. The markings of "piano key" controls near the handle were soon standardized and is a legacy still emulated on many software control panels, though many DVD panels have eliminated the fast forward and rewind buttons in favor of next and previous tracks, which are only implemented on machines which have logic to search for blank spots in the tape. These symbols are commonly the square for stop, right pointing triangle for play, double triangles for fast forward and rewind, red dot for record, and a vertically-divided square (two rectangles side-by-side) for the pause button. Another format is only slightly larger than the cassette, also adapted for stereo "Walkman" player applications. A Dynamic microphone is a kind of microphone that uses electromagnetics to create an electric current to be reproduced as sound by a speaker. ...

Main article: Cassette deck
A typical portable desktop cassette recorder from RadioShack.

Stereo recorders eventually evolved into high fidelity and were known as "cassette decks", after the reel-to-reel "decks". Many formats of cassette players and recorders have evolved over the years. Initially all were top loading, usually with cassette on one side, VU meters and recording level controls on the other side. Older models used combinations of levers and sliding buttons for control. A typical front loading consumer autoreverse hi-fi cassette deck from lte 1980s (SONY TC-RX55), features full electronic transport, Dolby B, C noise reduction and HXPro dynamic headroom expansion A cassette deck is a type of tape recorder for playing or recording audio compact cassettes. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (1728 × 1152 pixel, file size: 406 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) RadioShack desktop cassette recorder and two cassettes sitting on a hardwood chess board. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (1728 × 1152 pixel, file size: 406 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) RadioShack desktop cassette recorder and two cassettes sitting on a hardwood chess board. ... The exterior of a typical free-standing RadioShack store. ... A VU meter is often included in analog audio equipment to display a signal level in volume units. ...

Nakamichi RX-505 audio cassette deck
Nakamichi RX-505 audio cassette deck

A major innovation was the front-loading arrangement. Pioneer's angled cassette bay and the exposed bays of some Sansui models were eventually standardized as a front-loading door into which a cassette would be loaded. Later models would adopt electronic buttons, and replace conventional meters (which could be "pegged" when overloaded) with electronic LED or vacuum fluorescent displays, with level controls typically either being controlled by rotary controls or side-by-side sliders. BIC briefly offered models which could be run at double speeds, but Nakamichi was widely recognized as one of the first companies to create decks which rivaled reel-to-reel decks with frequency response from the full 20–20,000 Hz range, low noise, and very low wow and flutter.[15][16] The 3 headed closed-loop dual capstan Nakamichi 1000 (1973) is considered to be the first truly Audiophile High Fidelity Cassette Deck ever made. Unlike typical cassette decks, the recording and playback functions were split onto separate heads (with the third head being the erase head), allowing each to be optimized. Image File history File links Nakamichi_RX_505_Front_edited. ... Image File history File links Nakamichi_RX_505_Front_edited. ... Nakamichi Corporate Logo Nakamichi is a historic high end audio audio company most famous for its innovative and very high quality cassette decks. ... Nakamichi ) Traditional Chinese: is a historic Japanese high end audio audio company most famous for its innovative and very high quality cassette decks. ... Old Pioneer Logo (Until 1998) Pioneer Corporation ) (TYO: 6773 ) is a Japanese multinational corporation that specializes in digital entertainment products, based in Tokyo, Japan. ... External links LEd Category: TeX ... A full view of a typical vacuum fluorescent display used in a videocassette recorder A close-up of the VFD highlighting the multiple filaments, tensioned by the sheet metal springs at the right of the image A vacuum fluorescent display (VFD) is a type of display used commonly on consumer... Nakamichi Corporate Logo Nakamichi is a historic high end audio audio company most famous for its innovative and very high quality cassette decks. ... Wow is a relatively slow form of flutter (pitch variation) which can affect both gramophone records and audio cassettes. ...


Other contenders for the highest, "HiFi" quality on this medium were two companies already widely known for their excellent quality reel-to-reel tape recorders: Tandberg and Revox (consumer brand of the Swiss professional Studer company for studio equipment). Tandberg started with combi-head machines like the TCD 300 and continued with the TCD 3x0 series with separate playback and recording heads. All TCD-models possessed dual capstan drives, beltdriven from a single capstan motor and two separate reel motors. Frequency range extended to 18 kHz. When Tandberg entered the much more competitive TV-market it folded and revived without the HiFi-branch these came from. For other uses, see Tandberg (disambiguation). ... ReVox is a brand name of Swiss audio equipment created by Studer in the 1950s. ... Studer is a manufacturer of Swiss audio equipment. ...


Revox went one step further: after hesitating long whether to accept cassettes as a medium capable for meeting their strict standards from reel to reel recorders at all, they produced their B710MK I (Dolby B) and MK II (Dolby B&C) machines. Both cassette units possessed double capstan drives, but with two independent, electronically controlled capstan motors and two separate reel motors. The head assembly moved by actuating a damped solenoid movement, eliminating all kind of belt drives and other wearable parts. These machines rivaled the Nakamichi in frequency and dynamic range. The B710MKII also achieved 20-20kHZ and dynamics of over 72 dB with Dolby C on chrome and slightly less dynamic range, but a larger headroom with metal tapes and Dolby C. Revox adjusted the frequency range on delivery with many years of use in mind: when new the frequency curve went upwards a few dB at 15-20kHz, aiming for flat response after 15 years of use and headwear to match. For other uses, see Dynamic range (disambiguation). ...


A last step taken by Revox produced even more advanced cassette drives with electronic finetuning of bias and equalization during recording. Revox also produced amplifiers, a very expensive FM tuner and a pickup with a special parallel arm mechanism of their own design. After which this company also got in financial difficulties and Studer had to save itself by folding its Revox-branch and all its consumer products (except their last reel to reel recorder the B77).


Note that while Nakamichi violated the tape recording standards to achieve the highest dynamics possible, producing non-compatible cassettes for playback on other machines, both Tandberg and Revox kept to the standards and produced cassettes which could be played back on other machines.


A third company, the well known Danish Bang & Olufsen invented a special, improved system for improving headroom at high frequencies, to reduce tape saturation despite lower bias levels. This "head room extension method, HX" was called Dolby HX Pro in full and patented. Their finest machine with HX Pro was the Beocord 8000, which indeed performed excellent as far as electronics were concerned. However this machine possessed only one drive motor and many belt and wheels in a complicated arrangement. The effect, higher wow and flutter levels with less than perfect cassettes, did not make the B&O contender a popular choice with HiFi enthusiasts. Most of them favored Nakamichi, Tandberg or Revox instead, which all were mechanically much more reliable over the years. Logo of Bang & Olufsen Beolit 39 from 1938, B&O:s first Radio in Bakelite Bang & Olufsen (B&O) is a Danish company that designs and manufactures high end audio products, television sets, and telephones. ... Dolby NR is a noise reduction system developed by Dolby Laboratories for use in analogue magnetic tape recording. ... Logo of Bang & Olufsen Beolit 39 from 1938, B&O:s first Radio in Bakelite Bang & Olufsen (B&O) is a Danish company that designs and manufactures high end audio products, television sets, and telephones. ...


As they became aimed at more casual users, fewer decks had microphone inputs. Dual decks became popular and incorporated into home entertainment systems of all sizes for tape dubbing. Although the quality would suffer each time a source was copied, there are no mechanical restrictions on copying from a record, radio, or another cassette source. Even as CD recorders are becoming more popular, some incorporate cassette decks for professional applications.

An assortment of boomboxes
An assortment of boomboxes

Another format that made an impact on culture in the 1980s was the "boom box" which combined the portable cassette deck with speakers capable of producing significant sound levels. The boom box became synonymous with urban youth culture in entertainment, which led to the somewhat derisive nickname "ghetto blaster". Image File history File linksMetadata Ghettoblaster-family. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ghettoblaster-family. ... A Boombox or Boom-box is a portable stereo system capable of playing radio stations or recorded music (usually cassettes and/or, more recently, CDs), at relatively high volume. ... A boombox or boom box is a portable stereo system capable of playing radio stations or recorded music at relatively high volume. ...


Applications for car stereos varied widely. Auto manufacturers in the U.S. would typically fit a cassette slot into their standard large radio faceplates. Europe and Asia would standardize on DIN and double DIN sized faceplates. In the 1980s, a high end installation would have a Dolby AM/FM cassette deck, and they rendered the 8-track cartridge obsolete in car installations because of space, performance and audio quality. As the cost of building CD players declined, many manufacturers offered a CD player, but some cars, especially those targeted at older drivers still offer the option of a cassette player, either by itself, or sometimes in combination with a CD slot. The newest cars often are not designed to accommodate any cassette drive, but the auxiliary jack advertised for MP3 players can also be used with portable cassette players. International standard ISO 7736 defines a standard size for car audio head units. ... The 8-track cartridge or Stereo 8 is a magnetic tape technology for audio storage, popular from the mid-1960s to the early 1980s. ...

A head cleaning cassette
A head cleaning cassette

Although the cassettes themselves were relatively durable, the players required regular maintenance to perform properly. Head cleaning may be done with long swabs, or cassette-shaped devices that could be inserted into a tape deck to polish the heads and remove smudges and dirt. Similarly shaped demagnetizers used magnets to degauss the deck, which kept sound from becoming distorted. A common mechanical problem occurred when a worn-out or dirty player rotated the supply spool faster than the take-up spool or failed to release the heads from the tape upon ejection. This would cause the magnetic tape to be fed out through the bottom of the cassette and become tangled in the mechanism of the player. In these cases the player was said to have "eaten" the tape, and it often destroyed the playability of the cassette altogether, and resulted in the common sight of tangled tape on the side of the road.[17] Cutting blocks, analogous to those used for open reel 1/4" tape, were readily available though, but mainly used for retrieving valued recordings, through removing the damaged portion of, or repairing the break in, the tape. Creation of compilations was usually by re-recording rather than splicing sections of songs because of the much smaller tape area. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 481 pixels Full resolution (2524 × 1518 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 481 pixels Full resolution (2524 × 1518 pixel, file size: 2. ... A recording head is the physical interface between a recording apparatus and a moving recording medium. ... Degaussing, named after the German scientist Carl Friedrich Gauss, is the process of removing permanent magnetism (magnetic hysteresis) from an object. ...


Applications

Audio

The Compact Cassette was originally intended for use in dictation machines. In this capacity, some later-model cassette-based dictation machines could also run the tape at half speed (1516 in/s) as playback quality was not critical. The Compact Cassette soon became a popular medium for distributing prerecorded music—initially through The Philips Record Company (and subsidiary labels Mercury and Philips in the U.S.). As of 2006, one finds cassettes used for a variety of purposes such as journalism, oral history, meeting and interview transcripts and so on. However, they are starting to give way to Compact Discs and more "compact" storage media. Speech recognition technologies allow computers equipped with a source of sound input, such as a microphone, to interpret human speech, e. ... Journalism is a discipline of gathering, writing and reporting news, and broadly it includes the process of editing and presenting the news articles. ...


Home studio

In the 1980s, Tascam introduced the Portastudio line of four and eight-track cassette recorders for home studio use. TASCAM is credited as the company that invented the affordable home recording studio. ... The TASCAM Portastudio was the worlds first four track recorder based on a standard compact audio cassette tape. ...


In the simplest configuration, rather than playing a pair of stereo channels of each side of the cassette, the typical "portastudio" used a four-track tape head assembly to access four tracks on the cassette at once (with the tape playing in one direction). Each track could be recorded to, erased or played back individually, allowing amateur musicians (and some professionals) to overdub themselves and create simple multitrack recordings easily, which could then be mixed down to a finished stereo version on an external machine. To increase audio quality in these recorders, the tape speed is sometimes doubled in comparison to the standard; additionally, dbx, Dolby B or Dolby C noise reduction provides compansion (compression of the signal during recording with equal and opposite expansion of the signal during playback), which yields increased dynamic range by lowering the noise level and increasing the maximum signal level before distortion occurs. Multi-track cassette recorders with built-in mixer and signal routing features provide a wide range of features and benefits from easy-to-use beginner units up to professional level recording systems.[18] Les Paul, a pioneer of multi-track recording. ... The logo represents both the company and its noise reduction system dbx is a noise reduction system for analog tape recording, North American TV broadcasting, and, less commonly, vinyl LPs. ... Dolby NR is a noise reduction system developed by Dolby Laboratories for use in analogue magnetic tape recording. ... A waveform before and after the compression stage of companding In telecommunication, signal processing, and thermodynamics, companding (occasionally called compansion) is a method of reducing the effects of a channel with limited dynamic range. ... For other uses, see Dynamic range (disambiguation). ... In telecommunications a mixer is a frequency mixer. ...


Although professional musicians typically only used multitrack cassette machines as "sketchpads", an exception is Bruce Springsteen's "Nebraska" which was recorded entirely on a Portastudio. Springsteen redirects here. ... Nebraska is the sixth album by Bruce Springsteen, released in 1982 (see 1982 in music). ...


Home dubbing

Most cassettes were sold blank and used for recording (dubbing) the owner's records (as backup or to make mixtape compilations), their friends' records or music from the radio. This practice was condemned by the music industry with such slogans as "Home Taping is Killing Music". However, many claimed that the medium was ideal for spreading new music and would increase sales, and strongly defended at least their right to copy their own records onto tape. For a limited time in the early 1980s Island Records sold chromium dioxide “One Plus One” cassettes that had an album prerecorded on one side and the other was left blank for the purchaser to use. Cassettes were also a boon to people wishing to tape concerts (unauthorized or authorized) for sale or trade, a practice tacitly or overtly encouraged by many bands with a more counterculture bent such as the Grateful Dead. Blank Compact Cassettes also were an invaluable tool to spread the music of unsigned acts, especially within Tape trading networks. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1538x420, 39 KB) A Magnavox dual cassette deck with high speed dubbing. ... In sound recording, dubbing is the transfer of recorded audio material from one medium to another of the same or a different type. ... For the album by Los Abandoned, see Mix Tape (album). ... The original logo. ... Island Records is a record label that was founded by British record producers in Jamaica. ... For other uses, see Bootleg. ... This article is about the band. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Various legal cases arose surrounding the dubbing of cassettes. In the UK, in the case of CBS Songs v. Amstrad (1988), the House of Lords found in favor of Amstrad that producing equipment that facilitated the dubbing of cassettes, in this case a high-speed twin cassette deck that allowed one cassette to be copied directly onto another, did not constitute the infringement of copyright.[19] In a similar case, a shop owner who rented cassettes and sold blank tapes was not liable for copyright infringement even though it was clear that his customers were likely dubbing them at home.[20] In both cases, the courts held that manufacturers and retailers could not be held accountable for the actions of consumers. Amstrad is a manufacturer of electronics based in Brentwood in Essex, England and founded in 1968 by Sir Alan Michael Sugar in the UK. The name is a contraction of Alan Michael Sugar Trading. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... Amstrad is a manufacturer of electronics based in Brentwood in Essex, England and founded in 1968 by Sir Alan Michael Sugar in the UK. The name is a contraction of Alan Michael Sugar Trading. ...


As an alternative to home dubbing, in the late 1980s, the Personics company installed booths in record stores across America which allowed customers to make personalised mixtapes from a digitally-encoded back-catalogue with customised printed covers.


Data recording

A C2N Datassette recorder for Commodore computers
A C2N Datassette recorder for Commodore computers
German-made cassettes sold for computer data recording, circa 1980
German-made cassettes sold for computer data recording, circa 1980

The Hewlett Packard HP 9830 was one of the first desktop computers in the early 1970s to use automatically controlled cassette tapes for storage. It could save and find files by number, using a clear leader to detect the end of tape. These would be replaced by specialized cartridges such as the 3M DC-series. Many of the earliest microcomputers implemented the Kansas City standard for digital data storage. Most home computers of the late 1970s and early 1980s could use cassettes for data storage as a cheaper alternative to floppy disks, though users often had to manually stop and start a cassette recorder. Even the first version of the IBM PC of 1981 had a cassette port and a command in its ROM BASIC programming language to use it. However, this was seldom used, as even then floppy drives had become commonplace in high-end machines. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1266x1032, 346 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Compact Cassette Datassette Commodore 64 peripherals ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1266x1032, 346 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Compact Cassette Datassette Commodore 64 peripherals ... The Commodore 1530* (C2N) Datassette (a portmanteau of data + cassette), was Commodores dedicated computer tape recorder. ... Commodore is the commonly used name for Commodore International, an electronics company who was a major player in the 1980s home computer field. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... HP redirects here. ... The Hewlett-Packard HP 9830A was the top of the line of the 9800 series programmable calculators, introduced in 1972. ... The Kansas City standard (abbreviated KCS) for storage of digital (micro)computer data on an ordinary compact audio cassette is also known as the BYTE standard, from its connection with BYTE magazine, or the Processor Technology CUTS (PT Computer Users Tape Standard). ... Children playing on a Amstrad CPC 464 in the 1980s. ... A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible (floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell. ... IBM PC (IBM 5150) with keyboard and green screen monochrome monitor (IBM 5151), running MS-DOS 5. ... Read-only memory (usually known by its acronym, ROM) is a class of storage media used in computers and other electronic devices. ... Microsoft BASICA (short for Advanced BASIC) is a simple disk-based BASIC interpreter written by Microsoft for PC-DOS. BASICA allows use of the ROM-resident BASIC on the PC while DOS is loaded (the ROM BASIC itself runs when nothing is loaded when booting) and adds functionality such as...


The typical encoding method for computer data was simple FSK which resulted in typical data rates of 500 to 2000 bit/s, although some games used special faster loading routines, up to around 4000-bit/s. A rate of 2000-bit/s equates to a capacity of around 660 kilobytes per side of a 90-minute tape. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with audio frequency-shift keying. ... In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (sometimes written bitrate) is the frequency at which bits are passing a given (physical or metaphorical) point. It is quantified using the bit per second (bit/s) unit. ... A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1,000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to either 1,000 bytes or 1,024 bytes (210), depending on context. ...


Among home computers that primarily used data cassettes for storage in the late 1970s were Commodore PET (early models of which had a cassette drive built-in), TRS-80 and Apple II Plus, until the introduction of floppy disc drives and hard drives in the early 1980s made cassettes virtually obsolete for day-to-day use in the US. However, they remained in use on some portable systems such as the TRS-80 Model 100 line until the early 1990s. Due to the high price of disks, cassettes also remained the primary data storage medium for 8-bit computers in many countries (for example, the UK, where 8-bit software was mostly sold on cassette until that market disappeared altogether in the early 1990s.) The PET (Personal Electronic Transactor) was a home-/personal computer produced by Commodore starting in the late 1970s. ... For the Chicago-based electronica group, see TRS-80 (group). ... The Apple II Plus was the second model of the Apple II series of personal computers produced by Apple Computer. ... A floppy disk is a data storage device that comprises a circular piece of thin, flexible (hence floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic wallet. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... TRS 80 Model 100 was a portable computer introduced in 1983, made by Kyocera, and sold by Radio Shack. ...


In some countries, including Poland and the Netherlands, audio cassette data storage was so popular that some radio stations would broadcast computer programs that listeners could record onto cassette and then load into their computer. [21] See BASICODE. Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... The compact audio cassette, the typical BASICODE data storage medium. ...


The use of better modulation techniques like QPSK or those used in modern modems, combined with the improved bandwidth and signal to noise ratio of newer cassette tapes, allowed much greater capacities (up to 60 MB) and speeds (10–17 kB/s for data rate) on each cassette. These were typically used as hard disk backup for PCs in the late 1980s. They also found use during the 1980s in data loggers for scientific and industrial equipment. In telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying a periodic waveform, i. ... Quadrature phase-shift keying (quadriphase, quaternary phase-shift keying) is a form of modulation in which a carrier is sent in four phases, 45, 135, 225, and 315 degrees, and the change in phase from one symbol to the next encodes two bits per symbol. ... A modem (a portmanteau word constructed from modulator and demodulator) is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal (sound), to encode digital information, and that also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. ... Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower cutoff frequencies of, for example, a filter, a communication channel, or a signal spectrum, and is typically measured in hertz. ... The phrase signal-to-noise ratio, often abbreviated SNR or S/N, is an engineering term for the ratio between the magnitude of a signal (meaningful information) and the magnitude of background noise. ... This article is about a unit of data. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... A stylised illustration of a modern personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a computer whose original sales price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals. ... A data logger (sometimes spelt Datalogger) is an electronic instrument (or specialised computing device in some cases) that records digital, analogue, frequency or smart protocol based measurements over time. ...


Successors

A Compact Cassette and a microcassette
A Compact Cassette and a microcassette

Technical development of the cassette effectively ceased when digital recordable media such as DAT and MiniDisc were introduced in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Anticipating the switch from analog to digital, major companies such as Sony shifted their focus to new media.[22] In 1992, Philips introduced the Digital Compact Cassette (DCC), a DAT-like tape in the same form factor as the compact audio cassette. It was aimed primarily at the consumer market. A DCC deck could play back both types of cassettes. Unlike DAT, which was accepted in professional usage because it could record without lossy compression effects, DCC failed in both home and mobile environments, and was discontinued in 1996.[23] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2360x1535, 1890 KB) Description: A photograph of a compact audio cassette and a microcassette. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2360x1535, 1890 KB) Description: A photograph of a compact audio cassette and a microcassette. ... Digital audio tape can also refer to a compact cassette with digital storage. ... See also IBMs VM operating system family, where minidisk refers to a logical unit of storage. ... Digital Compact Cassette (DCC) was a short-lived magnetic tape sound recording format introduced by Philips and Matsushita in late 1992. ...


The microcassette has in many cases supplanted the full-sized audio cassette in situations where voice-level fidelity is all that is required, such as in dictation machines and answering machines. Even these, in turn, are starting to give way to digital recorders of various descriptions.[24] Since the rise of cheap CD-R discs, and flash memory-based digital audio players, the phenomenon of "home taping" has effectively switched to recording to Compact Disc or downloading from commercial or music sharing websites.[25] A microcassette in front of a compact audio cassette. ... An answering machine, also known as an answer machine (especially in UK and British commonwealth countries), ansafone (tradename [1]), ansaphone (tradename [2]), answerphone or telephone answering device (TAD), is a device for automatically answering telephone calls and recording messages left by callers. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A USB flash drive. ... A hard-drive-based player (Apple iPod) An MP3 CD player (Philips Expanium) A flash-based player (iBox Mediaman) A digital audio player (DAP) is a device that stores, organizes and plays digital music files. ...


Because of consumer demand, the cassette has remained influential on design over a decade after its decline as a media mainstay. As the Compact Disc grew in popularity, cassette-shaped audio adapters were developed to provide an economical and clear way to obtain CD functionality in vehicles equipped with cassette decks. A portable CD player would have its analog line-out connected to the adapter, which in turn fed the signal to the head of the cassette deck. These adapters continue to function with MP3 players as well, and are generally more reliable than the FM transmitters that must be used to adapt CD players to MP3s. MP3 players shaped as audio cassettes have also become available, which can be inserted into any tape player and communicate with the head as if they were normal cassettes.[26][27] A typical cassette adapter. ... Apple iPod, the best-selling hard drive-based player An embedded hard drive-based player (Creative ZEN Vision:M) An MP3 CD player (Philips Expanium) More commonly referred to as an MP3 player, a digital audio player or DAP is a portable, handheld digital music player that stores, organizes and...


Repair

Cassettes contain moving parts such as rollers which can become worn, leading to jamming or breakage of the magnetic tape itself. This need not spell the end of a valuable recording: one can extract the tape from the shell of its cartridge and transplant it into a new cartridge. "Eaten" tapes as described above can in many cases also be rescued after running the tapes' back side over a rounded surface such as a pen to re-flatten it as best as possible. A crude repair can even be performed on a severed tape by carefully aligning and reattaching the strand ends against a backing of special mylar splicing tape (normal adhesive tape should never be used on audio recording tape because the adhesive will "bleed" over time), then trimming excess on either side with scissors or a precision knife, enabling a basic playback such as for dubbing out to another recording device. Two rolls of adhesive tape. ...


Better-made compact cassettes are held together by a number of screws, so that they may be disassembled and reassembled. It may be helpful to practice the procedure on blank cassettes first. Care should be taken to ensure that the tape follows the correct path through the cassette before reassembly, and that all of the small parts are in their proper places. If the original, worn cassette is glued together instead of held together by screws, it can be cracked progressively open by inserting a thin blade of metal (such as a screwdriver or knife blade) in the seam between the halves of the cassette shell, while exercising care not to gouge or damage the reels.


The spools upon which the tape is wound are often slotted so that the end of the tape may be freed from one spool and secured to a new spool.


Two other common problems with cassette tapes are: 1) the tape winds unevenly inside the plastic case over time which gives rise to jamming during playback or rewinding, and 2) the felt pressure pad that contacts the magnetic tape eventually falls off. Two solutions: 1) slap the cassette on a flat surface several times and then rewind the tape all the way through without pause (this may have to be tried several times). 2) replace the part composed of the copper and felt pressure pad unit from an unused cassette tape.


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Cassette culture was in part an offshoot of the mail art movement of the 1970s and 1980s. ... Insert from the Winter cassette single by Tori Amos The cassette single was a music recording format that debuted in the 80s. ... CD, DVD and SACD player A Compact Disc player (often written as compact disc player), or CD player, is an electronic device which plays audio Compact Discs. ... Digital audio casette formats introduced to the audio professionals and consumer markets: Digital Audio Tape known more commonly as just DAT which had some success as a audio storage format among professionals before the prices of hard drives dropped and the capacities soared in the late 90s. ... The 8-track cartridge or Stereo 8 is a magnetic tape technology for audio storage, popular from the mid-1960s to the early 1980s. ... Elcaset was a short-lived audio format created by Sony in 1976. ... Electronic journalism -- known as EJ or ENG for electronic news gathering -- is most associated with broadcast news where producers, reporters and editors make use of electronic recording devices for gathering and presenting information in telecasts and radio transmissions reaching the public. ... The original logo. ... This is a list of audio formats, used for the distribution of recordings of music and other audio information. ... A microcassette in front of a compact audio cassette. ... A microcassette in front of a compact audio cassette. ... The compact audio cassette brought homemade mixes of pop songs within the reach of the casual music fan. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Fisher-Price PXL-2000 (also known as the PixelVision by Fisher-Price, and the KiddieCorder by some of its fans) was a toy black-and-white camcorder produced in 1987 that used an ordinary compact audio cassette as its recording medium. ... Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Marvin Camras (ed.) (1985). Magnetic Tape Recording. Van Nostrand Reinhold. ISBN 0-442-21774-9. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Eric D. Daniel, C. Dennis Mee, Mark H. Clark (1999). Magnetic Recording: The First 100 Years. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. ISBN 0-7803-4709-9. 
  3. ^ "Part 7: Cassette for commercial tape records and domestic use", International standard IEC 60094-7: Magnetic tape sound recording and reproducing systems. International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva. 
  4. ^ Leonard Copland, Robert Johns (November, 1966). "The Tape Cartridge Comes Of Age". Electronics World magazine.
  5. ^ a b Paul du Gay, Stuart Hall, Linda Janes, Hugh Mackay, Keith Negus (1997). Doing Cultural Studies: The Story of the Sony Walkman. Sage Publications Ltd. ISBN 0-7619-5402-3. 
  6. ^ Robin James. Cassette Mythos. ISBN 0-936756-69-1. 
  7. ^ Peter Manuel. (1993). Cassette Culture: Popular Music and Technology in North India. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-50401-8. 
  8. ^ a b Not long left for cassette tapes. BBC (17 June 2005). Retrieved on 13 September 2006.
  9. ^ Record and prerecorded tape stores. Gale Encyclopedia of American Industries (2005). Retrieved on 20 September 2006.
  10. ^ Reelin' in the years: Cassette tapes still have their devotees. LA Times (9 Aug 2007).
  11. ^ a b Janine Stoll (2000). The Dynapak Difference. The Indie Voice. Retrieved on 19 September 2006.
  12. ^ TDK cassette spec sheet Retrieved on March 27, 2007
  13. ^ a b c The Blank Tape Gallery. Retrieved on 13 September 2006.
  14. ^ Werner Abelshauser, Wolfgang von Hippel, Jeffrey Allan Johnson, Raymond G. Stokes (2003). German Industry and Global Enterprise: BASF: The History of a Company. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82726-4. 
  15. ^ John Atkinson (November 2002). 40 years of Stereophile: The Hot 100 Products. Retrieved on 13 September 2006.
  16. ^ David Price (January 2000). Olde Worlde - Nakamichi CR-7E Cassette Deck. Retrieved on 13 September 2006.
  17. ^ Steve Fluker. Trends in Technology: Recording Sound. Retrieved on 14 September 2006.
  18. ^ VintageCassette.com. Retrieved on 13 September 2006.
  19. ^ CBS Songs v. Amstrad (1988)
  20. ^ CBS v. Ames (1982)
  21. ^ Lennart Benschop. BASICODE. Retrieved on 2008-01-20.
  22. ^ Al Fasoldt. "Sony Unveils the Minidisc", The Syracuse Newspapers, 1991. 
  23. ^ Gijs Moes. "Successor of cassette failed: Philips stops production of DCC", Eindhovens Dagblad, 31 October 1996. 
  24. ^ Cassette vs. Digital. J&R Product Guide.
  25. ^ Phongraph records and prerecorded audio tapes and disks. Gale Encyclopedia of American Industries (2005). Retrieved on 20 September 2006.
  26. ^ Jer Davis (2000). The Rome MP3: Portable MP3 player—with a twist. The Tech Report. Retrieved on 18 September 2006.
  27. ^ C@MP CP-UF32/64 a New Portable Mp3-Player Review. Fastsite (2000). Retrieved on 18 September 2006.

Standards are produced by many organizations, some for internal usage only, others for use by a groups of people, groups of companies, or a subsection of an industry. ... The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization dealing with electrical, electronic and related technologies. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Al Fasoldt is a columnist for the Syracuse Post-Standard and for Mac Daily News. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... J&R is a well-known retail store in New York City, across from City Hall. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with audio storage. ... Analog recording is the first way humans were able to store sounds for later playback. ... The earliest method of recording and reproducing sound was on phonograph cylinders. ... A 12-inch record (left), a 7-inch record (right), and a CD (above) Two 7 singles (left), two colored 7 singles (middle), and two 7 singles with large spindle holes (right). ... A Peirce 55-B dictation wire recorder from 1945. ... A reel-to-reel tape recorder (Sony TC-630), typical of those which were once common audiophile objects. ... The SoundScriber was a dictation format introduced in 1945. ... The Gray Audograph was a dictation format introduced in 1945. ... 1917 Dictaphone advertisement A Dictaphone is a sound recording device most commonly used to record speech for later playback or to be typed into print. ... An LP Long playing (LP), either 10 or 12-inch diameter, 33 rpm (actually 33. ... A 12-inch record (left), a 7-inch record (right), and a CD (above) Two 7 singles (left), two colored 7 singles (middle), and two 7 singles with large spindle holes (right). ... The RCA Victor tape cartridge was a magnetic tape format designed to offer stereo quarter-inch reel-to-reel tape in a more convenient format for the home market. ... Fidelipac is the official name of the industry standard audio tape cartridge used for radio broadcasting for playback of material over the air such as commercials, jingles, station IDs, and music. ... Earl Madman Muntz (1917 â€“ 1987) was a legendary merchandiser of used cars and consumer electronics in the 1940s and 50s, mostly in California. ... Stereo 8, commonly known as the 8-track cartridge, or eight track tape in popular vernacular is a magnetic tape sound recording technology, popular from the mid-1960s to the early 1980s. ... PlayTape Specifications: * Channels = mono or stereo * Tape Width = 1/8 * Tape Speed = ...? Other Information: * Over 3000 artists recorded by 1968 Playtape was a recording medium invented by Bill Lear, the same man who invented the 8-track cartridge. ... The Mini Cassette, often written minicassette, is a tape cassette format introduced by Philips in 1967. ... A microcassette in front of a compact audio cassette. ... The Steno-Cassette is an analog cassette format for dictation, introduced by Grundig in 1971. ... Elcaset was a short-lived audio format created by Sony in 1976. ... Insert from the Winter cassette single by Tori Amos The cassette single was a music recording format that debuted in the 80s. ... Picocassette is an audio storage medium introduced by Dictaphone in 1985. ... Digital audio comprises audio signals stored in a digital format. ... Soundstream Inc. ... 3M Company (NYSE: MMM), formerly Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company until 2002, is an American corporation with a worldwide presence. ... Mitsubishis ProDigi is a professional audio, reel-to-reel, digital audio tape format with a stationary head position, similar to Sonys Digital Audio Stationary Head, which competed against ProDigi when the format was available in the mid 1980s through the early 1990s. ... The Digital Audio Stationary Head or DASH standard was a digital audio tape format using open reels capable of recording 8, 16, 24 or more channels of audio on a one-inch or half-inch tape. ... CD redirects here. ... Digital audio tape can also refer to a compact cassette with digital storage. ... This is an article about the digital recording format. ... See also IBMs VM operating system family, where minidisk refers to a logical unit of storage. ... Digital Compact Cassette (DCC) was a short-lived magnetic tape sound recording format introduced by Philips and Matsushita in late 1992. ... eXtended Resolution Compact Disc (XRCD) is a special mastering and manufacture process patented by JVC for producing high fidelity redbook Compact Discs. ... High Definition Compatible Digital, or HDCD is a patented encode-decode process, now under Microsoft, that attempts to improve the audio quality of standard Redbook audio CDs, while retaining backward compatibility with existing Compact disc players. ... The DTS-CD, DTS Audio CD or 5. ... Super Audio CD (SACD) is a read-only optical audio disc format aimed at providing much higher fidelity digital audio reproduction than the Red Book audio CD. Introduced in 2000, it was developed by Sony and Philips Electronics, the same companies that created the Compact Disc. ... DVD-Audio also known as DVDA is a digital format for delivering very high-fidelity audio content on a DVD. The first discs entered the marketplace in 2000. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cassette Recorders - audiotools.com. (2705 words)
The cassette or rather the "Compact Cassette®" was invented by the Dutch company Philips in the early 60's.
Makes a cassette playback unit that is intended for forensic professionals but has a number of unusual functions made possible by the use of a custom built 11 track head, so it might be used by archivists as well.
Has their own brand of cassette tapes, these are all ferric and we are not certain were they source it from.
Compact audio cassette (459 words)
The compact audio cassette sound recording medium, sometimes known as the musicassette, was introduced by Philips in 1963.
Most cassettes were sold blank and used for recording the owner's records (to protect from wear or to make compilations), their friends' records, or music from the radio.
Cassettes were also used for reputable purposes including journalism, field history, meeting transcripts and so on.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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