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Encyclopedia > Community

A community is a social group of organisms sharing an environment, normally with shared interests. In human communities, intent, belief, resources, preferences, needs, risks and a number of other conditions may be present and common, affecting the identity of the participants and their degree of cohesiveness. The word community has many connotations and contexts: // Main community articles Community is a rough draft of a reference article about community on Wikipedia. ... Life on Earth redirects here. ... This article is about modern humans. ... An agents intention in performing an action is their specific purpose in doing so, the end or goal they aim at, or intend to accomplish. ... For other uses, see Believe. ... Rainforest on Fatu-Hiva, Marquesas Islands Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ... Preference (or taste) is a concept, used in the social sciences, particularly economics. ... Needs Assessment or Community Needs Analysis provides a method of assessing the total needs of a community of people: of that community, for that community and by that community. ... For the Parker Brothers board game, see Risk (game) For other uses, see Risk (disambiguation). ... Identity is an umbrella term used throughout the social sciences for an individuals comprehension of him or herself as a discrete, separate entity. ...


The word community is derived from the Latin communitas (meaning the same), which is in turn derived from communis, which means "common, public, shared by all or many"[1]. Communis comes from a combination of the Latin prefix con- (which means "together") and the word munis (which has to do with performing services). For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...

A community of interest gathers at Stonehenge, England, for the summer solstice.
A community of interest gathers at Stonehenge, England, for the summer solstice.

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 138 KB) Stonehenge on the night before the summer solstice, with groups of people surrounding the floodlit stones, waiting for the dawn to arrive. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 138 KB) Stonehenge on the night before the summer solstice, with groups of people surrounding the floodlit stones, waiting for the dawn to arrive. ... C.O.I., Community of Interest is a means by which network assets and or network users are segregated by some technological means for some established purpose. ... For other uses, see Stonehenge (disambiguation). ...

Perspectives from various disciplines

Sociology

German sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies presented a concise differentiation between the terms "community" (Gemeinschaft) and "society" (Gesellschaft). In his 1887 work, Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft, Tönnies argued that "community" is perceived to be a tighter and more cohesive social entity within the context of the larger society, due to the presence of a "unity of will."[2] He added that family and kinship were the perfect expressions of community, but that other shared characteristics, such as place or belief, could also result in gemeinschaft. Ferdinand Tönnies (July 26, 1855, near Oldenswort (Eiderstedt) - April 9, 1936, Kiel, Germany) was a German sociologist. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... Gemeinschaft ( ) and Gesellschaft are sociological categories introduced by the German sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies for two normal types of human association. ...


Individual and community

Main article: Structure and agency
A group of youth interacting
A group of youth interacting

During human growth and maturation, people encounter sets of other individuals and experiences. Infants encounter first their immediate family, then extended family, and then local community (such as school and work). They thus develop individual and group identity through associations that connect them to life-long community experiences.[3] The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2128x1184, 1393 KB) Summary Teenagers of various backgrounds in Oslo, Norway. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2128x1184, 1393 KB) Summary Teenagers of various backgrounds in Oslo, Norway. ... In sociology, a group is usually defined as a collection of humans or animals, who share certain characteristics, interact with one another, accept expectations and obligations as members of the group, and share a common identity. ... Identity is an umbrella term used throughout the social sciences for an individuals comprehension of him or herself as a discrete, separate entity. ...


As people grow, they learn about and form perceptions of social structures. During this progression, they form personal and cultural values, a world view and attitudes toward the larger society. Gaining an understanding of group dynamics and how to "fit in" is part of socialization. Individuals develop interpersonal relationships and begin to make choices about whom to associate with and under what circumstances.[3] See Social structure of the United States for an explanation of concepts exsistance within US society. ... Value redirects here. ... A world view (or worldview) is a term calqued from the German word Weltanschauung (pronounced ) Welt is the German word for world, and Anschauung is the German word for view or outlook. It implies a concept fundamental to German philosophy and epistemology and refers to a wide world perception. ... Attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents an individuals like or dislike for an item. ... The term group dynamics implies that individual behaviours may differ depending on individuals current or prospective connections to a sociological group. ... A family posing for a group photo socializes together. ... In the contexts of sociology and of popular culture, the concept of interpersonal relationships involves social associations, connections, or affiliations between two or more people. ... In sociology, a group is usually defined as a collection of humans or animals, who share certain characteristics, interact with one another, accept expectations and obligations as members of the group, and share a common identity. ...


During adolescence and adulthood, the individual tends to develop a more sophisticated identity, often taking on a role as a leader or follower in groups. If an individual develops the feeling that they belong to a group, and they must help the group they are part of, then they develop a sense of community. Adolescent redirects here. ... A function is part of an answer to a question about why some object or process occurred in a system that evolved or was designed with some goal. ... Leader redirects here. ... Sense of community (or psychological sense of community) is a concept in social psychology (or more narrowly, in community psychology), which focuses on the experience of community rather than its structure, formation, setting, or other features. ...


Social capital

Main article: Social capital

If community exists, both freedom and security exist as well. The community then takes on a life of its own, as people become free enough to share and secure enough to get along. The sense of connectedness and formation of social networks comprise what has become known as social capital.[4] Social capital is a core concept in business, economics, organizational behaviour, political science, and sociology, defined as the advantage created by a persons location in a structure of relationships. ... Social capital is a core concept in business, economics, organizational behaviour, political science, and sociology, defined as the advantage created by a persons location in a structure of relationships. ...


Social capital is defined by Robert D. Putnam as "the collective value of all social networks (who people know) and the inclinations that arise from these networks to do things for each other (norms of reciprocity)." Social capital in action can be seen in groups of varying formality, including neighbors keeping an eye on each others' homes. However, as Putnam notes in Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (2000), social capital has been falling in the United States. Putnam found that over the past 25 years, attendance at club meetings has fallen 58 percent, family dinners are down 33 percent, and having friends visit has fallen 45 percent.[5] Robert D. Putnam (2006) For other persons with similar names, see Robert Putnam (disambiguation). ... A social network is a map of the relationships between individuals, indicating the ways in which they are connected through various social familiarities ranging from casual acquaintance to close familial bonds. ... Bowling Alone: Americas Declining Social Capital (1995) is an essay by Robert D. Putnam. ...


Western cultures are thus said to be losing the spirit of community that once were found in institutions including churches and community centers. Sociologist Ray Oldenburg states in The Great Good Place that people need three places: 1) The home, 2) the office, and, 3) the community hangout or gathering place.[6] Occident redirects here. ... The word culture comes from the Latin root colere (to inhabit, to cultivate, or to honor). ... An institution is a group, tenet, maxim, or organization created by a group of humans. ... This article is about the Christian buildings of worship. ... Community centres are public locations where members of a community may gather for group activities, social support, public information, and other purposes. ... Sociology is the study of the social lives of humans, groups and societies. ... Ray Oldenburg is an urban sociologist from Florida who writes about the importance of informal public gathering places. ... This article is about the book titled The great Good Place by Ray Oldenburg. ... For other uses, see Home (disambiguation). ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A gathering place is any place where people are able to congregate. ...


With this philosophy in mind, many grassroots efforts such as The Project for Public Spaces are being started to create this "Third Place" in communities. They are taking form in independent bookstores, coffeehouses, local pubs and through many innovative means to create the social capital needed to foster the sense and spirit of community.[7] A grassroots political movement is one driven by the constituents of a community. ... Project for Public Spaces (PPS) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to creating and sustaining public places that build communities. ... The Third Place is a term used in the concept of community building to refer to social surroundings separate from the two usual social environments of home and the workplace. ...


Psychology

Sense of community

To what extent do participants in joint activities experience a sense of community?
To what extent do participants in joint activities experience a sense of community?
Main article: Sense of community

In a seminal 1986 study, McMillan and Chavis identify four elements of "sense of community": 1) membership, 2) influence, 3) integration and fulfillment of needs, and 4) shared emotional connection. They give the following example of the interplay between these factors: Image File history File links Bigdayout_crowd2. ... Image File history File links Bigdayout_crowd2. ... Sense of community (or psychological sense of community) is a concept in social psychology (or more narrowly, in community psychology), which focuses on the experience of community rather than its structure, formation, setting, or other features. ... Sense of community (or psychological sense of community) is a concept in social psychology (or more narrowly, in community psychology), which focuses on the experience of community rather than its structure, formation, setting, or other features. ...

Someone puts an announcement on the dormitory bulletin board about the formation of an intramural dormitory basketball team. People attend the organizational meeting as strangers out of their individual needs (integration and fulfillment of needs). The team is bound by place of residence (membership boundaries are set) and spends time together in practice (the contact hypothesis). They play a game and win (successful shared valent event). While playing, members exert energy on behalf of the team (personal investment in the group). As the team continues to win, team members become recognized and congratulated (gaining honor and status for being members). Someone suggests that they all buy matching shirts and shoes (common symbols) and they do so (influence).[8]

A Sense of Community Index (SCI) has been developed by Chavis and colleagues and revised and adapted by others. Although originally designed to assess sense of community in neighborhoods, the index has been adapted for use in schools, the workplace, and a variety of types of communities.[9]


Anthropology

Community and its features are central to anthropological research. Some of the ways community is addressed in anthropology include the following:

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Social anthropology is the branch of anthropology that studies how currently living human beings behave in social groups. ... Cross-Cultural Studies is a specialization in Anthropology that uses field data from many societies to examine the scope of human behavior and test hypotheses about human behavior and culture. ... Ethnography ( ethnos = people and graphein = writing) is the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... The anthropology of religion involves the study of religious institutions in relation to other social institutions, and the comparison of religious beliefs and practices across cultures. ... Cyber Anthropology is different from the other fields of Anthropology because it has to do with the finding and searching of information using computers, rather than digging in the dirt. ... Ecological anthropology deals with human-environmental (nature-culture) relationships over time and space. ... Psychological anthropology is a highly interdiscplinary subfield of anthropology that studies the interaction of cultural and mental processes. ...

Social philosophy

Communitarianism

Main article: Communitarianism

Communitarianism as a group of related but distinct philosophies (or ideologies) began in the late 20th century, opposing classical liberalism and capitalism while advocating phenomena such as civil society. Not necessarily hostile to social liberalism, communitarianism rather has a different emphasis, shifting the focus of interest toward communities and societies and away from the individual. The question of priority, whether for the individual or community, must be determined in dealing with pressing ethical questions about a variety of social issues, such as health care, abortion, multiculturalism, and hate speech. Communitarianism as a group of related but distinct philosophies began in the late 20th century, opposing radical individualism, and other similar philosophies while advocating phenomena such as civil society. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ... Social liberalism is either a synonym for new liberalism or a label used by progressive liberal parties in order to differentiate themselves from the more conservative liberal parties, especially when there are two or more liberal parties in a country. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial...


Business and communications

Organizational communication

Effective communication practices in group and organizational settings are important to the formation and maintenance of communities. How ideas and values are communicated within communities are important to the induction of new members, the formulation of agendas, the selection of leaders and many other aspects. Organizational communication is the study of how people communicate within an organizational context and the influences and interactions within organizational structures. Group members depend on the flow of communication to establish their own identity within these structures and learn to function in the group setting. Although organizational communication, as a field of study, is usually geared toward companies and business groups, these may also be seen as communities. The principles of organizational communication can also be applied to other types of communities. Organizational communication, broadly speaking, is: the transactional, symbolic process in which the activities of a social collective are coordinated to achieve individual and collective goals. ... For the Bobby Womack album, see Communication (1972 album). ... // Pre-bureaucratic (entrepreneurial) structures lack standardization of tasks. ...


Ecology

see Community (ecology) In ecology, a community is an assemblage of populations of different species, interacting with one another. ...


Interdisciplinary perspectives

Socialization

Main article: Socialization
Lewes Bonfire Night procession commemorating 17 Protestant martyrs burnt at the stake from 1555 to 1557.
Lewes Bonfire Night procession commemorating 17 Protestant martyrs burnt at the stake from 1555 to 1557.

The process of learning to adopt the behavior patterns of the community is called socialization. The most fertile time of socialization is usually the early stages of life, during which individuals develop the skills and knowledge and learn the roles necessary to function within their culture and social environment.[3] For some psychologists, especially those in the psychodynamic tradition, the most important period of socialization is between the ages of 1 and 10. But socialization also includes adults moving into a significantly different environment, where they must learn a new set of behaviors.[10] A family posing for a group photo socializes together. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1056x771, 181 KB) Lewes Bonfire Night, procession of the Martyrs Crosses. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1056x771, 181 KB) Lewes Bonfire Night, procession of the Martyrs Crosses. ... This is about Lewes in England. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A family posing for a group photo socializes together. ... As commonly used, individual refers to a person or to any specific object in a collection. ... A function is part of an answer to a question about why some object or process occurred in a system that evolved or was designed with some goal. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... The social environment is the direct influence of a group of individuals and their contributions to this environment, as both groups and individuals who are in frequent communication with each other within their cultural or socio-economical strata, which create role identity(-ies) and guide the individuals self (sociology... Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a type of psychotherapy, usually meeting about once or twice a week. ...


Socialization is influenced primarily by the family, through which children first learn community norms. Other important influences include school, peer groups, mass media, the workplace and government. The degree to which the norms of a particular society or community are adopted determines one's willingness to engage with others. The norms of tolerance, reciprocity and trust are important "habits of the heart," as de Tocqueville put it, in an individual's involvement in community.[11] The word norm coming from the latin word norma which means angle measure or (lawlike) rule, has a number of meanings: A social or sociological norm; see norm (sociology). ... A peer group is a group of people of approximately the same age, social status, and interests. ... It has been suggested that toleration be merged into this article or section. ... In social psychology, reciprocity refers to in-kind positive or negative responses of individuals towards the actions of others. ... Trust is the belief in the good character of one party, presumed to seek to fulfill policies, ethical codes, law and their previous promises. ... Tocqueville redirects here. ...


Community development

Main article: Community development

Community development, often linked with Community Work or Community Planning, is often formally conducted by non-government organisations(NGOs), universities or government agencies to improve the social well-being of local, regional and, sometimes, national communities. Less formal efforts, called community building or community organizing, seek to empower individuals and groups of people by providing them with the skills they need to effect change in their own communities[12]. These skills often assist in building political power through the formation of large social groups working for a common agenda. Community development practitioners must understand both how to work with individuals and how to affect communities' positions within the context of larger social institutions. Image File history File links Azadi1. ... Image File history File links Azadi1. ... The Azadi Tower (Persian: , Borj-e Azadi meaning in English: ) (previously known as the Shahyād Ä€ryāmehr Persian: , English: ) is the symbol of Tehran, Iran, and marks the entrance to this large metropolitan city. ... A town square is an open area commonly found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings. ... Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE   -  Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE   -  Sassanid dynastic empire 224–651 CE   -  Safavid dynasty... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Community-based development occurs when communities are responsible for planning, managing, and implementing developmental change with little, if any, intervention from governments, non-governmental organization, or other external actors. ... The term non-governmental organization (NGO) is used in a variety of ways all over the world and, depending on the context in which it is used, can refer to many different types of organizations. ... Community building is a field of practices directed toward the creation or enhancement of community between individuals within a regional area (such as a neighbourhood) or with a common interest. ... Community organizing is a process by which people are brought together to act in common self-interest. ...


Formal programs conducted by universities are often used to build a knowledge base to drive curricula in sociology and community studies. The General Social Survey from the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago and the Saguaro Seminar at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University are examples of national community development in the United States. In The United Kingdom, Oxford University has led in providing extensive research in the field through its Community Development Journal,[13] used worldwide by sociologists and community development practitioners. Community studies is an academic discipine, drawing on sociology and anthropology, and particularly the social research methodology ethnography (participant observation). ... The General Social Survey (GSS) is a means for the collection of data on demographic characteristics and attitudes of residents of the United States. ... The National Opinion Research Center (NORC),established in 1941, is one of the largest and highly respected national social research organizations in the United States. ... For other uses, see University of Chicago (disambiguation). ... BetterTogether:Civic Engagement in America is both a book and website published as an initiative of the Saguaro Seminar conducted at Harvard Universitys John F. Kennedy School of Government. ... The John F. Kennedy School of Government, colloquially known as the Kennedy School of Government (KSG) or simply the Kennedy School, is a public policy school and one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University. ... Harvard redirects here. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ...


At the intersection between community development and community building are a number of programs and organizations with community development tools. One example of this is the program of the Asset Based Community Development Institute of Northwestern University. The institute makes available downloadable tools[14] to assess community assets and make connections between non-profit groups and other organizations that can help in community building. The Institute focuses on helping communities develop by "mobilizing neighborhood assets" — building from the inside out rather than the outside in.[15] Northwestern University (NU) is a selective private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university with campuses located in Evanston, Illinois and downtown Chicago, Illinois. ... A non-profit organization (abbreviated NPO, or non-profit or not-for-profit) is an organization whose primary objective is to support an issue or matter of private interest or public concern for non-commercial purposes, without concern for monetary profit. ...


Community building and organizing

M. Scott Peck is of the view that the almost accidental sense of community which exists at times of crisis, for example in New York City after the September 11, 2001 attacks, can be consciously built. Peck believes that the process of "conscious community building" is a process of building a shared story, and consensual decision making, built upon respect for all individuals and inclusivity of difference. He is of the belief that this process goes through four stages: Morgan Scott Peck (22 May 1936 – 25 September 2005) was an American psychiatrist and best-selling author. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...

  1. Pseudo-community: Where participants are "nice with each other", playing-safe, and presenting what they feel is the most favourable sides of their personalities.
  2. Chaos: When people move beyond the inauthenticity of pseudo-community and feel safe enough to present their "shadow" selves. This stage places great demands upon the facilitator for greater leadership and organisation, but Peck believes that "organisations are not communities", and this pressure should be resisted.
  3. Emptiness: This stage moves beyond the attempts to fix, heal and convert of the chaos stage, when all people become capable of acknowledging their own woundedness and brokenness, common to us all as human beings. Out of this emptiness comes
  4. True community: the process of deep respect and true listening for the needs of the other people in this community. This stage Peck believes can only be described as "glory" and reflects a deep yearning in every human soul for compassionate understanding from one's fellows.

More recently Scott Peck has remarked that building a sense of community is easy. It is maintaining this sense of community that is difficult in the modern world.


Community building can use a wide variety of practices, ranging from simple events such as potlucks and small book clubs to larger–scale efforts such as mass festivals and construction projects that involve local participants rather than outside contractors. A potluck or potluck dinner is a gathering of people for a meal where the participants are expected to bring food to be shared among everyone at the gathering. ... A book discussion club is a group of people who meet to discuss a book or books that they have read and express their opinions, likes, dislikes, etc. ... For other uses, see Festival (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ...


Community currencies

Some communities have developed their own "Local Exchange Trading Systems" (LETS)[16] and local currencies, such as the Ithaca Hours system,[17] to encourage economic growth and an enhanced sense of community. Community Currencies have recently proven valuable in meeting the needs of people living in various South American nations, particularly Argentina, that recently suffered as a result of the collapse of the Argentinian national currency[18]. Image File history File links Ithaca_Hours-One_Eighth. ... Image File history File links Ithaca_Hours-One_Eighth. ... An Eighth Hour, part of the local currency system of Ithaca, NY. Ithaca Hours is a local currency in Ithaca, New York. ... In economics, a local currency, in its common usage, is a currency not backed by a national government (and not legal tender), and intended to trade only in a small area. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In economics, a local currency is a currency not backed by a national government, and intended to trade only in a small area. ... An Eighth Hour, part of the local currency system of Ithaca, NY. Ithaca Hours is a local currency in Ithaca, New York. ...


Conversely, at least one community, The Los Angeles Skills Pool,[19] is built around the sharing of services without the use of any currency.

The anti-war affinity group "Collateral Damage" protesting the Iraq war
The anti-war affinity group "Collateral Damage" protesting the Iraq war

Community building that is geared toward activism is usually termed "community organizing." In these cases, organized community groups seek accountability from elected officials and increased direct representation within decision-making bodies. Where good-faith negotiations fail, these constituency-led organizations seek to pressure the decision-makers through a variety of means, including picketing, boycotting, sit-ins, petitioning, and electoral politics. The ARISE Detroit! coalition and the Toronto Public Space Committee are examples of activist networks committed to shielding local communities from government and corporate domination and inordinate influence. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (540x850, 153 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (540x850, 153 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The anti-war affinity group Collateral Damage. All seven were convicted on December 4, 2002 of 2nd Degree Criminal Trespass for occupying the office of Senator Allard in protest of the war in Iraq An affinity group is a small group of activists (usually from 3-20) who work together... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action or inaction to bring about social or political change. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action or inaction to bring about social or political change. ... Look up Boycott in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Arise Detroit logo ARISE Detroit! is a coalition of community groups in Detroit, banding together in the hopes of making a bigger impact than they each can accomplish separately. ... The Toronto Public Space Committee (TPSC) is a local, volunteer-run, non-profit organization located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada that prides itself in defending the city’s public space from corporate and private forces, including automobiles and outdoor advertising. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action or inaction to bring about social or political change. ...


Community organizing is sometimes focused on more than just resolving specific issues. Organizing often means building a widely accessible power structure, often with the end goal of distributing power equally throughout the community. Community organizers generally seek to build groups that are open and democratic in governance. Such groups facilitate and encourage consensus decision-making with a focus on the general health of the community rather than a specific interest group. Consensus decision-making is a decision-making process that not only seeks the agreement of most participants, but also to resolve or mitigate the objections of the minority to achieve the most agreeable decision. ...


The three basic types of community organizing are grassroots organizing, coalition building, and faith-based community organizing (also called "institution-based community organizing," "broad-based community organizing" or "congregation-based community organizing")[20]. A grassroots political movement is one driven by the constituents of a community. ... A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ... A faith-based community is a community with members who all believe in the same religious concepts, or at least they did when it was founded. ...


Community service

Main article: Community service

Community service is usually performed in connection with a nonprofit organization, but it may also be undertaken under the auspices of government, one or more businesses, or by individuals. It is typically unpaid and voluntary. However, it can be part of alternative sentencing approaches in a justice system and it can be required by educational institutions. Community service refers to service that a person performs for the benefit of his or her local community. ... Community service refers to service that a person performs for the benefit of his or her local community. ... A non-profit organization (often called non-profit org or simply non-profit or not-for-profit) can be seen as an organization that doesnt have a goal to make a profit. ... This group of political volunteers is working to promote voter turn-out. ... In law, a sentence forms the final act of a judge-ruled process, and also the symbolic principal act connected to his function. ... Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of law that punishes criminals for committing offences against the state. ...


Types of community

Participants in Diana Leafe Christian's "Heart of a Healthy Community" seminar circle during an afternoon session at O.U.R. Ecovillage

A number of ways to categorize types of community have been proposed; one such breakdown is: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x640, 28 KB) Participants in Diana Leafe Christians Heart of a Healthy Community seminar circle during an afternoon session at O.U.R. Ecovillage - ourecovillage. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x640, 28 KB) Participants in Diana Leafe Christians Heart of a Healthy Community seminar circle during an afternoon session at O.U.R. Ecovillage - ourecovillage. ...

  1. Geographic communities: range from the local neighbourhood, suburb, village, town or city, region, nation or even the planet as a whole. These refer to communities of location.
  2. Communities of culture: range from the local clique, sub-culture, ethnic group, religious, multicultural or pluralistic civilisation, or the global community cultures of today. They may be included as communities of need or identity, such as disabled persons, or frail aged people.
  3. Community organisations: range from informal family or kinship networks, to more formal incorporated associations, political decision making structures, economic enterprises, or professional associations at a small, national or international scale.

Communities are nested; one community can contain another - for example a geographic community may contain a number of ethnic communities[21]. A neighbourhood or neighborhood (see spelling differences) is a geographically localised community located within a larger city, town or suburb. ... “Suburbia” redirects here. ... Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ... Ronda, Spain Main street in Bastrop, Texas, United States, a small town A town is a community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Pluralism (political philosophy) This article is about pluralism in politics. ... For other uses, see Civilization (disambiguation). ... Globalization is a term used to describe the changes in societies and the world economy that are the result of dramatically increased trade and cultural exchange. ... Look up disability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Old age consists of ages nearing the average lifespan of human beings, and thus the end of the human life cycle. ... Look up Family in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Kinship is the most basic principle of organizing individuals into social groups, roles, and categories. ... Incorporation (abbreviated Inc. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Decision making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ...


Location

Possibly the most common usage of the word "community" indicates a large group living in close proximity. Examples of local community include: Local community is a geographically defined community, a group of people living close to each other. ...

For more details on this topic, see Community of place.

A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... Ronda, Spain Main street in Bastrop, Texas, United States, a small town A town is a community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. ... Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ... A city is an urban area, differentiated from a town, village, or hamlet by size, population density, importance, or legal status. ... A neighbourhood or neighborhood (see spelling differences) is a geographically localised community located within a larger city or suburb. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... “Suburbia” redirects here. ... A new town, planned community or planned city is a city, town, or community that was designed from scratch, and grew up more or less following the plan. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location of Brasília Coordinates: , Country Region State Brazilian Federal District Founded 21 April 1960 Government  - Governor Jose Roberto Arruda Area  - Total 5,802 km² (2,240. ... Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... A Community of place is a community of people bound together because of where they reside, work, visit or otherwise spend a continuous portion of their time. ...

Identity

For more details on this topic, see Community of interest.

In some contexts, "community" indicates a group of people with a common identity other than location. Members often interact regularly. Common examples in everyday usage include: C.O.I., Community of Interest is a means by which network assets and or network users are segregated by some technological means for some established purpose. ...

A professional society, like a trade association, is usually comprised of professionals who share a common bond or purpose because they work in same industry or share a common job function. ... The concept of a community of practice (often abbreviated as CoP) refers to the process of social learning that occurs when people who have a common interest in some subject or problem collaborate over an extended period to share ideas, find solutions, and build innovations. ... A virtual community, e-community or online community is a group of people that primarily interact via communication media such as letters, telephone, email or Usenet rather than face to face. ... In sociology, a group is usually defined as a collection of humans or animals, who share certain characteristics, interact with one another, accept expectations and obligations as members of the group, and share a common identity. ... To some a virtual Community of Practice is a misnomer as the original concept of a Community of Practice (CoP) was based around situated learning in a co-located setting. ... — Kimchi. ...

Overlaps

For more details on this topic, see Intentional community.

Some communities share both location and other attributes. Members choose to live near each other because of one or more common interests. An intentional community is a planned residential community designed to promote a much higher degree of social interaction than other communities. ...

  • A retirement community is designated and at least usually designed for retirees and seniors –- often restricted to those over a certain age, such as 55. It differs from a retirement home, which is a single building or small complex, by having a number of autonomous households.

A retirement community is a very broad, generic term that covers many varieties of housing for retirees and seniors - especially designed or geared for people who no longer work, or restricted to those over a certain age. ... A retirement home is a place of residence intended for the elderly. ... An intentional community is a planned residential community designed to promote a much higher degree of social interaction than other communities. ... This article is about Old Order Amish, but also refers to other Amish sects. ... Ashrams in ancient India, were Hindu hermitages where sages used to live in peace and tranquility amidst nature. ... A cohousing community is a kind of intentional community composed of private homes with full kitchens, supplemented by extensive common facilities. ... A Commune is a kind of intentional community where most resources are shared and there is little or no personal property. ... Ecovillages are intended to be socially, economically and ecologically sustainable intentional communities. ... A housing co-operative is a legal entity, usually a corporation, that owns real estate, one or more residential buildings. ... A kibbutz קיבוץ (Hebrew, pl. ... A land trust is an agreement whereby one party (the trustee) agrees to hold ownership of a piece of real property for the benefit of another party (the beneficiary). ...

Special nature of human community

Definitions of community as "organisms inhabiting a common environment and interacting with one another,"[22] while scientifically accurate, do not convey the richness, diversity and complexity of human communities. Their classification, likewise is almost never precise. Untidy as it may be, community is vital for humans. M. Scott Peck expressed this in the following way: "There can be no vulnerability without risk; there can be no community without vulnerability; there can be no peace, and ultimately no life, without community."[23] Image File history File links Street_Musicians_in_NYC.jpg Summary Street Musicians play in New York Citys Central Park. ... Image File history File links Street_Musicians_in_NYC.jpg Summary Street Musicians play in New York Citys Central Park. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Central Park is a large public, urban park (843 acres, 3. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gathering place. ... Morgan Scott Peck (22 May 1936 – 25 September 2005) was an American psychiatrist and best-selling author. ...


From this it is clear that the concept of the individual is not and cannot ever be separated from the concept of community. Without the primary community of our family, or the secondary communities discussed above, we could not develop stable personalities as individual human beings. This conveys some of the distinctiveness of human community. Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ...




See also

Community Portal
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of

Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... A community is a group of people who interact and share certain things as a group. ... Main article: community This List of community topics is intended to be a comprehensive listing of topics, categories and other resources related to community in the broadest sense possible. ... Gemeinschaft ( ) and Gesellschaft are sociological categories introduced by the German sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies for two normal types of human association. ... Communitarianism as a group of related but distinct philosophies began in the late 20th century, opposing radical individualism, and other similar philosophies while advocating phenomena such as civil society. ... Sense of community (or psychological sense of community) is a concept in social psychology (or more narrowly, in community psychology), which focuses on the experience of community rather than its structure, formation, setting, or other features. ... Communitas a Latin noun referring either to an unstructured community in which people are equal, or to the very spirit of community. ... Victor Witter Turner (May 28, 1920 – December 18, 1983) was a Scottish anthropologist. ... Community art, also known as dialogical art or community-based art, is an art form based in a community setting. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Community radio is a type of radio service that caters to the interests of a certain area, broadcasting material that is popular to a local audience but is overlooked by more powerful broadcast groups. ... A brand community is a community on the basis of attachment to a product or marque. ... Benedict Richard OGorman Anderson (born August 26, 1936) // Anderson is professor emeritus of International Studies at Cornell University. ... The Imagined Community is a concept coined by Benedict Anderson which states that a nation is socially constructed and ultimately imagined by the people who perceive themselves as part of that group. ... An intentional community is a planned residential community designed to promote a much higher degree of social interaction than other communities. ... Banners of the international community at the United Nations in Geneva The term international community is a political phrase that can refer to either: All the lands represented within the United Nations. ... Economic network or refereed network of independent individuals has the primary purpose of making a strong community in order to gain strength and perform as a significant player in relation to current market situation. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ... // Community informatics (CI) , also known as community networking, electronic community networking, community-based technologies or community technology refers to an emerging set of principles and practices concerned with the use of information and communication technology (ICT) for the personal, social, cultural or economic development of and within communities. ... The Otherness is a malevolent force present in several of the novels by F. Paul Wilson. ... The theory that the original affluent society was that of hunter-gatherers was articulated by Marshall Sahlins at the symposium on Man the Hunter held in Chicago in 1966. ... Marshall Sahlins (born 1930) is a prominent American anthropologist. ... Jean-Luc Nancy. ... The Tragedy of the Commons is a type of social trap, often economic, that involves a conflict over resources between individual interests and the common good. ... The tragedy of the anticommons is a situation where rational individuals (acting separately) collectively waste a given resource by under-utilizing it. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Harper, D. 2001. Online Etymology Dictionary.
  2. ^ Tönnies, F. 1887. Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft, p. 22.
  3. ^ a b c Newman, D. 2005. Chapter 5. "Building Identity: Socialization" pp. 134-140.
  4. ^ Putnam, D. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of the American Community, p. 19.
  5. ^ Bowling Alone web site
  6. ^ Project for Public Spaces. 2006. Ray Oldenburg.
  7. ^ University of Florida. 2006. Social Capital in Tampa Bay: An Update Report.
  8. ^ McMillan, D.W., & Chavis, D.M. 1986. "Sense of community: A definition and theory," p. 16.
  9. ^ Perkins, D.D., Florin, P., Rich, R.C., Wandersman, A. & Chavis, D.M. (1990). Participation and the social and physical environment of residential blocks: Crime and community context. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 83-115. Chipuer, H. M., & Pretty, G. M. H. (1999). A review of the Sense of Community Index: Current uses, factor structure, reliability, and further development. Journal of Community Psychology, 27(6), 643-658. Long, D.A., & Perkins, D.D. (2003). Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Sense of Community Index and Development of a Brief SCI. Journal of Community Psychology, 31, 279-296.
  10. ^ Newman, D. 2005, p. 141.
  11. ^ Smith, M. 2001. Community.
  12. ^ Kelly, Anthony, "With Head, Heart and Hand: Dimensions of Community Building" (Boolarong Press) [ISBN 978086439076]
  13. ^ Community Development Journal, Oxford University Press
  14. ^ ABCD Institute, in cooperation with the W.K. Kellogg Foundation. 2006. Discovering Community Power: A Guide to Mobilizing Local Assets and Your Organization's Capacity.
  15. ^ ABCD Institute. 2006. Welcome to ABCD.
  16. ^ Local Exchange Trading Systems were first developed by Michael Linton, in Courtenay, BC, see "LETSystems - new money". Retrieved: 2006-08-01.
  17. ^ The Ithaca Hours system, developed by Paul Glover is outlined in "Creating Community Economics with Local Currency". Retrieved: 2006-08-01.
  18. ^ [http://www.strohalm.net/en/site.php| Social Trade Organisation
  19. ^ Los Angeles Skills Pool website
  20. ^ Jacoby Brown, Michael, (2006), "Building Powerful Community Organizations: A Personal Guide To Creating Groups That Can Solve Problems and Change the World" (Long Haul Press)
  21. ^ Tropman John E., Erlich, John L. and Rothman, Jack (2006), "Tactics and Techniques of Community Intervention" (Wadsworth Publishing)
  22. ^ Australian Academy of Science. Nova: Science in the News. Retrieved: 2006-07-21.
  23. ^ M. Scott Peck, 1987. The Different Drum: Community-Making and Peace, p. 233.

Michael Linton is the designer of a Local Exchange Trading System (LETS) known as LETSystem, an open form of money, or personal and practical arrangement of community currency. ... Courtenay is a city on the east coast of Vancouver Island, in the province of British Columbia, Canada. ... Paul Glover is an activist currently living in Ithaca, New York. ... Morgan Scott Peck (22 May 1936 – 25 September 2005) was an American psychiatrist and best-selling author. ...

References

  • Barzilai, G. 2003. Communities and Law: Politics and Cultures of Legal Identities. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • Beck, U. 1992. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. London: Sage
— 2000. What is globalization? Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Chavis, D.M., Hogge, J.H., McMillan, D.W., & Wandersman, A. 1986. "Sense of community through Brunswick's lens: A first look." Journal of Community Psychology, 14(1), 24-40.
  • Chipuer, H. M., & Pretty, G. M. H. (1999). A review of the Sense of Community Index: Current uses, factor structure, reliability, and further development. Journal of Community Psychology, 27(6), 643-658.
  • Christensen, K., et al. (2003). Encyclopedia of Community. 4 volumes. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Cohen, A. P. 1985. The Symbolic Construction of Community. Routledge: New York.
  • Durkheim, Emile. 1950 [1895] The Rules of Sociological Method. Translated by S. A. Solovay and J. H. Mueller. New York: The Free Press.
  • Cox, F., J. Erlich, J. Rothman, and J. Tropman. 1970. Strategies of Community Organization: A Book of Readings. Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock Publishers.
  • Effland, R. 1998. The Cultural Evolution of Civilizations Mesa Community College.
  • Giddens, A. 1999. “Risk and Responsibility” Modern Law Review 62(1): 1-10.
  • Lenski, G. 1974. Human Societies: An Introduction to Macrosociology. New York: McGraw- Hill, Inc.
  • Long, D.A., & Perkins, D.D. (2003). Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Sense of Community Index and Development of a Brief SCI. Journal of Community Psychology, 31, 279-296.
  • McMillan, D.W., & Chavis, D.M. 1986. "Sense of community: A definition and theory." American Journal of Community Psychology, 14(1), 6-23.
  • Nancy, Jean-Luc. La Communauté désœuvrée (philosophical questioning of the concept of community and the possibility of encountering a non-subjective concept of it).
  • Newman, D. 2005. Sociology: Exploring the Architecture of Everyday Life, Chapter 5. "Building Identity: Socialization" Pine Forge Press. Retrieved: 2006-08-05.
  • Peck, M.S. 1987. The Different Drum: Community-Making and Peace. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-684-84858-9
  • Perkins, D.D., Florin, P., Rich, R.C., Wandersman, A. & Chavis, D.M. (1990). Participation and the social and physical environment of residential blocks: Crime and community context. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 83-115.
  • Putnam, R. D. 2000. Bowling Alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon and Schuster
  • Sarason, S.B. 1974. The psychological sense of community: Prospects for a community psychology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
— 1986. "Commentary: The emergence of a conceptual center." Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 405-407.
  • Smith, M. K. 2001. Community. Encyclopedia of informal education. Last updated: January 28, 2005. Retrieved: 2006-07-15.
  • Tönnies, F. 1887. Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft, Leipzig: Fues's Verlag, 2nd ed. 1912, 8th edition, Leipzig: Buske, 1935; translated in 1957 as Community and Society. ISBN 0-88738-750-0

David Émile Durkheim (April 15, 1858 - November 15, 1917) is known as the founder of modern sociology. ... Jean-Luc Nancy. ... Subject (philosophy) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Morgan Scott Peck (22 May 1936 – 25 September 2005) was an American psychiatrist and best-selling author. ... Seymour Sarason is Professor of Psychology Emeritus at Yale University, where he taught from 1945 to 1989. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


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As a political movement, communism sought to overthrow capitalism through a workers’ revolution and establish a system in which property is owned by the community as a whole rather than by individuals.
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Communism as a concrete social and political system made its first appearance in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the state erected by the victors of the October Revolution in Russia in 1917 (see Russian Revolutions of 1917).
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