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Encyclopedia > Commuter town
Commuters waiting for the morning train in Maplewood, New Jersey to travel to New York City

A commuter town is an urban community that is primarily residential, from which most of the workforce commute out of the community to earn their livelihood. Most commuter towns are suburbs of a nearby metropolis that workers travel to daily, and many suburbs are commuter towns. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 936 KB)Commuters at Maplewood, NJ File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 936 KB)Commuters at Maplewood, NJ File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Map of Maplewood Township in Essex County Maplewood is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The workforce is the labour pool in employment. ... Commuters on the New York City Subway during rush hour Rush hour at Shinjuku Station, Yamanote Line Traffic jam Commuting is the process of travelling between a place of residence and a place of work. ... “Suburbia” redirects here. ... Cities with at least 500. ...

Contents

Naming

Camarillo, California, a typical US bedroom community made up almost entirely of homes, schools and retail outlets.

A commuter town or exurb can also be known as a bedroom community (Canada and U.S usage), a dormitory town (UK Commonwealth and Ireland usage), or less commonly a dormitory village (UK Commonwealth and Ireland). These terms suggest that residents sleep in these neighborhoods, but mostly work elsewhere. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixels, file size: 677 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Image of Camarillo, California looking southeast taken from a hillside on the northwestern part of the city near Estaban Drive. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixels, file size: 677 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Image of Camarillo, California looking southeast taken from a hillside on the northwestern part of the city near Estaban Drive. ... Motto: The People are the City Location of Camarillo Country United States State California County Ventura Settled 1898 Incorporated (city) 1964 City Manager Jerry Bankston Area    - City 49. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

Distinction between suburbs and commuter towns

Suburbs and commuter towns are often the same place, but sometimes not. As with college town, resort town or mill town, the term describes the predominant economic function of a place. A suburb in contrast is a community of lesser size, density, political power and/or commerce than a nearby community. Economic function may change, for example when improved transport brings commuters to industrial suburbs or railway towns in search of suburban living. Some suburbs, for example Teterboro, New Jersey and Emeryville, California, remain industrial when they become surrounded by commuter towns. Many commuters work in such industrial suburbs, but few reside, hence they are not commuter towns. “Suburbia” redirects here. ... In North America, a college town or university town is a community (often literally a town, but possibly a small or medium sized city, or in some cases a neighborhood or a district of a city) which is dominated by its university population. ... The majority of shops in downtown Jackson, Wyoming cater to tourists. ... Amoskeag Canal, 1948, by Charles Sheeler A mill town is a community that grew up around one or more mills or factories, usually on a river that was used as a source of power in the days before electricity. ... A railway town is a settlement that originated or was greatly developed because of a railway station or junction at its site. ... Map highlighting Teterboros location within Bergen County. ... The city of Emeryville highlighted within Alameda County Emeryville is a small city located in Alameda County, California, in the United States. ...


As a general rule, suburbs are developed in areas adjacent to main employment centres, such as a town or a city, but may or may not have many jobs locally, whereas bedroom communities have few local businesses and most residents who have jobs commute to employment centers some distance away. Commuter towns may be in rural or semi-rural areas, with a ring of green space separating it from the larger city or town. Where urban sprawl and conurbation have erased clear lines among towns and cities in large metropolitan areas, this is not the case. This article is about work. ... For other uses of the word Greenbelt, see Greenbelt (disambiguation). ... Urban sprawl (also: suburban sprawl) is the spreading out of a city and its suburbs over rural land at the fringe of an urban area. ... A conurbation is an urban area comprising a number of cities, towns and villages which, through population growth and expansion, have physically merged to form one continuous built up area. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Causes

Commuter towns can arise for a number of different reasons. Sometimes, as in North Tarrytown, New York or Tiburon, California, a town loses its main source of employment, leaving its residents to seek work elsewhere. In other cases, a pleasant small town over time attracts more residents but not large businesses to employ them, requiring them to commute to employment centers. Another cause, particularly relevant in the American South and West, is the rapid growth of once-small cities. Owing largely to the earlier creation of the Interstate Highway System; the greatest growth was seen by the sprawling metropolitan areas of these cities. As a result many small cities were absorbed into the suburbs of these larger cities. Sleepy Hollow is a village located in Westchester County, New York. ... A View of Downtown Tiburon, near the Ferry Docks. ... Interstate Highways in the 48 contiguous states. ...


Often, however, commuter towns form when workers in a region cannot afford to live where they work and must seek residency in another town with a lower cost of living. The late 20th century Dot-com bubble and United States housing bubble drove housing affordability in Californian metropolitan areas to historic lows, spawning exurban growth in adjacent counties. For example, most cities in Riverside County, California can be considered exurbs of Los Angeles and San Diego. As of 2003, over 80% of workforce of Tracy, California was employed in San Francisco Bay Area. A cost-of-living index measures differences in the price of goods and services over time. ... The dot-com bubble was a speculative bubble covering roughly 1995–2001 during which stock markets in Western nations saw their value increase rapidly from growth in the new Internet sector and related fields. ... Home $weet Home: cover of the June 13, 2005 issue of Time magazine[1] illustrating the mania[2] for home buying. ... Riverside County is a county located in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of California, stretching from Orange County to the Colorado River, which is the border with Arizona. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January events January 1 Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... 11th Street and Central Avenue, Tracy Tracy is a city in San Joaquin County, California, in the United States. ... USGS satellite photo of the San Francisco Bay Area. ...


A related phenomenon is common in the resort towns of the American West, which require large workforces but place an emphasis on building "McMansions", and other expensive housing. For example, the resort town of Jackson, Wyoming has spawned several bedroom communities nearby, including Victor, Idaho; Driggs, Idaho; and Alpine, Wyoming, where the majority of the Jackson workforce reside. Many of the workforce who serve The Hamptons also reside in communities more modest and more suburban than their workplace, giving rise to a daily reverse commuter flow from more dense to less dense areas. The majority of shops in downtown Jackson, Wyoming cater to tourists. ... The Western United States, also referred to as the American West or simply The West, traditionally refers to the region constituting the westernmost states of the United States (see geographical terminology section for further discussion of these terms). ... A McMansion under construction McMansion is a slang architectural term which first came into use in the United States during the 1980s as a pejorative description. ... Jackson is a town located in the Jackson Hole valley of Teton County, Wyoming. ... Victor is a city located in Teton County, Idaho. ... Driggs is a city located in Teton County, Idaho. ... Alpine is a town located in Lincoln County, Wyoming. ... “Hamptons” redirects here. ...


In certain major European cites such as London or Berlin such commuter towns started life due to bomb damage in World War II. Residents were moved out to semi rural areas within a 50 mile radius 1.) to rehouse returning soldiers and their families outside of badly damaged urban areas and 2.) to provide economic bases of development outside of cities due to a change in focus from railway to road based industry. Around London, several towns were built for this purpose by the Commission for New Towns such as Stevenage, Basildon and Crawley. In point of fact a person is more likely to hear a cockney accent in Basildon than London these days. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... English Partnerships (EP) is the national regeneration agency for England, performing a similar role on a national level to that fulfilled by Regional Development Agencies on a regional level. ... For other uses see Stevenage (disambiguation) Stevenage is a town and district in Hertfordshire, England. ... Basildon (IPA, ) is a New Town located in south Essex, England at . It was designated as a New Town after World War II in 1948 to accommodate the London population overspill. ... For other uses, see Crawley (disambiguation). ... St Mary-le-Bow The term cockney is often used to refer to working-class people of London, particularly east London, and the slang used by these people. ... Basildon (IPA, ) is a New Town located in south Essex, England at . It was designated as a New Town after World War II in 1948 to accommodate the London population overspill. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Effects

Where commuters are wealthier and small town housing markets weaker than city housing markets, the development of a bedroom community may raise local housing prices and attract upscale service businesses in a process called gentrification. Long-time residents may be displaced by new commuter residents due to rising house prices. This can also be influenced by zoning restrictions in urbanized areas that prevent the construction of suitably cheap housing closer to places of employment. In San Francisco, during the mid-1960s, the bohemian center of the city shifted from the old Beat enclave of North Beach to Haight-Ashbury (pictured) as a response to gentrification. ... A typical zoning map; this one identifies the zones, or development districts, in the city of Ontario, California Zoning is a North American term for a system of land-use regulation. ...


The number of commuter towns increased in the U.S. the UK and the Republic of Ireland during the 20th century because of a trend for people to move out of the cities into the surrounding green belt. Historically, commuter towns were developed by railway companies to create demand for their lines. One 1920s pioneer of this form of development was the Metropolitan Railway(now part of London Underground) which marketed its Metro-land developments. This initiative encouraged many to move out of inner-city London to areas such as Wembley and commuter villages in Berkshire.[citation needed] Commuter towns have more recently been built ahead of adequate transportation infrastructure, thus spurring the development of roads and public transportation systems. These can take the form of light rail lines extending from the city centre to new streetcar suburbs and new or expanded highways, whose construction and traffic can lead to the community becoming part of a larger conurbation. Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... For other uses of the word Greenbelt, see Greenbelt (disambiguation). ... The Metropolitan Line is a line of the London Underground. ... The London Underground is an underground railway system - also known as a rapid transit system - that serves a large part of Greater London, United Kingdom and some neighbouring areas. ... Metropolitan steam locomotive Metro-land (or Metroland) refers, broadly speaking, to the suburban areas north-west of London, in the counties of Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire and Middlesex, served by the Metropolitan Railway, an independent company until absorbed by the London Passenger Transport Board (LPTB) in 1933. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Wembley, until 1965 a borough in its own right, forms the northern part of the London Borough of Brent. ... A Commuter village sits in a rural area, formerly inhabited by people who worked in, or who had worked in, the village or close to it, now inhabited mainly by people who travel to work in a nearby town. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A taxi serving as a bus Public transport comprises all transport systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... A streetcar suburb is a community whose growth and development was strongly shaped by the use of streetcar lines as a primary means of transportation. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A conurbation is an urban area comprising a number of cities, towns and villages which, through population growth and expansion, have physically merged to form one continuous built up area. ...


In the United States, it is common for commuter towns to create disparities in municipal tax rates. When a commuter town collects few business taxes, residents must pay the brunt of the public operating budget in higher property or income taxes. Such municipalities may scramble to encourage commercial growth once an established residential base has been reached. Property tax, millage tax is an ad valorem tax that an owner of real estate or other property pays on the value of the property being taxed. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A residential area is a type of land use where the predominant use is residential. ...


Exurbs

The expression "exurb" (for "extra-urban") was coined in the 1950s, by Auguste Comte Spectorsky to describe the ring of prosperous rural communities beyond older suburbs that, due to availability via the new high-speed limited-access highways, were becoming commuter towns for an urban area. [1] Most exurbs serve as commuter towns, but most commuter towns are not exurban. the first thing that was invented was the automatic DILDO. Education grew explosively because of a very strong demand for high school and college education. ... Rural sociology is a field of sociology associated with the study of life in small towns and the country. ... Sociologists have identified a number of different types of rural communities, which have arisen as a result of changing economic trends within rural regions of industrial nations. ... “Suburbia” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Exurbs are not unique to the United States. They are also found in other land-rich developed countries, notably Canada. Reasons for exurban growth vary. In the 1970s, rampant crime and urban decay in U.S. cities was the primary 'push force', whereas exurban growth has continued in the 2000s even as most U.S. cities experience plummeting crime and urban revitalization. However, house prices have skyrocketed, so middle-class people who want a large yard or farm are pushed beyond suburban counties. Urban decay and renewal in Cincinnati Urban decay is the popular term for both the physical and social degeneration of cities and large towns. ...


Exurbs vary in wealth and education level. Exurban areas typically have lower college education levels than closer in suburbs, but still have average incomes much higher than nearby rural counties. Depending on local circumstances, some exurbs have higher poverty levels than suburbs nearer the city. Others (like Loudoun County, Virginia outside Washington D.C. and Waukesha County, Wisconsin near Milwaukee) have some of the highest median household incomes in their respective metropolitan areas. Loudoun County (pronounced LOUD-un; IPA: ) is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia, a state of the United States, and is part of the Washington Metropolitan Area. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Waukesha County is a county located in the state of Wisconsin. ... For other places with the same name, see Milwaukee (disambiguation). ...


Then and now

Commuters from early exurbs, such as the end of Philadelphia's Main Line and Upper Westchester County, New York, reached the city center via commuter rail and parkway systems. Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... For the historic canal, see Main Line of Public Works. ... Westchester County is a primarily suburban county with about 940,000 residents located in the U.S. state of New York. ... A Connex commuter train stands by the platform in Melbourne, Australia Regional rail systems, or commuter rail systems, usually provide a rail service through a central business district area into suburbs or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a daily basis. ... Harden Parkway in Salinas, CA. For other uses, see Parkway (disambiguation). ...


Today's exurbs are comprised of small neighborhoods in otherwise bucolic areas, towns, and (comparatively) small cities. Some lie in the outer suburbs of an urbanized area, but a few miles of rural, wooded, or agricultural land separates many exurbs from the suburbs. Exurbs that originated independently of the major city to which many residents commute may feature some cultural institutions or universities of their own. Others, by contrast, consist almost exclusively of commuters and lack the historical and cultural traditions of more established cities. Bucolic, although often used as an adjective, is a noun originally describing a type of pastoral poetry that praises rural life over that of the city. ...


Yesterday's sprawling exurbs, such as Forest Hills, Queens and Garden City, New York often become a later decade's suburbs, surrounded and absorbed into a belt of infill. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Garden City, New York is a village in central Nassau County, New York in the USA, which was founded by multi-millionaire Alexander Turney Stewart in 1869. ... Land reclamation is either of two distinct practices. ...


Planning

Some communities that lie outside the city proper of a metropolitan area could also be considered exurbs (such as in the American west [2]), whereas those inside the municipal boundaries are often known as suburbs. Many suburbs within the metropolitan city proper enjoyed their greatest growth in the post World War II period and slowed subsequently; extensive development is now (since the 1990s) occurring outside of metro. There have also been significant growth differences between inside and outside metro boundaries; many developments typical of exurbs such as big box retailers lie just on the outside, due to older suburbs being governed by careful inner-city land-use politics while communities outside are more willing to develop greenfield sites. A big box is a box that is big. ...


Many environmentalists, architects, and urban planners consider exurbs to be manifestations of poor or distorted planning. Extremely low densities - often featuring large lots and "McMansions" - create heavy car dependency (a very deliberate design choice). This also makes the construction of municipal infrastructure and deployment of services unusually costly and inefficient. Such communities typically include big box stores, fast food chains, and large shopping malls, but lack amenities such as parks and cultural institutions. Nevertheless, relatively cheap land, cheap fuel, and low taxes fuel rapid economic and population growth in many exurbs. Many Middle class families with children are attracted to low costs, ample private space, and the perception of lower crime rates compared with more intensively devloped areas[citation needed]. Bold textHello ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... An Urban planner is a professional who works in the field of urban planning. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... A McMansion under construction McMansion is a slang architectural term which first came into use in the United States during the 1980s as a pejorative description. ... Big box store is a colloquial term used to describe a retail store housed in a rectangular, one-floor building with a high ceiling. ... Fast food is food prepared and served quickly at a fast-food restaurant or shop at low cost. ... For the traditional meaning of the word mall, see pedestrian street or promenade. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ...


"They begin as embryonic subdivisions of a few hundred homes at the far edge of beyond, surrounded by scrub. Then, they grow - first gradually, but soon with explosive force - attracting stores, creating jobs and struggling to keep pace with the need for more schools, more roads, more everything. And eventually, when no more land is available and home prices have skyrocketed, the whole cycle starts again, another 15 minutes down the turnpike." [3]


In Britain, there is very strict regulation about building on Greenfield sites, so planning in these areas is quite rare. Instead developers more increasingly find themselves building on Brownfield sites around British cities. Greenfield land is a term used to describe a piece of undeveloped land, either currently used for agriculture or just left to nature. ... Examples of brownfields that were redeveloped into productive properties Brownfields are abandoned, idled, or under-used industrial and commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contaminations. ...


On Paradise Drive

In his book On Paradise Drive, conservative writer David Brooks commented on the massive growth of American exurbs in the 1990s and early 2000s, and noted that these communities are now dependent on industries contained in office parks in the suburbs rather than in the city center, producing (and attracting) populations with no connection to urban city life. Brooks attributes the victory of George W. Bush in the 2004 election to votes from exurbs and states his belief that the Democratic Party failed to connect with voters in exurbs. Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... David Brooks David Brooks (born August 11, 1961) is a columnist for The New York Times who has become one of the prominent voices of conservative politics in the United States. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... This article is about the first decade of the 21st century. ... An industrial park is an area of land set aside for industrial development. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


See also

Boomburb is a neologism for a large, rapidly growing suburban city that remains essentially suburban in character even as it reaches populations more typical of urban core cities. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Concentric zone model. ... Demographic history may refer to: Demographic history of the United States Demographic history of Macedonia Demographic history of Montenegro History of the demographics of Bosnia and Herzegovina Demographic history of Portugal Demographic history of Quebec Demographic history of Serbia Demographic history of Greece Demographics of the Philippines Category: ... Edge City is an American term for a relatively new concentration of business, shopping and entertainment outside a traditional urban area, in what had recently been a residential suburb or semi-rural community. ... Microdistrict, or microraion (Russian: ; Chinese: 小区; Pinyin: Xiǎoqū), is a residential compound—a primary structural element of the residential area construction used in the Soviet Union, other former Warsaw pact countries, and the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... “Suburbia” redirects here. ... The Urban Rural Fringe (or urban hinterland) can be described as the landscape interface between town and country [1], or alternatively as the transition zone where urban and rural uses mix and often clash. ... Urban sprawl (also: suburban sprawl) is the spreading out of a city and its suburbs over rural land at the fringe of an urban area. ...

References

  1. ^ Spectorsky, Auguste C. (1955). The Exurbanites. Lippincott, Philadelphia. OCLC 476943. 
  2. ^ Template:Cite article
  3. ^ New York Times
  • Central City White Flight: Racial and Nonracial Causes
  • Rybczynski, Witold (Nov. 7, 2005). "Suburban Despair". Slate.

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Slate is an online news and culture magazine created in 1996 by former New Republic editor Michael Kinsley and owned by Microsoft (as part of MSN). ...

External links

  • Spectorsky, Auguste C. (1955). The Exurbanites. Lippincott, Philadelphia. OCLC 476943. 
  • The New York Times: Living Large, by Design, in Middle of Nowhere article on Exurbs. (Registration required)
  • Berube, A., Singer, A., Wilson, J.H. & Frey, W.H. (2006, October). Finding exurbia: America's fast-growing communities at the metropolitan fringe. The Brookings Institution. Retrieved December 23, 2006.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Commuter town - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (711 words)
A commuter town, also known as a bedroom community (U.S. usage), dormitory town (UK and Commonwealth usage), or less commonly dormitory village (UK and Commonwealth) is a community that is primarily residential in character, with most of its workers commuting to a nearby town or city to earn their livelihood.
Commuter towns may be in rural or semi-rural areas, but urban sprawl and conurbation have erased clear lines among towns and cities in large metropolitan areas.
Often, however, commuter towns form when the workers in a region cannot afford to live in the particular town in which they are employed and are forced to seek residency in another town with a lower cost of living.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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