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Encyclopedia > Compact audio cassette
Typical 60-minute Compact Cassette.
Typical 60-minute Compact Cassette.

The compact audio cassette is the most successful magnetic tape sound recording format. It consists of two miniature reels, between which an oxide-coated plastic tape, or magnetic tape, is passed and wound. These reels (along with some other mechanical parts) are held inside a protective plastic shell. Although originally intended as a medium for dictation, improvements in fidelity led it to supplant reel-to-reel tape recording in most applications. Between the 1980s and early 1990s, the cassette was one of the two most common formats for prerecorded music, alongside the LP and later the Compact Disc. typical Audio Cassette - File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... typical Audio Cassette - File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Compact audio cassette Magnetic tape is a non-volatile storage medium consisting of a magnetic coating on a thin plastic strip. ... Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ... This movie film reel has film wrapped around it. ... Iron(III) oxide — also known as ferric oxide, red iron oxide, synthetic maghemite, colcothar, or simply rust — is one of several oxide compounds of iron, and is most notable for its ferromagnetic properties. ... Compact audio cassette Magnetic tape is a non-volatile storage medium consisting of a magnetic coating on a thin plastic strip. ... A reel-to-reel tape recorder (Sony TC-630), typical of those which were once common audiophile objects. ... 33⅓ LP vinyl record album from the 1960s A gramophone record (also phonograph record, or simply record) is an analogue sound recording medium consisting of a flat disc with an inscribed modulated spiral groove. ... The Compact Disc logo was inspired by that of the previous Compact Cassette. ...


Two monophonic or four paired stereo audio tracks are available on the tape; one monophonic track or stereo pair is played when the cassette is inserted with its 'A' side facing up, and the other when it is turned over (with the 'B' side up), thus mimicking gramophone records. Monophonic can mean: In music, see: Texture (music). ... Symbol for stereo Stereophonic sound, commonly called stereo, is the reproduction of sound, using two independent audio channels, through a pair of widely separated speaker systems, in such a way as to create a pleasant and natural impression of sound heard from various directions as in natural hearing. ... 33â…“ LP vinyl record album from the 1960s A gramophone record (also phonograph record, or simply record) is an analogue sound recording medium consisting of a flat disc with an inscribed modulated spiral groove. ...

Contents


History

The compact audio cassette medium for audio storage was introduced by Philips in 1963 under the trademark Compact Cassette. Although there were other magnetic tape cartridge systems at the time, the Compact Cassette became dominant as a result of Philips' decision (in the face of pressure from Sony) to license the format free of charge. It went on to become a popular (and re-recordable) alternative to the vinyl record deck during the 1970s. During the 1980s, its popularity grew further as a result of the Sony Walkman, with cassette sales overtaking those of LPs. (Vinyl overall remained ahead due to greater sales of singles, although cassette singles achieved popularity for a period in the 1990s). Audio storage refers to techniques and formats used to store audio with the goal to reproduce the audio later using audio signal processing to something that resembles the original. ... Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... A trademark or trade mark[1] is a distinctive sign of some kind which is used by a business to uniquely identify itself and its products and services to consumers, and to distinguish the business and its products or services from those of other businesses. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the leading manufacturers of video, communications, and information technology products for the consumer and professional markets. ... It has been suggested that Licensing (strategic alliance) be merged into this article or section. ... Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ... 33â…“ LP vinyl record album from the 1960s A gramophone record (also phonograph record, or simply record) is an analogue sound recording medium consisting of a flat disc with an inscribed modulated spiral groove. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... MacGyver - 1980s hero The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... Sony Walkman Official Logo The Walkman is a popular Sony brand used by the company to market its portable audio players, and is synonymously used to refer to the original Walkman portable personal stereo player. ... 33â…“ LP vinyl record album from the 1960s A gramophone record (also phonograph record, or simply record) is an analogue sound recording medium consisting of a flat disc with an inscribed modulated spiral groove. ... The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive. ...

The Compact Cassette brand and logo inspired those of the Compact Disc two decades later
The Compact Cassette brand and logo inspired those of the Compact Disc two decades later

Although its use in the West has declined as a result of more advanced technologies, it remains widespread, and is still the dominant medium for listening to music in many third world countries. Image File history File links CompactCassetteLogo. ... Image File history File links CompactCassetteLogo. ... The term Western world or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


The mass production of compact audio cassettes began in 1965 in Hanover, Germany, as did commercial sales of prerecorded music cassettes (also known as musicassettes; MC for short). The system had been initially designed for dictation and portable use, thus the audio quality of early recorders was not well suited for music. Some early models also had unreliable mechanical design. In 1971 the introduction of Dolby type B noise reduction and chromium dioxide tape by Henry Kloss resulted in the format being taken seriously for musical use. See also: 1964 in music, other events of 1965, 1966 in music, 1960s in music and the list of years in music // Events January 4 - Fender Guitars is sold to CBS for $13 million. ... Hanover (German: Hannover []), on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... Dolby NR is a noise reduction system developed by Dolby Laboratories for use in analogue magnetic tape recording. ... Chromium dioxide is a synthetic magnetic mono-crystal invented by E.I. DuPont by decomposing chromium trioxide in the presence of water at a temperature of 900 degrees Fahrenheit. ... Henry Kloss (1929, Altoona, PA–January 31, 2002, Cambridge, MA) was a prominent audio engineer and businessman who helped advance hi-fi loudspeaker and radio receiver technology beginning in the 1950s until the time of his death. ...


Features of the cassette

The cassette was a great step forward in convenience from reel-to-reel audio tape recording, though because of the limitations of the cassette's size and speed, it initially compared poorly in quality. Unlike the open reel format, the two stereo tracks lie adjacent to each other rather than a 1/3 and 2/4 arrangement. This permitted monaural cassette players to play stereo recordings "summed" as mono tracks and permitted stereo players to play mono recordings through both speakers. The tape is 3.18 mm wide (nominally 18 inch), with each stereo track being 0.79 mm wide (132 inch) and moves at 4.76 cm/s (178 ips) from left to right. For comparison, the typical open reel format in consumer use was ¼ inch (6.35 mm) wide, each stereo track being 116 inch (1.59 mm) wide, and running at either 3¾ or 7½ inches/sec (9.5 or 19 cm/s). A reel-to-reel tape recorder (Sony TC-630), typical of those which were once common audiophile objects. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10-3 m and 10-2 m (1 mm and 1 cm). ... Mid-19th century tool for converting between different standards of the inch An inch is an Imperial and U.S. customary unit of length. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10-2 m and 10-1 m (1 cm and 10 cm). ... Look up second in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In sound recording, magnetic tape speed is often quoted in inches per second (abbreviated ips) for historical reasons. ...

Although cassette-shells can vary widely in external appearance (the lower two are more recent in style), they are all internally similar.
Although cassette-shells can vary widely in external appearance (the lower two are more recent in style), they are all internally similar.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2440x1452, 1780 KB) Description: A photograph showing three types of compact audio cassette. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2440x1452, 1780 KB) Description: A photograph showing three types of compact audio cassette. ...

Cassette types

The original magnetic material was based on ferrite (Fe2O3), but then chromium dioxide (CrO2) and more exotic materials were used in order to improve sound quality to try to approach that of vinyl records. Cobalt doped ferrite was introduced by TDK and proved very successful. Sony tried a dual layer tape with both ferrite and chrome dioxide. Finally pure metal particles (as opposed to oxide formulations) were used. These each had different bias and equalization requirements requiring specialized settings. The most common, Ferrite tapes (known as Type I) use 120 µS playback equalization, while chrome and cobalt-doped tapes (Type II) require 70 µS playback equalization. The record equalisations were also different (and had a much longer time constant). Metal Cassettes (Type IV), also use 70 µS playback equalization, and provide still further improvements in sound quality, as well as improved resistance to wear. The quality is normally reflected in the price; Type I cassettes are generally cheapest, and Type IV usually the most expensive. BASF developed a chrome cassette designed for use with 120 microsecond playback equalisation but this idea only really caught on for commercial pre-recorded cassettes. Ferrite may refer to: (1) ferromagnetic ceramic materials, used in magnetic applications; (2) iron or iron alloys with a body centred cubic crystal structure. ... Chromium dioxide is a synthetic magnetic mono-crystal invented by E.I. DuPont by decomposing chromium trioxide in the presence of water at a temperature of 900 degrees Fahrenheit. ... A gramophone record, (also phonograph record - often simply record) is an analog sound recording medium: a flat disc rotating at a constant angular velocity, with inscribed spiral grooves in which a stylus or needle rides. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cobalt, Co, 27 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 4, d Appearance metallic with gray tinge Atomic mass 58. ... TDK Corporation (TDK株式会社), formerly Tokyo Denkikagaku Kogyo K.K. (東京電気化学工業株式会社), (TYO: 6762), NYSE: TDK, LSE: TDK is a Japanese company that manufactures electronic materials, electronic components, and recording and data-storage media. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the leading manufacturers of video, communications, and information technology products for the consumer and professional markets. ... Tape bias is a high-frequency signal (generally from 40 to 150 kHz) added to the audio signal recorded on an analog tape recorder. ... In audio processing, equalization (EQ) is the process of modifying the frequency envelope of a sound. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 10-6 seconds and 10-5 seconds (1. ...

Notches on the top surface of the audio cassette indicate its type. The top cassette, with only write protect notches (here covered by write protect tabs), is a Type I. The next cassette down, with additional notches adjacent to the write protect notch, is a Type II. The bottom two cassettes, featuring the Type II notches plus an additional pair in the middle of the cassette are type IV (metal); note the removal of the write-protect plastic tabs on the second of these.
Notches on the top surface of the audio cassette indicate its type. The top cassette, with only write protect notches (here covered by write protect tabs), is a Type I. The next cassette down, with additional notches adjacent to the write protect notch, is a Type II. The bottom two cassettes, featuring the Type II notches plus an additional pair in the middle of the cassette are type IV (metal); note the removal of the write-protect plastic tabs on the second of these.

Notches (indents) on top of the cassette shell indicate the type of tape within. Type I cassettes only have write-protect notches, Type II have an additional pair next to the write protection ones, and Type IV (metal) have a third set in the middle of the cassette shell. These allow cassette decks to automatically detect the tape type and select the proper bias and equalization. ImageMetadata File history File links Cassette_Write_Protect_IV.jpg Summary Cassette tapes, showing write protect tabs removed on bottom tape, type IV (metal). ... ImageMetadata File history File links Cassette_Write_Protect_IV.jpg Summary Cassette tapes, showing write protect tabs removed on bottom tape, type IV (metal). ... Write protection, (also known as record protection) is a mechanism that prevents erasure of valuable data by the accidental recording or storing of new data. ... A typical consumer hi-fi cassette deck from late 1980s, features full electronic transport, separate playback and record heads, Dolby B, C and HXPro noise reduction A cassette deck is a type of tape deck for playing or recording compact audio cassettes. ...


Playback length

Inside a cassette. The tape is pressed into close contact with the head by the pressure pad; guide rollers help keep the tape in the correct position. Smooth running is assisted by a slippery liner between the reels and the shell - here the liner is transparent. The magnetic shield reduces pickup of stray signals by the heads of the player.
Inside a cassette. The tape is pressed into close contact with the head by the pressure pad; guide rollers help keep the tape in the correct position. Smooth running is assisted by a slippery liner between the reels and the shell - here the liner is transparent. The magnetic shield reduces pickup of stray signals by the heads of the player.

Tape length is usually measured in minutes total playing time. The most popular varieties are C46 (23 minutes per side) and C60 (30 minutes per side), C90, and C120. The C46 and C60 lengths are typically 15-16 µm thick, but C90s are 10-11 µm and C120s are just 9 µm thick rendering them more susceptible to stretching or breakage. Some vendors are more generous than others, providing 132 meters or 135 meters rather than 129 meters of tape for a C90 cassette. C180 and even C240 tapes were available at one time, but these were extremely thin and fragile and suffered badly from effects such as print-through which made them unsuitable for general use. Other lengths are (or were) also available from some vendors, including C10 and C15 (useful for saving data from early home computers), C50, C70, C74, C80, C100, C105 and C110. Except for C74 and C100, such non-standard lengths have always been hard to find, and tend to be more expensive than the more popular lengths. Home taping enthusiasts may have found them useful for fitting an album neatly on one or both sides of a tape. For instance, the initial maximum playback time of compact discs was 74 minutes, explaining the relative popularity of C74 cassettes. See also audio tape length and thickness. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (994x752, 123 KB) Summary I made this. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (994x752, 123 KB) Summary I made this. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10-6 and 10-5 m (1 µm and 10 µm). ... Print-through (sometimes referred to as bleed-through) is a generally undesirable effect that arises in the use of magnetic tape for storing analogue information, in particular music. ... Since the widespread adoption of reel-to-reel audio tape recording in the 1950s, audio tapes and tape cassettes have been available in many formats. ...


Write-protection

All cassettes include a write protection mechanism to prevent re-recording and accidental erasure of important program material. Each side of the cassette has a plastic tab on the top that may be broken off, leaving a small indentation in the shell. This indentation allows the entry of a sensing lever which prevents the operation of the recording function when the cassette is inserted into a cassette deck. If the cassette is held with one of the labels facing the user and the tape opening at the bottom, the write-protect tab for the corresponding side is at the top-left. Write protection, (also known as record protection) is a mechanism that prevents erasure of valuable data by the accidental recording or storing of new data. ...


If later required, a piece of adhesive tape can be placed over the indention to record over the "protected" material, or (on some decks), the lever can be manually depressed to record on a protected tape. Extra care is required when doing this with high bias tape cassettes; the additional indents (adjacent to the write-protect tabs) used to differentiate them from normal bias cassettes should not be inadvertently covered up. One manufacturer, Bib, even made small plastic inserts to fit into the record tab indent, and a special tool for removing them. Two rolls of adhesive tape. ...


Applications

Audio

The compact cassette was originally intended for use in dictation machines. In this capacity, some later-model cassette-based dictation machines could also run the tape at half speed (1516 ips) as playback quality was not critical. The Compact Cassette soon became a popular medium for distributing prerecorded music—initially through Philips' record company, PolyGram. Starting in 1979, Sony's Walkman helped the format become widely used and popular. In 2005, one finds cassettes used for a variety of purposes such as journalism, oral history, meeting and interview transcripts and so on. However, they are starting to give way to compact disc and more "compact" storage media. In many countries with restrictive political systems, cassettes serve as a cheap and easily concealed means for dissidents to distribute banned political speeches to large numbers of people thus circumventing government censorship. In immigrant communities, cassettes carried by travelers have served as an important means to transmit news, messages and culture between separated family members and communities. Speech recognition technologies allow computers equipped with a source of sound input, such as a microphone, to interpret human speech, e. ... PolyGram was the name from 1972 of the major label recording company started by Philips as a holding company for its music interests in 1945. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the leading manufacturers of video, communications, and information technology products for the consumer and professional markets. ... Sony Walkman Official Logo The Walkman is a popular Sony brand used by the company to market its portable audio players, and is synonymously used to refer to the original Walkman portable personal stereo player. ... Journalism is a discipline of collecting, analyzing, verifying, and presenting information gathered regarding current events, including trends, issues and people. ...


Home studio

In the 1980s, Tascam introduced the Portastudio line of four and eight-track cassette recorders for home studio use, allowing amateur musicians (and some professionals) to overdub themselves easily. To increase audio quality in these recorders, the tape speed is doubled in comparison to the standard; additionally, dbx noise reduction provides compression which yields increased dynamic range. Multi-track cassette recorders with built-in mixer and signal routing features provide a wide range of features and benefits from easy-to-use beginner units up to professional level recording systems. MacGyver - 1980s hero The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... TASCAM is credited as the company that invented the affordable home recording studio. ... The TASCAM Portastudio is a type of cassette recorder which records four or eight tracks of audio on a CrO2 audio cassette. ... Les Paul, a pioneer of multi-track recording. ... Audio level compression, also called compression or limiting, is a process that manipulates the dynamic range of an audio signal. ... Dynamic range is a term used frequently in numerous fields to describe the ratio between the smallest and largest possible values of a changeable quantity. ... In telecommunications a mixer is a frequency mixer. ...


Home dubbing

Most cassettes were sold blank and used for recording (dubbing) the owner's records (as backup or to make compilations), their friends' records or music from the radio. This practice was condemned by the music industry with such slogans as "Home taping is killing music". However, many claimed that the medium was ideal for spreading new music and would increase sales, and strongly defended at least their right to copy their own records onto tape. In 1979 Sony brought out the Walkman, a small portable cassette player which greatly increased the popularity of listening to music on the go. Cassettes were also a boon to people wishing to tape concerts (unauthorized or authorized) for sale or trade, a practice tacitly or overtly encouraged by many bands with a more counterculture bent such as the Grateful Dead. In sound recording, dubbing is the transfer of recorded audio material from one medium to another of the same or a different type. ... The original logo. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the leading manufacturers of video, communications, and information technology products for the consumer and professional markets. ... Sony Walkman Official Logo The Walkman is a popular Sony brand used by the company to market its portable audio players, and is synonymously used to refer to the original Walkman portable personal stereo player. ... A bootleg recording is a audio or video recording of a performance that was not officially released by the artist or under other legal authority. ... The Grateful Dead was an American psychedelia-influenced rock band formed in 1965 in San Francisco. ...


Various legal cases arose surrounding the dubbing of cassettes. In the UK, in the case of CBS Songs vs Amstrad (1988), the House of Lords found in favour of Amstrad that producing equipment that facilitated the dubbing of cassettes, in this case a twin cassette deck that allowed one cassette to be copied directly onto another, did not constitute the infringement of copyright. Amstrad is an electronics company founded in 1968 by Sir Alan Michael Sugar in the United Kingdom, and based in Brentwood in Essex, England. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... Amstrad is an electronics company founded in 1968 by Sir Alan Michael Sugar in the United Kingdom, and based in Brentwood in Essex, England. ...


Data recording

Many of the earliest microcomputers implemented the Kansas City standard for digital data storage. Later on, most home computers of the late 1970s and early 1980s, such as the The Kansas City standard (abbreviated KCS) for storage of digital (micro)computer data on an ordinary compact audio cassette is also known as the BYTE standard, from its connection with BYTE magazine, or the Processor Technology CUTS (PT Computer Users Tape Standard). ... TRS-80 Color Computer II The home computer is a consumer-friendly word for the second generation of microcomputers (the technical term that was previously used), entering the market in 1977 and becoming common during the 1980s. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... MacGyver - 1980s hero The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ...

could use cassettes for program and data storage as a cheaper alternative to floppy disks. Even the first version of the IBM PC (1981) had a cassette port and a command in its ROM BASIC programming language to use it. However, this was seldom used, as even then floppy drives had become commonplace in high-end machines. The typical encoding method was simple FSK which resulted in typical data rates 500 to 2000 bit/s, although some games used special faster loading routines, up to around 4000 bit/s. A rate of 2000 bit/s equates to a capacity of around 660 kilobytes per side of a 90 minute tape. TRS-80 Model I. TRS-80 (also affectionately or derisively known as the Trash-80) was the designation for several lines of desktop microcomputer systems produced by the Tandy Corporation and sold through its RadioShack stores in the late-1970s and 1980s. ... The PET (Personal Electronic Transactor) was a home-/personal computer produced by Commodore starting in the late 1970s. ... For the hip hop group, see Commodore 64 (band). ... The Sinclair ZX Spectrum was a home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research. ... The Apple I was an early personal computer, and the first to combine a keyboard with a microprocessor and a connection to a monitor. ... The BBC Micro, affectionately known as the Beeb, was an early home computer. ... Amstrad CPC 464, with CTM644 colour monitor The Amstrad CPC was a series of 8-bit home computers produced by Amstrad during the 1980s and early 1990s. ... A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a ring of thin, flexible (i. ... IBM PC (IBM 5150) with keyboard and green screen monochrome monitor (IBM 5151), running MS-DOS 5. ... Read-only memory (ROM) is a class of storage media used in computers and other electronic devices. ... Microsoft BASICA (short for Advanced BASIC) is a simple disk-based BASIC interpreter written by Microsoft for PC-DOS. BASICA allows use of the ROM-resident BASIC on the PC while DOS is loaded (the ROM BASIC itself runs when nothing is loaded when booting) and adds functionality such as... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (sometimes written bitrate) is the frequency at which bits are passing a given (physical or metaphorical) point. It is quantified using the bit per second (bit/s) unit. ... A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to either 1024 or 1000 bytes. ...


The use of better modulation techniques like QPSK or those used in modern modems, combined with the improved bandwidth and signal to noise ratio of newer cassette tapes allowed much greater capacities and speeds (10–17 kilobytes/s for data rate, and up to 60 MB on each cassette). These were typically used as hard disk backup for PCs in the late 1980s. They also found use during the 1980s in data loggers for scientific and industrial equipment. Quadrature phase-shift keying (quadriphase, quaternary phase-shift keying) is a form of modulation in which a carrier is sent in four phases, 45, 135, 225, and 315 degrees, and the change in phase from one symbol to the next encodes two bits per symbol. ... A modem (a portmanteau word constructed from modulator and demodulator) is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal (sound), to encode digital information, and that also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. ... Bandwidth is a measure of frequency range, measured in hertz, of a function of a frequency variable. ... The phrase signal-to-noise ratio, often abbreviated SNR or S/N, is an engineering term for the ratio between the magnitude of a signal (meaningful information) and the magnitude of background noise. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... Time share terminals to central computers were sometimes used before the advent of the PC. (A smart terminal — televideo ASCII character mode terminal made around 1982. ... A data logger (sometimes spelt Datalogger) is an electronic instrument (or specialised computing device in some cases) that records digital, analogue, frequency or smart protocol based measurements over time. ...


Present and future of the compact cassette

In many western countries, the market for cassettes has declined seriously since its peak in the late 1980s. This has been particularly noticeable with pre-recorded cassettes, whose sales were overtaken by those of CDs during the early 1990s. Since then, the pre-recorded market has undergone further serious decline, with a large proportion of retailers having dropped them altogether.


However, as of early 2006, cassettes are still produced; blank cassettes are sold at most retail stores, and facilities for cassette duplication remain available. Cassette recorders and players are gradually becoming scarcer, but are still widely available. 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Despite the wide availability of higher-fidelity media, they also remain popular for specific applications, including:

  • Car audio and other difficult environments. Cassettes are typically more rugged and resistant to dust, heat and shocks than most digital media (especially CDs). Their lower fidelity is not considered a serious drawback inside the typically noisy automobile interior. Although the "shock proof" buffering technology in many new CD players allows time to recover from intermittent skips, the cassette remains more resilient in the face of periodic and repeated shocks. However, cassettes generally have poor resistance to the excessive levels of heat encountered in parked cars during the summertime.
  • Adjuncts or substitutes for note-taking in business and educational settings. Whilst digital voice recorders are becoming available, compact cassette (or frequently microcassette) recorders tend to be cheaper and of sufficient quality for this purpose.
  • Audiobooks, church services, and other spoken word material are still frequently sold on cassette; low fidelity is generally not a drawback for such content. Whilst most publishers also sell CD audiobooks nowadays, most will still offer a cassette version at a lower price.

In other countries, particularly in the third world, cassettes remain the dominant medium for purchasing and listening to music. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: buffer Buffer can refer to: Buffer state, a country lying between two potentially hostile greater powers, thought to prevent conflict between them Buffer zone, any area that keeps two or more other areas distant from one another, may be demilitarized Buffer (rail transport... A microcassette in front of a compact audio cassette. ... An audio book is a recording of the contents of a book read aloud. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


However, it is clear that cassettes and related equipment are in serious decline, and are likely to become increasingly marginalised as time goes on. As of 2005 it is common for otherwise-complete audio systems to be sold with only a single cassette tape deck instead of two, with playback-only decks, or even with no cassette deck at all. Many cars are now being equipped with CD rather than cassette as standard, and many new cars come with integrated entertainment units with no space to add or even connect external cassette players, with little complaint from automobile users. 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Successors to the cassette

Technical development of the cassette effectively ceased when digital recordable media such as DAT and MiniDisc were introduced in the late 1980s and early 1990s. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // Overview The MiniDisc logo A MiniDisc (MD) is a disc-based data storage device intend for storage of digitized audio. ...


In 1992, Philips introduced the Digital Compact Cassette (DCC), a DAT-like tape in the same form factor as the compact audio cassette. It was aimed primarily at the consumer market. Unlike DAT (which had found a niche in professional usage), DCC was not a success, and was discontinued in 1996. 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... The DCC logo was inspired by that of the original Compact Cassette Digital Compact Cassette (DCC) was a short-lived sound recording format introduced by Philips and Matsushita late 1992. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ...


Since the rise of cheap CD-R discs, the phenomenon of "home taping" has effectively switched to compact disc. The microcassette has in many cases supplanted the full-sized audio cassette in situations where voice-level fidelity is all that is required, such as in dictation machines and answering machines. Even these, in turn, are starting to give way to digital recorders of various descriptions. A CD-R (Compact Disc-Recordable) is a variation of the Compact Disc digital audio disc invented by Philips and Sony. ... The Compact Disc logo was inspired by that of the previous Compact Cassette. ... A microcassette in front of a compact audio cassette. ... An answering machine, also known as an answer machine (especially in UK and British commonwealth countries), ansafone (tradename [1]), ansaphone (tradename [2]), answerphone or telephone answering device (TAD), is a device for automatically answering telephone calls and recording messages left by callers. ...


MP3 players shaped as audio cassettes have become available, which can be used in any audio cassette player as if it were a normal cassette. Similarly-shaped audio adapters are also sold, providing an economical and effective way to obtain CD and/or MP3 functionality in vehicles equipped with cassette decks. The MP3 player (or a similar device) has its analog line-out connected to the adapter, which in turn feeds the signal to the head of the cassette deck. Where a cassette deck is not available, an FM modulator (which sends the signal to a car's FM radio) can be used instead. A hard-drive-based player (Apple iPod) An MP3 CD player (Philips Expanium) A flash-based player (iBox Mediaman) A digital audio player (DAP) is a device that stores, organizes and plays digital music files. ...


The word 'cassette' in other languages

The word "cassette" is French in origin, so it was acceptable to the Academie Française. A popular alphanumeric abbreviation comes from the word's pronunciation /ka ˈsɛt/ in French, which is the same as that for K7 in that language. The same holds true for Catalan. And even though the pronunciation is different /ˈka sɛ tɛ/ in Portuguese, the abbreviation K7 works for them as well. In Spanish it is popularly abbreviated by the letters KCT (pronounced /ka ˈsɛ tɛ/). The Académie française, or French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ... Catalan (Català IPA: ) also called Valencian (Valencià IPA: ) is a Romance language, the only official language of Andorra and co-official in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia. ...


See also

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Compact audio cassette

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Cassette culture was in part an offshoot of the mail art movement of the 1970s and 1980s. ... Insert from the Winter cassette single by Tori Amos The cassette single was a music recording format that debuted in the 80s. ... Digital audio casette formats introduced to the audio professionals and consumer markets: Digital Audio Tape known more commonly as just DAT which had some success as a audio storage format among professionals before the prices of hard drives dropped and the capacities soared in the late 90s. ... Elcaset was a short-lived audio format created by Sony in 1976. ... Electronic journalism -- known as EJ or ENG for electronic news gathering -- is most associated with broadcast news where producers, reporters and editors make use of electronic recording devices for gathering and presenting information in telecasts and radio transmissions reaching the public. ... This is a list of audio formats, used for the distribution of recordings of music and other audio information. ... A microcassette in front of a compact audio cassette. ... A microcassette in front of a compact audio cassette. ... The compact audio cassette brought homemade mixes of pop songs within the reach of the casual music fan. ... The Fisher-Price PXL-2000 (also known as the PixelVision by Fisher-Price, and the KiddieCorder by some of its fans) was a toy black-and-white camcorder produced in 1987 that used an ordinary compact audio cassette as its recording medium. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

References

  • Robert Angus. "History of Magnetic Recording", Audio (August/September, 1984).
  • Marvin Camras (ed.). Magnetic Tape Recording (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985). ISBN 0442217749
  • Eric D. Daniel, C. Dennis Mee, Mark H. Clark. Magnetic Recording: The First 100 Years, (New York: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1999).
  • International standard IEC 60094-7: Magnetic tape sound recording and reproducing systems. Part 7: Cassette for commercial tape records and domestic use. International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva. (Also published as British Standard BS 6288-7:1994.)

Standards are produced by many organizations, some for internal usage only, others for use by a groups of people, groups of companies, or a subsection of an industry. ... The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization dealing with electrical, electronic and related technologies. ... British Standards is the new name of the British Standards Institute and is part of BSI Group which also includes a testing organisation. ...

External links

  • Analog audio tape cassette nostalgia website
  • Apple's iPod VS the Cassette Tape
  • Media Digitalizer - software to make CDs and MP3s from cassette tapes
Audio format - Audio storage
Analog

Phonograph cylinder (1870s) - Gramophone record (1895) - Reel-to-reel audio tape recording (1940s) - Vinyl record (1948) - Compact Cassette (1963) - 8-track cartridge (1964) - Microcassette (1969) - Elcaset (1976) An audio format is a medium for storing sound and music. ... Audio storage refers to techniques and formats used to store audio with the goal to reproduce the audio later using audio signal processing to something that resembles the original. ... The earliest method of recording and reproducing sound was on phonograph cylinders. ... 33â…“ LP vinyl record album from the 1960s A gramophone record (also phonograph record, or simply record) is an analogue sound recording medium consisting of a flat disc with an inscribed modulated spiral groove. ... A reel-to-reel tape recorder (Sony TC-630), typical of those which were once common audiophile objects. ... A gramophone record, (also phonograph record - often simply record) is an analog sound recording medium: a flat disc rotating at a constant angular velocity, with inscribed spiral grooves in which a stylus or needle rides. ... A blank 8-track tape The 8-track cartridge is an audio storage magnetic tape cartridge technology, popular from the late 1960s to the early 1980s. ... A microcassette in front of a compact audio cassette. ... Elcaset was a short-lived audio format created by Sony in 1976. ...

Digital

Compact Disc (1982) - Digital audio tape (1987) - MiniDisc (1991) - Digital Compact Cassette (1992) - Super Audio CD (1999) - DVD-Audio (2000) The Compact Disc logo was inspired by that of the previous Compact Cassette. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // Overview The MiniDisc logo A MiniDisc (MD) is a disc-based data storage device intend for storage of digitized audio. ... The DCC logo was inspired by that of the original Compact Cassette Digital Compact Cassette (DCC) was a short-lived sound recording format introduced by Philips and Matsushita late 1992. ... Super Audio CD (SACD) is a read-only optical audio disc aimed at providing higher fidelity digital audio reproduction than the compact disc. ... The DVD-Audio logo. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Compact audio cassette - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3365 words)
The compact audio cassette medium for audio storage was introduced by Philips in 1963 under the trademark Compact Cassette.
Cassette players in cars and for home use were often integrated with a radio receiver, and the term "casseiver" was occasionally used for combination units for home use.
Cassette equipment needs regular maintenance, as cassette tape is a magnetic medium which is in physical contact with the tape head and other metallic parts of the recorder/player mechanism.
Compact audio cassette (459 words)
The compact audio cassette sound recording medium, sometimes known as the musicassette, was introduced by Philips in 1963.
Most cassettes were sold blank and used for recording the owner's records (to protect from wear or to make compilations), their friends' records, or music from the radio.
Cassettes were also used for reputable purposes including journalism, field history, meeting transcripts and so on.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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