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Encyclopedia > Community college

A community college is a type of educational institution. The term has different meanings in different countries. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Educational institution may refer to: Higher education College Career college Community college Junior college Liberal arts college Residential college Sixth form college Technical college University college Institutes of technology (and Polytechnics) University Corporate universities International university Medieval university Private university Public university University of the Third Age Urban university Vocational...


In Canada and the United States, a community college, sometimes called a county college, junior college, technical college, or a city college, is an educational institution providing higher education and lower-level tertiary education, granting certificates, diplomas, and Associates' degrees. The name derives from the fact that community colleges primarily attract and accept students from the local community, and are often supported by the local community through property taxes. The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... Students attend a lecture at a tertiary institution. ... A certificate is an official document affirming some fact. ... Diploma from Mexico City College, 1948 (in Latin) A diploma (from Greek δίπλωµα diploma) is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as a university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study, or confers an academic degree. ... An associate degree is an academic degree awarded by community colleges, junior colleges, Business Colleges and some bachelors degree-granting colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study usually lasting two years. ... A community is a social group of organisms sharing an environment, normally with shared interests. ...


In the UK, community college is a name given to a secondary school, usually offering extended services of some sort, for example by having achieved a status as a technology college or by providing adult education courses. Community colleges in the UK grant General Certificates of Secondary Education and if the college incorporates a Sixth Form, A-levels or sometimes other vocational qualifications (eg GNVQs). Secondary school is a term used to describe an institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ... Libraries are useful resources for adult learners. ... “GCSE” redirects here. ... England, Wales, Northern Ireland The sixth form, in the English, Welsh and Northern Irish education systems, is the term used to refer to the final two years of secondary schooling (when students are about sixteen to eighteen years of age), during which students normally prepare for their GCE A-level... The A-level, short for Advanced Level, is a General Certificate of Education qualification in the United Kingdom, usually taken by students during the optional final two years of secondary school (Years 12 & 13, commonly called the Sixth Form), or at a separate sixth form college or further education college... A General National Vocational Qualification, or GNVQ, is a certificate of vocational education in the United Kingdom. ...

Contents

Terminology

Community colleges were at one time (before the 1970s and '80s) more commonly referred to as junior colleges, and that term is still used at some institutions. However, the term "junior college" has evolved to describe private two-year institutions, whereas the term "community college" has evolved to describe publicly-funded two-year institutions. Based on this evolution in terminology, the main governance body of community colleges changed its name in 1992 to the "American Association of Community Colleges" from the "American Association of Junior Colleges". For the Indian grade 11 and 12 schools, see Junior College A junior college is a two-year post-secondary school whose main purpose is to provide a method of obtaining academic, vocational and professional education. ... For the film of this title, see Private School (film). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


United States

In New Jersey, slightly more than half of the state's nineteen community colleges are called county colleges, not merely in name but also in descriptive speech. This is because there is one community college, often with satellite branches, dedicated to each county of the state. The term is also used by some community colleges in Texas (where community colleges are funded by county residents via property taxes assessed by a special "community college district") and Illinois. This article is about the U.S. state. ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Property tax, millage tax is an ad valorem tax that an owner of real estate or other property pays on the value of the property being taxed. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ...


In several California cities (including Los Angeles, San Francisco, and San Diego), New York City, and Chicago, community colleges are often called "city colleges," since they were municipally-funded and designed to serve the needs of the residents of the city in which they are situated. The City University of New York is arguably the best known example of a municipally-funded community college system, although the system includes both junior and senior (4-year) colleges, in addition to graduate programs. The Los Angeles Community College District is the largest community college system in the United States. The Maricopa Community College District in the Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area, is the largest community college district in the United States in terms of enrollment. Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... San Diego redirects here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... The City University of New York (CUNY; acronym: IPA pronunciation: ), is the public university system of New York City. ... The Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) is the community college district serving Los Angeles County, California. ... The Maricopa County Community College District, in Maricopa County, Arizona, is one of the largest community college districts in the world. ... Nickname: Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: , Country State County Maricopa Incorporated February 25, 1881 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Phil Gordon (D) Area  - City  515. ...


In California, a large number of community colleges do not have the word "community" in their name, nor did they ever have the word "junior." This is because Calvin Flint, who supervised the founding of three such colleges during his career, famously opposed the term "junior" or any kind of qualifier as unnecessarily pejorative. His colleges "would not be junior to anyone."[1] Flint served as the first Superintendent and President of Monterey Peninsula College as well as both Foothill and De Anza Colleges. Flint Center at De Anza College is named in his honor. Flint Center, the main auditorium De Anza College is a 112 acre (453,000 m²) community college located in Cupertino, California. ...


Canada

In Canada, community colleges are usually simply referred to as "colleges". [citation needed] In the province of Quebec, they are called Cégeps for Collège d'enseignement général et professionnel, meaning "College of General and Vocational Education". A CEGEP (IPA: or ; French: Cégep) is a public educational institution in Quebec, Canada on the post-secondary level. ...


History

Many events have contributed to the development and continued growth of community colleges. The social and economic climate of the early twentieth century led to vocal activists for a two year educational alternative to four year higher education institutions. Several different groups advocated for community colleges in the early twentieth century, including students and parents, educators, businesses, state universities, and government officials. Events like urbanization, industrialization, and economic development caused changes in society. One of education’s responses to a country in transition was the junior college.


Several different movements supported the creation of community colleges, including local community support of public and private two year institutions, the expansion of the public education system, increased professional standards for teachers, the vocational education movement, and an expanding demand for adult and community education. Numerous colleges and universities advocated for the development of junior colleges. Leadership felt small, private liberal arts colleges and high schools could provide the first two years of college while larger universities could focus resources on research and junior and senior level students.


Many of the early community colleges were an extension of high schools, like the first established in Joliet, Illinois in 1901. This was a two year system compared to one year high school extension. These initial community colleges generally were very small, usually less than 200 students and focused on a liberal arts education with the goal of transferring students to four year institutions. They were more reflective of high school needs and lacked a definite identity. Many of the early community colleges were normal schools and prepared teachers. Primary emphasis was placed on traditional middle class values and developing responsible citizens. For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ... Incorporated City in 1834. ... College transfer is the movement of students from one higher education institution to another and the process by which academic credits are accepted or not accepted by a receiving institution. ... A normal school or teachers college is an educational institution for training teachers. ...


During the 1920s and 1930s there was a shift in the purpose of community colleges to developing a workforce, which was influenced by wide unemployment during the Great Depression. Developing "semiprofessionals" became dominant national language to describe junior college students and was used until after WWII. A two-year, terminal education, was seen as more socially efficient for students who could advance past high school but not attain bachelor's degrees. This national vocational movement was seen to give junior colleges a target population, but numerous students wanted more than a semiprofessional education; many maintained a desire to transfer. Throughout this time period, there was a move for more public two-year institutions along with a trend to separate from high schools and affiliate with higher education. With the change in affiliation came a new status which encouraged junior colleges to develop additional credibility through the creation of professional criteria and use of scientific methods. For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...


After WWII, skilled jobs were needed and the G.I. Bill afforded more educational opportunity to veterans which resulted in increased enrollments. Another factor that led to growth was the rise of adult and community education. After WWII, community colleges were seen as a good place to house continuing education programs. The 1947 Truman Commission was a very important national document for community colleges. It suggested a network of public community colleges that would provide education to a diverse group of students at little or no cost along with serving community needs through a comprehensive mission. The Servicemens Readjustment Act of 1944 (better known as the G.I. Bill) provided for college or vocational education for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as GIs or G.I.s) as well as one year of unemployment compensation. ... President Truman announces that Germany had surrendered (May 8 1945) Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ...


This national network exploded in the 1960s with 457 community colleges and the enrollment of baby boomers. A series of grants through the Kellogg Junior College Leadership Programs helped train many community college leaders during this decade. Growth continued during the 1970s when many enrolled to escape the Vietnam era draft. The 1970s also marked a shift to faculty development, including more instructional training for the unique student body and mission of community colleges. During the 1980s, community colleges began to work more closely with high schools to prepare students for vocational and technical two year programs. For the video game, see Baby Boomer (video game). ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


In recent history, a debate between the advocates and critics of community colleges has gained strength. Advocates argue community colleges serve the needs of society through providing college opportunity to students who may not otherwise go to college, training and retraining mid level skilled workers, and preserving the academic excellence of four year universities. Critics argue community colleges continue a culture of privilege through training business workers at public expense, not allowing working class children to advance in social class, protecting selective admissions at four year institutions for the nation's elite, and discouraging transfer through "cooling out."[citation needed] Whether community colleges give opportunity or protect privilege, their century-long history has developed a distinctive aspect of higher education. Although the growth of community colleges has stabilized in recent history, enrollment continues to outgrow four year institutions. A total of 1,166 loosely linked community colleges face challenges of new technological innovations, distance learning, funding constraints, community pressure, and international influence.[citation needed] Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... A skilled worker is any worker who has some special knowledge or (usually acquired) ability in his work. ...


Governance

Most community colleges are operated either by special districts that draw property tax revenue from the local community, or by a division of the state university. In the first case, the special district is governed by a board of trustees that is appointed or elected by the local community and is subject to limited control by a state agency that supervises all community college districts. A special-purpose district, also known as a special district, is a type of district differing from general-purpose districts like municipalities, counties, etc. ... Property tax, millage tax is an ad valorem tax that an owner of real estate or other property pays on the value of the property being taxed. ... quagmire:For alternate meanings see state university (disambiguation). ...


Either way, the local board or the state university selects a president, who then acts as the chief executive officer of the college and leads the faculty and staff. President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... “Chief executive” redirects here. ...


Enrollment

In North America, community colleges operate under a policy of "open admission". That is, anyone with a high school diploma or GED may attend, regardless of prior academic status or college entrance exam scores. Although community colleges have an "open admission" policy, students have to take assessment tests before enrolling at the college, due to not all courses being "open admission".


The "open admission" policy results in a wide range of students attending community college classes. Students range in age from teenagers in high school taking classes under a concurrent, or dual, enrollment policy (which allows both high school and college credits to be earned simultaneously) to working adults taking classes at night to complete a degree or gain additional skills in their field to students with graduate degrees who enroll to become more employable or to pursue lifelong interests. "Reverse transfers" (or those transferring from a university) constitute one of the fastest growing new community college cohorts. For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ...


One threat to enrollment at community colleges is the rapidly increasing popularity of for-profit e-learning and online universities, such as the University of Phoenix, which is now the 16th-largest university in the world. Market research firm Eduventures estimates that 10% of college students will be enrolled in an online degree program by 2008 [2] Many community colleges have supplemented their offerings with online courses to stave off competition from exclusively e-learning schools. For example, Northern Virginia Community College's Extended Learning Institute [1] has been offering distance learning courses for over thirty years. Texas offers the Virtual College of Texas whereby a student at any community college in the state can attend classes from any of the state's 51 community colleges or four Texas State Technical College campuses, paying local tuition plus a VCT fee of around $40. University of Phoenix (UOP) is a for-profit educational institution specializing in adult education, with campuses located throughout the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. ... Texas State Technical College System is a system of two-year technical schools in Texas. ...


California has the lowest community college enrollment fees in the nation. California's community college enrollment fee is $20 per unit.


Educational offerings

Community colleges generally offer three types of programs.


The first type of study is toward an associate's degree, in which a student takes necessary courses needed to earn a degree that will allow for entry into jobs requiring some level of college education but not a full four-year degree. The associate's degree program also allows students who wish to eventually obtain a bachelor's degree at a four-year college to complete the necessary "core" requirements to attend the college of their choice. Some states have mandated that the community college's curriculum be structured so as to satisfy "core curriculum" requirements at the state's public universities or private universities. An associate degree is an academic degree awarded by community colleges, junior colleges, business colleges and some bachelors degree-granting colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study usually lasting two years. ... For other degrees, see Academic degree. ...


Many community colleges have arrangements with nearby four-year institutions, where a student obtaining an associate's degree in a field will automatically have his/her classes counted toward the bachelor's degree requirement. For example, a community college associate's degree in hotel and restaurant management, computers or accounting would count toward the four-year school's core requirement for a Business Administration degree. Some have gone one step further by arrangements with a four-year college for the student to obtain the bachelor's degree from the four-year college while taking all the courses via distance learning or other non-traditional modes, thus reducing the number of physical visits to the four-year school. Distance Learning is learning carried out apart from the usual classroom setting; in an asynchronous setting. ...


The second type of study is towards certification in an area of training (such as nursing, computer repair, allied health, law enforcement, firefighting, or welding), which require preparation for a state or national examination, or where certification would allow for hiring preference or a higher salary upon entering the workforce. These courses are often geared toward the needs of the local or area business community. Training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relates to specific useful skills. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Professionals in the healthcare industry [1] are often referred to as allied health professionals which usually need formal training before they are hired, for example, medical assistants [2], dental hygienists and assistants, phlebotomists [3], physical therapists and physical therapy assistants, hemodialysis technicians, laboratory technicians, electrocardiographic technicians, x-ray technicians, medical... For the band, see The Police. ... Firefighter with an axe A firefighter, sometimes still called a fireman though women have increasingly joined firefighting units, is a person who is trained and equipped to put out fires, rescue people and in some areas provide emergency medical services. ... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ...


The third type offers services of local interest to members of the community, such as job placement, adult continuing education classes (either for personal achievement or to maintain certification in specialized fields), and developmental classes for children. Some community colleges offer opportunities for high school dropouts to return to school and earn a high school diploma or obtain a GED.


Community colleges offering bachelor's degrees

A growing trend in the United States is for community colleges to begin offering bachelor's degrees. At least fourteen states have authorized them to do so and others are considering the issue.[3] Many large community colleges, such as Miami-Dade College and St. Petersburg College, in Florida have even completely dropped the words "community" or "junior" from their names as they have added bachelor's degree programs in limited fields and have started their evolution into four-year colleges while retaining their local commitments. Even some smaller community colleges, such as Northern New Mexico College in Española, New Mexico, have dropped community from their names and now offer six or more bachelor's degrees.[4] Others such as Manatee Community College, in Florida, have chosen not to go beyond the associate's degree.[5] In more rural communities, community colleges may host branches of the local state university, and community colleges with specialized programs may offer four year degrees in conjunction with other schools, some miles away. For instance, Southern Illinois University offers aviation management bachelor's degrees at Mt. San Antonio College and Palomar College in Southern California. Miami Dade College is one of Floridas public community colleges, located in Miami-Dade County, Florida. ... St. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Northern New Mexico College, formerly known as Northern New Mexico Community College, is a two-year and four-year degree garnting institution with campuses in Española and El Rito, New Mexico. ... Española is a city in New Mexico, United States. ... Manatee Community College (MCC), with the main campus based in in Bradenton, Florida, is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award Associate in Arts, Associate in Applied Science and Associate in Science degrees as well as Certificate program offerings. ... Southern Illinois University is a university in southern Illinois with two institutions and multiple campuses. ... Mt. ... Palomar College is a community college with one campus and eight satellite centers in San Diego County, California. ...


Advantages of community colleges

  • Community colleges are geared toward local students and local needs.[6] Students who could not afford campus or off-site housing at a four-year college, or for other reasons cannot relocate, can attend courses while staying in their local community (though some colleges do offer student housing). Also, community colleges can work with local businesses to develop customized training geared toward local needs, whereas a four-year institution generally focuses on state-wide or national needs.[7] Some community colleges have "concurrent enrollment" programs, allowing local high school students to "jump start" their college career by taking classes at the community college that count both toward their high school diploma and as college credit (mainly in core areas such as history and political science). Policies and classes offered vary with different agreements existing between the community college and high schools.
  • The "open enrollment" policy benefits students with mediocre high school academic records, students who dropped out of high school or were expelled and later obtained a GED, students who never took the SATs and/or ACT, students who recognized the benefits of college education relatively late in life, and students whose personal obligations or limited financial resources prevented them from attending college on the traditional schedule.
  • In North America, tuition and fees are substantially lower than those of traditional four-year public or private institutions. Students from low-income families, those having to work to pay for their education, or those simply wishing to reduce the total cost of a planned four year education benefit from the reduced costs.[8] In addition, many colleges offer and accept scholarships or educational grants.
  • Community colleges have little or no time limits on when classes must be taken or a degree must be earned; in contrast, many four-year schools, tired of "professional students" taking up limited space, have imposed limits on when a degree can be earned. Students who cannot take a full-time load for whatever reason (family, job, etc.), are thus not under pressure to complete courses in a limited timeframe.
  • Four-year colleges often give priority to students transferring from community colleges, citing their demonstrated preparedness for junior and senior college-level work. Students who may not have been able to attend a particular college after high school (whether for academic, financial, or personal reasons) may now be able to attend the college of their choice. Several states have regulations requiring the associate's degree in a particular field to be automatically credited towards the core curriculum for a four-year degree at another state university or private university.
  • Community college professors are solely dedicated to teaching, and classes are generally small. In comparison, a four-year college course may be taught to 300 students by a teaching assistant, while the professor is concentrating on research. Outside of those teaching in the technical and vocational fields, most instructors at community colleges have master's degrees and many hold doctoral degrees. In addition, community college professors can help students achieve their goals, work more closely with them, and offer them support, while at a four-year college, a professor's primary mission is to conduct academic research, with most of their remaining attention focused on mentoring graduate students.
  • A number of community colleges have athletic programs; certain colleges also serve as incubators for college athletes, particularly in basketball and football. A talented player who would not meet the academic or athletic standards of a major college program may be able to play for two years in junior college, establishing an academic record in the process, and then transfer to the major college.[9] In addition, many baseball players at community colleges have gone to play for major colleges and/or the major leagues. Others offer no athletic programs.[citation needed]
  • Research shows that there is no learning or income penalty for individuals who start at a community college and transfer to a four-year institution. Additionally, research indicates that students who begin their higher education career at a community college are more likely to transfer to a higher quality four-year institution than if they had started at a four-year college.[citation needed]
  • Holders of a two-year associates degree have more immediate earning potential than students with >2 years of higher education but did not earn a degree.[citation needed]

The GED, General Educational Development, or General Equivalence Degree Test, is a test that certifies the taker has attained American or Canadian high school-level academic skills. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Look up act in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Professional student is a slang term commonly used in colleges which describes a student who stays at university for many years rather than embarking on a career. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A graduate student (also, grad student or grad in American English, postgraduate student or postgrad in British English) is an individual who has completed a bachelors degree (B.A., B.S./B.Sc. ... This article is about the sport. ... A college football game between Colorado State and Air Force. ... This article is about the sport. ... An associates degree is a degree awarded by community colleges, junior colleges and some bachelors degree-granting colleges and universities in Canada and the United States upon completion of a course of study equivalent to the first two years in a four-year college or university. ...

Disadvantages of community colleges

  • Transferring credits can sometimes be a problem, as each four-year college has its own requirements as to what is and isn't required for enrollment. However, many four-year colleges (usually near the community college) have made arrangements, known as articulation agreements, allowing associate degrees to qualify for transfer, and in some cases allowing the student to complete the bachelor's degree via distance learning from the community college campus. Some states have passed rules whereby certain associate's degrees in a field will automatically transfer to state universities as the core curriculum for specified bachelor's degrees. Minnesota has created a statewide "transfer curriculum" allowing credits to be transferred to any other public university and almost all of the private colleges. The North Carolina system has a similar agreement, whereby specific courses are designated for mandatory transfer credit to all statewide public four-year institutions. Illinois' I-transfer program program aids students in transferring credits across the state. California has a system known as Assist[2] which labels course equivalencies between all California Community Colleges and California public four-year colleges. In Arizona, the completion of the Arizona General Education Curriculum, or AGEC, at any Arizona community college guarantees residents of Arizona admission to any public university in the state of Arizona. And in Florida, students earning associate degrees from community colleges actually receive preferential admissions treatment, in comparison to all other students transferring to state universities.
  • It is frequent for many courses to be taught by part-time lecturers holding a master's degree (or bachelor's degree) in the field, although there is little evidence, other than anecdotal, to indicate that taking a class from a full-time college instructor leads to higher order learning outcomes. Research conducted by the University of Washington's Labor Center, however, has suggested that community colleges relying on a higher part-time (adjunct) faculty workforce have lower graduation rates than those with a full-time workforce - see http://insidehighered.com/news/2006/10/16/parttime. According to federal statistics, 42% of public community college freshmen take remedial courses, and further studies show that 79% of remedial courses are taught by part-time faculty.[10]
  • Many community colleges lack on-campus housing (most common in urban area colleges; rural area colleges are more likely to offer such housing due to the overall lack of housing in such areas). This creates so-called 'commuter campuses', in which nearly all students commute to class only, with the campus completely deserted during off-hours. This makes participation in group collaboration exercises and study groups difficult to coordinate, and extra-curricular activities suffer as well. In turn, the social benefits of college are essentially lost, which can adversely affect future professional employment opportunities.
  • Research shows individuals with Associate's degrees earn less than those with Bachelor's degrees. However, because a correlation exists between years of education and earnings, this says more about years of schooling than the value of Associate's degrees or certificates.[citation needed]
  • Community colleges typically have smaller libraries than universities, possibly reducing the research opportunities of their students (though libraries may be part of an interlibrary loan agreement with other libraries at universities). This is also somewhat less of an issue today due to the proliferaton of online academic databases, for which community college students may share equal access with their bigger State University cousins and/or private universities.
  • Community colleges might have fewer sections available for students to enroll. For example, there might be only one section in higher physics while a four-year college might have four or five sections of its equivalent. Some equivalent lower-division classes required for the major may not be offered. However, many community colleges have concurrent enrollment programs with local universities which permits students to complete the required lower division courses prior to transferring.
  • There is a historic connotation that community colleges are often considered the schools of last resort, because of their open-admissions policies, which some feel hurts their reputation.[11]

A credit is a unit that gives weighting to the value, level or time requirements of an academic course. ... Distance Learning is learning carried out apart from the usual classroom setting; in an asynchronous setting. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Lecturer is a term of academic rank. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Sheep eating grass in rural Australia Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... A private university is a university that is run without input or control of any government entity. ...

Community college libraries

Community college libraries, sometimes called learning resource centers, have evolved over their existence. These libraries often include traditional library services such as book checkout, online research tools, and research help, but they also have included multimedia technology expertise, video centers, tutor centers and support services. Community college libraries play a significant role in the college curriculum by supporting information literacy across campus. The librarians spend a significant amount of their work week in the classroom teaching students to select research tools, to evaluate search results, and to use their results in papers, speeches, or in other projects. For this reason, community college librarians are considered full faculty members at most institutions.[citation needed] If sufficient funding is provided, community college libraries may be at the cutting edge of research services and may be able to change faster than their larger cousins at major research institutions.[citation needed]


Timeline of important events

1901 – Joliet, IL added fifth and sixth ayear courses to the high school curriculum leading to the development of the first public junior college.[12] Joliet Junior College (JCC) is billed as one of the oldest community colleges in the country, having begun in 1901. ...


1920 – American Association of Junior Colleges established.


1930 – First publication of the Community College Journal.


1947 – Publication of Higher Education for American Democracy by the President's Commission on Higher Education (the 1947 Truman Commission).


1965 – Higher Education Act of 1965 established grant programs to make higher education more accessible. The Higher Education Act of 1965 (Pub. ...


1992 – The American Association of Junior Colleges change their name to the American Association of Community Colleges. Headquartered in the National Center for Higher Education in Washington, D.C., the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) is the primary advocacy organization for community colleges at the national level and works closely with directors of state offices to inform and affect state policy. ...


See also

In Australia: Libraries are useful resources for adult learners. ... An adult high school is a high school facility for adult education. ... Continuing education is an all encompassing term within a broad spectrum of post-secondary learning activities and programs. ... Distance Learning is learning carried out apart from the usual classroom setting; in an asynchronous setting. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Lifelong learning is the concept that Its never too soon or too late for learning, a philosophy that has taken root in a whole host of different organisations. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A blacksmith is a traditional trade. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In education, articulation refers to the process of comparing the content of courses that are transferred between postsecondary institutions such as colleges or universities. ...

In the UK: For the Texas educational association, see Texas Association of Future Educators. ... The Workers’ Educational Association (WEA) seeks to provide access to education and lifelong learning for adults from all backgrounds, and in particular those who have previously missed out on education. ...

Further education (often abbreviated FE) is post-secondary, post-compulsory education (in addition to that received at secondary school). ...

North American community college systems

Administered by The Chancellor’s Office located in Sacramento, the California Community Colleges system consists of 109 community colleges and 72 community college districts in California. ... The Community College of Baltimore County (CCBC) is an accredited community college located in Baltimore County, Maryland in the United States with three main campuses and two extension centers. ... Houston Community College System (HCCS) is a community college system that operates community colleges in Houston, Missouri City, and Stafford in Texas, and also serves Bellaire, Southside Place, and West University Place. ... The Illinois community college system consists of 40 public community college districts composed of 49 community colleges. ... Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana (usually shortened to Ivy Tech Community College or, colloquially, Ivy Tech) is the state of Indianas system of community colleges, formed in 2005, as a rechartering of a system of vocational technical schools. ... The North Carolina Community College System is a statewide network of fifty-eight (58) public community colleges and one technology center. Each college has a distinct governance system and policies. ... The Nova Scotia Community College (NSCC) is the community college of Nova Scotia. ... The province of Ontario, in Canada, has two types of community colleges: Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology and Institutes of Technology and Advanced Learning. ... A CEGEP (IPA: or ; French: Cégep) is a public educational institution in Quebec, Canada on the post-secondary level. ... St. ... The Washington Community and Technical Colleges system consists of 32 public, two-year institutions of higher education which specialize in vocational, technical, worker retraining, and university transfer programs. ... Wisconsin Technical College System is a group of 16 technical college (community colleges) in Wisconsin. ... (KCTCS)Founded in 1997 by former Kentucky Governor Paul Patton to replace the University of Kentuckys Community College System, the system connects the states two-year colleges to make education readily available to Kentucky, and allows transfer of credits toward public universities for 4-year degrees. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and conform with our NPOV policy, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The South Carolina Technical College System is a statewide network of 16 technical colleges in South Carolina. ... Seal of Georgia The Georgia Department of Technical and Adult Education(DTAE) is the body which supervises the State of Georgias thirty four technical colleges, thirty one branch campuses and a number of technical schools in Georgias universities while also surveying the adult literacy program and economic and... . ...

External links

Notes

  1. ^ Roberta Couch, Tom Jamison, Doug Stine, Susan Johnston, Rene Lynch, and Judy Sisk, Foothill College: 25 Years (Los Altos Hills: Foothill College, 1981), 10.
  2. ^ Golden, Daniel. "Online University Enrollment Soars" The Wall Street Journal. 15 May, 2006.
  3. ^ http://goforward.harpercollege.edu/uploaded/bachelordegree/harperbachsum.pdf
  4. ^ http://www.nnmc.edu/about/BaccalaureatePrograms.shtml
  5. ^ http://www.sun-herald.com/Newsstory.cfm?pubdate=013107&story=tp6np18.htm&folder=NewsArchive2
  6. ^ Irving Pressley McPhail, "Top 10 reasons to attend a community college," Community College Week 17, no. 11 (3 January 2005): 4-5.
  7. ^ M.H. Miller, "Four-year schools should take more cues from community colleges, some educators say," Community College Week 17, no. 9 (6 December 2004): 3-4.
  8. ^ John Merrow, Community Colleges: The Smart Transfer, The New York Times, April 22, 2007.
  9. ^ Robert Andrew Powell, Community College: Tennis in a Parking Lot, The New York Times, April 22, 2007
  10. ^ John Merrow, Community Colleges: A Harsh Reality, The New York Times, April 22, 2007.
  11. ^ Beth Frerking, Community Colleges: For Achievers, a New Destination, The New York Times, April 22, 2007.
  12. ^ John Merrow, Community Colleges: Dream Catchers, The New York Times, April 22, 2007.

Entrance to Foothill College Example of Foothills unique campus architecture Foothill College is a community college located in Los Altos Hills, California and is part of the Foothill-De Anza Community College District. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ...

References

  • Baker, G. A. III (1994). A handbook on the community college in America: Its history, mission, and management. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
  • Cohen, A.M., Brawer, F.B. (2003) The American Community College, 4th edition. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
  • Dougherty, K. J. (1994). The contradictory college: The conflicting origins, impacts, and futures of the community college. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
  • Floyd, D.L., Skolnik, M.L., & Walker, K.P. , eds. (2005). The Community College Baccalaureate: Emerging Trends and Policy Issues. Sterling VA: Stylus Publishing.
  • Frye, J. H. (1992). The vision of the public junior college, 1900-1940. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
  • Kasper, H. T. (2002). The changing role of community college. Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 46(4), 14-21.
  • Murray, J.P (2002). The current state of faculty development in two-year colleges. New Directions for Community Colleges, 118, 89-97.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Community college - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3099 words)
Most community colleges are operated either by special districts that draw property tax revenue from the local community, or by a division of the state university.
Community colleges have little or no time limits on when classes must be taken or a degree must be earned; in contrast, many four-year schools, tired of "professional students" taking up limited space, have imposed limits on when a degree can be earned.
Community colleges typically have smaller libraries than universities, possibly reducing the research opportunities of their students (though libraries may be part of an interlibrary loan agreement with other libraries at universities).
College Answer - Community College (301 words)
Community colleges prepare students for the job market by offering entry-level career training, as well as courses for adult students who want to upgrade their skills for job re-entry or advancement.
Community colleges offer the ability to continue education to learn at any point in your life, close to home, and at an affordable price.
Community colleges are an American invention that put publicly-funded, higher education in neighborhoods throughout the United States.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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