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Encyclopedia > Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Leader Vladimir Ivashko (last)
Founded January 1912
Dissolved December 1991
Headquarters Kremlin, Moscow
Official ideology/
political position
Marxism-Leninism
International affiliation Comintern (until 1943)

The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. It emerged in 1912 as the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party created a separate party. The party led the October Revolution, which led to the establishment of a socialist state in Russia. The party was dissolved in 1991, at the time of the break-up of the Soviet Union. Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Vladimir Antonovich Ivashko (Russian: , Ukrainian: ) (1932–1994) was briefly the acting General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the period from August 24, 1991 to August 29, 1991. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is a historic fortified complex at the very heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), Saint Basils Cathedral (often mistaken by westerners as the Kremlin) and Red Square (to the east) and the Alexander Garden (to the west). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The romanization of the Russian alphabet is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic alphabet and into the Latin alphabet, such as the English alphabet and other Latin alphabets in particular (and sometimes non-Latin alphabets). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ... “Political Parties” redirects here. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Social Pyramid. Reads top to bottom - We rule you; We fool you; We shoot you; We eat for you; and finally; We work for all - We feed all The Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party, or RSDLP (Росси́йская Социа́л-Демократи́ческая Рабо́чая Па́ртия = РС-ДРП), also known as the Russian Social-Democratic Workers Party and the Russian Social-Democratic... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ...


For most of the history of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union, the Communist Party was virtually indistinguishable from the government, as it was generally the only political party tolerated by the government. Consequently, the history of the USSR and the CPSU are deeply intertwined and overlapping. Therefore, it is useful for those interested in the history of the CPSU to also consult the History of Russia series of articles. The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs, the ethnic group that eventually split into the Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians. ...

Contents

Structure

Communism
Basic concepts
Marxist philosophy
Class struggle
Proletarian internationalism
Communist party
Ideologies
Marxism  Leninism  Maoism
Trotskyism  Juche
Left  Council
Religious  Anarchist
Communist internationals
Communist League
First International
Comintern
Fourth International
Prominent communists
Marx and Engels
Vladimir Lenin
Rosa Luxemburg
Joseph Stalin
Leon Trotsky
Mao Zedong
Related subjects
Anarchism
Anti-capitalism
Anti-communism
Communist state
Criticisms of communism
Democratic centralism
Dictatorship of the proletariat
Eurocommunism
History of communism
Left-wing politics
Luxemburgism
New Class  New Left
Post-Communism
Primitive communism
Socialism  Stalinism
Socialist economics
Titoism
Communism Portal
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Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are terms which cover work in philosophy which is strongly influenced by Karl Marxs materialist approach to theory or which is written by Marxists. ... Class struggle is the active expression of class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective. ... International Socialism redirects here. ... In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... The Juche Idea (also Juche Sasang or Chuche; pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the official state ideology of North Korea and the political system based on it. ... Left Communism is a term describing a whole range of communist viewpoints which oppose the political ideas of the Bolsheviks from a position which is asserted to be more authentically Marxist and proletarian than the views held by the Communist International after its first two Congresses. ... Council communism is a Radical Left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s. ... Religious communism is a form of communism centered on religious principles. ... Anarchist communism is a form of anarchism that advocates the abolition of the State and capitalism in favor of a horizontal network of voluntary associations through which everyone will be free to satisfy his or her needs. ... See Communist League (disambiguation) for other groups of the same name. ... The International Workingmens Association (IWA), sometimes called the First International, was an international socialist organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle. ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... For other uses, see Fourth International (disambiguation). ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820 – August 5, 1895) was a German social scientist and philosopher, who developed communist theory alongside his better-known collaborator, Karl Marx, co-authoring The Communist Manifesto (1848). ... “Lenin” redirects here. ... Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 – January 15, 1919, in Polish Róża Luksemburg) was a Jewish Polish-born Marxist political theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was an Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... “Mao” redirects here. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... This article lists ideologies opposed to capitalism and describes them briefly. ... Pro-communism refers to opposition to baby eating. ... A map of countries who declared themselves to be socialist states under the Marxist-Leninist or Maoist definition (in other words, Communist states) at some point in their history. ... This article is on criticisms of communism, a branch of socialism. ... Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties, and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist policy inside a political party. ... The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a... Eurocommunism was a new trend in the 1970s and 1980s within various Western European communist parties to develop a theory and practice of social transformation that was more relevant in a Western European democracy and less aligned to the partyline of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... In Western thought, the history of communism, an idea of a society based on common ownership of property, can be traced back to ancient times. ... “Leftism” redirects here. ... Luxemburgism (also written Luxembourgism) is a specific revolutionary theory within communism, based on the writings of Rosa Luxemburg. ... The new class is a term to describe the privileged ruling class of bureaucrats and Communist party functionaries which typically arises in a Stalinist communist state. ... The New Left is a term used in different countries to describe left-wing movements that occurred in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Post-Communism is a name sometimes given to the period of political and economic transition in former communist states located in parts of Europe and Asia, usually transforming into a free market capitalist and globalized economy. ... Primitive communism, according to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, is the original society of humanity. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Socialist economics is a broad, and sometimes controversial, term. ... Titoism is a term describing political ideology named after Yugoslav leader, Josip Broz Tito, primarily used to describe the schism between the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia after the Second World War (see Cominform) when the Communist Party of Yugoslavia refused to take further dictates from Moscow. ...

CPSU

The governing body of the CPSU was the Party Congress which initially met annually but whose meetings became less frequent, particularly under Stalin. Party Congresses would elect a Central Committee which, in turn, would elect a Politburo. Under Stalin the most powerful position in the party became the General Secretary who was elected by the Politburo. In 1952 the title of General Secretary became First Secretary and the Politburo became the Presidium before reverting to their former names under Leonid Brezhnev in 1966. General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Became synonymous with leader of the party under Stalin. ... The Congress of the CPSU was the gathering of the delegates of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and its predecessors. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... Central Committee most commonly refers to the central executive unit of a communist party, whether ruling or non-ruling. ... The Politburo (in Russian: Политбюро, full: Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbriviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС), known as the Presidium from 1952 to 1966, functioned as the central policymaking and governing body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... Joseph Stalin, first General Secretary The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (First Secretary in 1953-1966) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenins death in 1924. ... Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (Russian: , Leonid Ilič Brežnev) December 19, 1906 [O.S. December 19, 1906] – November 10, 1982) was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (and thus de facto ruler of the USSR) from 1964 to 1982, serving in that position longer than anyone...


In theory, supreme power in the party was invested in the Party Congress. However, in practice the power structure became reversed and, particularly after the death of Lenin, supreme power became the domain of the General Secretary.


At lower levels, the organizational hierarchy was managed by Party Committees, or partkoms (партком). A partkom was headed by the elected partkom secretary (секретарь парткома). At enterprises, institutions, kolkhozes, etc., they were called as such, i.e., "partkoms". At higher levels the Committees were abbreviated accordingly: raikoms (райком) at raion level, obkoms (обком) at oblast levels (known earlier as gubkoms (губком) for guberniyas), gorkom (горком) it city level, etc. A kolkhoz (Russian: IPA: ), plural kolkhozy, was a form of collective farming in the Soviet Union that existed along with state farms (sovkhoz). ... A raion (or rayon) (Russian and Ukrainian: ; Belarusian раён; Azeri: rayon, Latvian: rajons, Georgian: , raioni) is one of two kinds of administrative subdivisions in languages of some post-Soviet states: a subnational entity and a subdivision of a city. ... Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasÅ¥, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ... Guberniya (Russian: ) (also gubernia, guberniia, gubernya) was a major administrative subdivision of the Imperial Russia, usually translated as governorate or province. ...


The bottom level of the Party was the primary party organization (первичная партийная организация) or party cell (партийная ячейка). It was created within any organizational entity of any kind where there were at least three communists. The management of a cell was called party bureau (партийное бюро, партбюро). A partbureau was headed by the elected bureau secretary (секретарь партбюро).


At smaller party cells, secretaries were regular employees of the corresponding plant/hospital/school/etc. Sufficiently large party organizations were usually headed by an exempt secretary (освобожденный секретарь), who drew his salary from the Party money.


Membership

Membership in the party ultimately became a privilege, with a small subset of the general population of Party becoming an elite class or nomenklatura in Soviet society. Nomenklatura enjoyed many perquisites denied to the average Soviet citizen. Among those perks were shopping at well-stocked stores, access to foreign merchandise, preference in obtaining housing, access to dachas and holiday resorts, being allowed to travel abroad, send their children to the best universities, and obtain prestigious jobs (as well as party membership itself) for their children. It became virtually impossible to join the Soviet ruling and managing elite without being a member of the Communist Party. The nomenklatura were a small, élite subset of the general population in the Soviet Union who held various key administrative positions in all spheres of the Soviet Union: in government, industry, agriculture, education, etc. ... Dacha of Boris Pasternak in Peredelkino. ...


Membership had its risks, however, especially in the 1930s when the party was subjected to purges under Stalin. Membership in the party was not open. To become a party member one had to be approved by various committees and one's past was closely scrutinised. As generations grew up never having known anything but the USSR, party membership became something one generally achieved after passing a series of stages. Children would join the Young Pioneers and then, at the age of 14, may graduate to the Komsomol (Young Communist League) and ultimately, as an adult, if one had shown the proper adherence to party discipline or had the right connections one would become a member of the Communist Party itself. However, membership also had its obligations. Komsomol and CPSU members were expected not only to pay dues but also to carry out appropriate assignments and "social tasks" (общественные поручения). Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... A pioneer movement is an organization for children operated by a communist party. ... Komsomol (Комсомол) is a syllabic abbreviation word, from the Russian Kommunisticheski Soyuz Molodiozhi (Коммунистический союз молодёжи), or Communist... Party discipline is the ability of a political party to get its members to support the policies of the party leadership. ...


In 1918 it had a membership of approximately 200,000. In the late 1920s under Stalin, the party engaged in a heavy recruitment campaign (the "Lenin Levy") of new members from both the working class and rural areas. This was both an attempt to "proletarianize" the party and an attempt by Stalin to strengthen his base by outnumbering the Old Bolsheviks and reducing their influence in the party. 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... An Old Bolshevik (старый большевик) was a member of the Bolsheviks before the Russian Revolution. ...


By 1933, the party had approximately 3.5 million members and candidate members but as a result of the Great Purge party membership fell to 1.9 million by 1939. In 1986, the CPSU had over 19 million members or approximately 10% of the USSR's adult population. Over 44% of party members were classified as industrial workers, 12% were collective farmers. The CPSU had party organizations in fourteen of the USSR's 15 republics. In the Russian federation itself there was no separate Communist Party until 1990 as affairs were run directly by the CPSU. Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) is the name given to campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the late 1930s. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...

Communist Party
of the Soviet Union

Party History
Image File history File links Vkp1. ... History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was to a significant degree determined by a person who was the head of the party in particular periods of time. ...

Party Organization
Congress
Central Committee
Politburo
Secretariat
Orgburo
Control Committee
Auditing Commission General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Became synonymous with leader of the party under Stalin. ... The Congress of the CPSU was the gathering of the delegates of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and its predecessors. ... The Central Committee, abbreviated in Russian as ЦК, Tseka, was the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). ... The Politburo (in Russian: Политбюро, full: Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbriviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС), known as the Presidium from 1952 to 1966, functioned as the central policymaking and governing body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... The Secretariat of the CPSU Central Committee was a key body within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and was responsible for the central administration of the party as opposed to drafting government policy which was usually handled by the Politburo. ... // Existence of Orgburo The Orgburo existed from 1919 to 1952, until the 19th Congress, when the Orgburo was abolished and its functions were transferred to the enlarged Secretariat. ... Party Control Committee (PCC) of the CPSU Central Committee (Russian: Komitet Partiynogo Kontrolya) was a supreme disciplinary organ within the hierarchy of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... Central Auditing Commission (CAC), (Russian: Центральная Контрольная Комиссия (ЦКК), Centralnaya Kontrolnaya Komissiya) was a supervisory organ within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ...

Leaders
LeninStalin
KhrushchevBrezhnev
AndropovChernenko
Gorbachev
“Lenin” redirects here. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov[1]; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[2]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (Russian: , Leonid Ilič Brežnev) December 19, 1906 [O.S. December 19, 1906] – November 10, 1982) was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (and thus de facto ruler of the USSR) from 1964 to 1982, serving in that position longer than anyone... Andropov, then the LKSM KFSSR First Secretary, speaks at the May 9, 1945, victory celebrations Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Russian: , Jurij Vladimirovič Andropov) (June 15 [O.S. June 2] 1914 – February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death just... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ...

Pravda
Komsomol
Pravda (Russian: , The Truth) was a leading newspaper of the Soviet Union and an official organ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party between 1912 and 1991. ... Komsomol (Комсомол) is a syllabic abbreviation word, from the Russian Kommunisticheski Soyuz Molodiozhi (Коммунистический союз молодёжи), or Communist...

Communism Portal
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History

Main article: History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was to a significant degree determined by a person who was the head of the party in particular periods of time. ...

  • The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party was a finally divided in 1912, although the Bolshevik and Menshevik factions had de facto functioned as separate political blocs. Henceforth, the Bolshevik party was known as RSDLP (bolsheviks) (Russian: Росси́́йская Социал-демократи́ческая Рабо́чая Па́ртия (большевико́в) , РСДРП(б)).
  • In 1918 the party took the name Russian Communist Party (bolsheviks) (Russian: Росси́йская Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия (большевико́в) , РКП(б)).
  • In 1925 the party was renamed the All-Union Communist party (bolsheviks) (Russian: Всесою́зная Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия (большевико́в) , ВКП(б)).
  • In 1952 the party was renamed the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

The Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party, or RSDLP (Росси́йская Социа́л-Демократи́ческая Рабо́чая Па́ртия = РСДРП), also known as the Russian Social-Democratic Workers Party and the Russian Social-Democratic Party, was a revolutionary socialist Russian political party formed in 1898 in Minsk to unite the various revolutionary organizations into one party. ... Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Coordinates: Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Government  - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Area  - City 305. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other usage of the initials CPSU see CPSU (disambiguation). ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

End of Communist rule

The growing likelihood of the dissolution of the USSR itself led conservative elements in the CPSU to launch the August Coup in 1991 which temporarily removed Gorbachev from power. On August 19, 1991, a day before the New Union Treaty was to be signed devolving power to the republics, a group calling itself the "State Emergency Committee" seized power in Moscow declaring that Gorbachev was ill and therefore relieved of his position as president. Soviet vice-president Gennadiy Yanayev was named acting president. The committee's eight members included KGB chairman Vladimir Kryuchkov, Internal Affairs Minister Boris Pugo, Defense Minister Dmitriy Yazov, and Prime Minister Valentin Pavlov. The coup dissolved because of large public demonstrations and the efforts of Boris Yeltsin who became the real power in Russia as a result. Gorbachev returned to Moscow as president but resigned as General Secretary and vowed to purge the party of conservatives. Yeltsin had the CPSU formally banned within Russia. The KGB was disbanded as were other CPSU-related agencies and organisations. Yeltsin's action was later declared unconstitutional but by this time the USSR had ceased to exist. During the Soviet Coup of 1991 (August 19-22, 1991), also known as the August Putsch or August Coup, a group of members of the Soviet government briefly deposed Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev and attempted to take control of the country. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New Union Treaty (Russian: ) was a draft treaty that would have replaced the 1922 Treaty on the Creation of the USSR and thus replaced the Soviet Union by a new entity, an attempt of Mikhail Gorbachev to salvage the Soviet state. ... Gennadiy Yanayev (born 1937) was Vice-President of the Soviet Union and leader of the August Coup of 1991. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Vladimir Alexandrovich Kryuchkov (Владимир Александрович Крючков in Russian) was born in Volgograd in 1924. ... Boris Karlovich Pugo (Russian: Бори́с Ка́рлович Пу́го) (February 19, 1937 _ August 22, 1991, in Moscow, also spelled Boriss Pugo) was a Latvian (Russian_born) Communist political figure. ... Dmitry Timofeyevich Yazov (Язов, Дмитрий Тимофеевич in Russian) (born 1924), Russian military figure, Marshal of the Soviet Union (1990). ... Valentin Sergeyevich Pavlov (September 26, 1937 - March 30, 2003) was the Prime Minister of the Soviet Union from January to August 1991. ... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ...


After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russian adherents to the CPSU tradition, particularly as it existed before Gorbachev, reorganised themselves as the Communist Party of the Russian Federation. Today there is a widespread flora of parties in Russia, claiming to be the successors of CPSU. Several of them used the name CPSU. However, CPRF is generally seen (because of its massive size) as the inheritor of the CPSU in Russia. The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... Communist Party supporters attend a May Day rally in Moscow The Communist Party of the Russian Federation (Russian: Коммунистическая партия Российской Федерации = КПРФ; translit. ...


In other republics, communists established the Armenian Communist Party, Communist Party of Azerbaijan, Party of Communists of Kyrgyzstan, Communist Party of Ukraine, Party of Communists of Belarus, Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova, Communist Party of Kazakhstan and the Communist Party of Tajikistan. Along with the CPRF, these parties formed the Union of Communist Parties - Communist Party of the Soviet Union (SKP-KPSS). The Armenian Communist Party (Hayastani Komunistakan Kusaktsutyun) is a communist political party in Armenia. ... The Azerbaijan Communist Party (Azərbaycan Kommunist Partiyası) is a communist political party in Azerbaijan. ... The Party of Communists of Kyrgyzstan is a political party in Kyrgyzstan. ... Simonenko presidential election-2004 poster in Russian The Communist Party of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) is a political party in Ukraine, currently led by Petro Symonenko. ... PKB symbol The Party of Communists of Belarus (Belarusian: Партии коммунистов Белорусской, Partyja KamunistaÅ­ BieÅ‚aruskaja, PKB) is a political party in Belarus, which opposes the regime of president Alexander Lukashenko. ... The Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (Partidul ComuniÅŸtilor din Republica Moldova) is a communist political party in Moldova, led by Vladimir Voronin. ... The Communist Party of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Kommunistik Partiyasi) is a political party in Kazakhstan. ... The Communist Party of Tajikistan is a political party in Tajikistan. ...

Saparmyrat Ataýewiç Nyýazow (February 19, 1940, Gypjak, Turkmen SSR, Soviet Union – 21 December 2006), also commonly known by the romanization Saparmurat Atayevich Niyazov of the Russian spelling Сапармурат Атаевич Ниязов of his Turkmen name, served as the head of state of Turkmenistan from 1985 until his death in 2006. ... The Democratic Party of Turkmenistan is the only political party in Turkmenistan. ... Islom Abdug‘aniyevich Karimov (Russian: Ислам Абдуганиевич Каримов Islam Abduganiyevich Karimov) (born on 30 January 1938) has served as the President of Uzbekistan since 1991. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Communist Party of Georgia, Sakartvelos Komunisturi Partia, a communist political party in Georgia. ... The United Communist Party of Georgia (in Georgian: Sakartvelos Ertiani Komunisturi Partia) is a political party in Georgia. ... Estonian Left Party (Eesti Vasakpartei - EVP) is a left socialist political party in Estonia. ... Communist Party of Estonia (in Estonian: Eestimaa Kommunistlik Partei, in Russian: Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Estonii) was a political party in Estonia. ... Norbertas Sereika ( (help· info), born September 22, 1932) is a former President of Lithuania and a former Prime Minister. ... LDDP symbol LLJU symbol Democratic Labour Party of Lithuania (LDDP, in Lithuanian Lietuvos Demokratine Darbo Partija), a social democratic political party in Lithuania, that emerged out of the Lithuanian section of the CPSU. LDDP was led by Algirdas Brazauskas, the first president of independent Lithuania. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... The Latvian Social Democratic Workers Party (Latvian: Latvijas Sociāldemokrātiskā Strādnieku Partija, abbreviated as LSDSP) is a political party in Latvia. ... The Socialist Party of Latvia (Latvian: Latvijas Sociālistiskā partija) was formed in 1994 in response to the banning of the Communist party after the collapse of the Soviet Union. ...

In Estonia

Like in the rest of the Russian empire, the RSDLP branches in the Estland gubernia had been ravaged by division between Bolsheviks and Mensheviks. In 1912 the Bolsheviks started a publication, Kiir, in Narva. In June 1914 the party took a decision to create a special Central Committee of RSDLP(b) of Estland, named the Northern-Baltic Committee of the RSDLP(b)" (Estonian: VSDT(b)P Põhja-Balti Komitee). Image File history File links Merge-arrow. ... Communist Party of Estonia (in Estonian: Eestimaa Kommunistlik Partei, in Russian: Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Estonii; EKP) was a political party in Estonia. ... Communist Party of Estonia (in Estonian: Eestimaa Kommunistlik Partei, in Russian: Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Estonii; EKP) was a political party in Estonia. ... A fragment of a 1790 map showing borders of Estonia. Capital Reval History  - Established (de facto) June 9, 1719  - Established (de jure) September 10, 1721  - Renamed 1796  - Autonomy granted April 12, 1917 Reval Governorate (Ревельская губерния or Revel guberniya) was a governorate of the Russian Empire. ... The reconstructed fortress of Narva (to the left) overlooking the Russian fortress of Ivangorod (to the right). ...


After the February Revolution, as in the rest of the empire, Bolsheviks started to gain popularity with their demands to end the war immediately, as well as their support for fast land reform and originally even ethnic claims (to introduce Estonian as an official language parallel to Russian). During the summer of 1917 Bolsheviks and their supporters took the control over the Tallinn Soviet. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


By the end of 1917 Estonian Bolsheviks were stronger than ever - holding control over political power and having significant support - remarkably more than in Russia. In the elections into the Russian Constituent Assembly their list got 40,2% of the votes in Estonia and 4 out of 8 seats allocated to Estonia. The support for the party did however start to decline, and the Estonian Constituent Assembly election of January 1918 was never completed. Moreover the party faced the situation in which it had difficultly building alliances. Their opponents, the Democratic Bloc, was able to initiate cooperation with the Labour Party, Mensheviks and the Socialist-Revolutionary Party. Those parties supported different ideas but were united around the demand for an independent or Finland-linked Estonia and wished to distribute land to the peasants. In the first question the Estonian Bolsheviks, although having introduced Estonian as an official language after their takeover, promoted the idea of Estonia as a part of Soviet Russia. In the land reform policy, Estonian Bolsheviks continued to support immediate collectivisation. Socialist-Revolutionary election poster, 1917. ...


Bolshevik rule in Estonia was ended by the German invasion in the end of February 1918. The party branch continued to function in exile in Russia.


After the German revolution in November, when an Estonian government took office, the party together with support of Soviet troops attempted an armed attack against the new state. However, by this time the support for the party had waned, and it failed to mobilize mass support for revolutionary warfare. An Estonian Workers Commune was setup, but with limited real influence. At this time the party branch had been reorganized into the Central Committee of the Estonian Sections of the RCP(b) (Estonian: Venemaa Kommunistliku (bolshevike) Partei Eesti Sektsioonide Keskkomitee). After the war a reorientation was found to be necessary (since Estonia was now an independent state) by the central leadership of the RCP(b) and thus on the November 5, 1920 the Communist Party of Estonia (EKP) was founded as a separate party. is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Communist Party of Estonia (in Estonian: Eestimaa Kommunistlik Partei, in Russian: Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Estonii; EKP) was a political party in Estonia. ...


In 1940 EKP was merged into the CPSU(b). The territorial organization of CPSU(b) in the Estonian SSR became known as Communist Party of Estonia (bolshevik) (EK(b)P). State motto: Kõigi maade proletaarlased, ühinege (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language Estonian, Russian (de facto) Capital Tallinn Chairman of the Supreme Council Arnold Rüütel (at the time of regaining independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until July 21, 1940 August 6, 1940 August 20, 1991...


The EK(b)P was purged in 1950 of many of its original native leaders; they were replaced by several prominent Russian Estonians who had grown up in Russia. Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


When the CPSU(b) changed its name in 1952, the EK(b)P removed the (b) from its name.


EKP was divided in 1990, as the pro-sovereignty majority faction of EKP separated itself from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and became the Estonian Democratic Labour Party. The minority faction of pro-Soviet hardliners broke away forming a party called Communist Party of Estonia (CPSU) (EKP (NLKP)). Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Estonian Left Party (Eesti Vasakpartei - EVP) is a left socialist political party in Estonia. ... Communist Party of Estonia (in Estonian: Eestimaa Kommunistlik Partei, in Russian: Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Estonii) was a political party in Estonia. ...


In Lithuania

By the time of the formation of the Lithuanian SSR, the Communist Party of Lithuania (LKP) was headed by Antanas Sniečkus. In 1940 the LKP merged into the CPSU(b). The territorial organization of the party in Lithuania was called Communist Party of Lithuania (bolshevik) (LK(b)P). State motto: Lithuanian: Visų Å¡alių proletarai, vienykitÄ—s! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Vilnius Official language None. ... Communist Party of Lithuania (Lithuanian: ) - communist party in Lithuania, established in early October 1918. ... Antanas Sniečkus (07 January 1903 (O.S. 25 December 1902)) in Bublelai village - 22 January 1974 in Druskininkai) was First Secretary of the Lithuanian Communist Party [LKP] between 08. ...


In the Lithuanian territorial organization, the first secretary of the Central Committee of the party (always a Lithuanian) was de facto governor of the country. The second secretary was always a Moscow-appointed Russian.


In 1952 the name of the old Lithuanian party, LKP, was retaken.


In 1989, during mass protests against Soviet Union in Lithuania the party declared itself independent from Communist Party of the Soviet Union. This article discusses the history of Lithuania and of the Lithuanians. ...


An alternative Communist Party of Lithuania ('on platform of Communist Party of the Soviet Union') existed in 1990-1991 under leadership of Mykolas Burokevičius. It was established after the "traditional" party declared its independence from its Soviet Union counterpart, and was eventually banned in 1991. Mykolas Burokevičius (born October 7, 1927, Alytus, Lithuania) - a communist political leader. ...


In 1990 the Communist Party of Lithuania was renamed into Democratic Labour Party of Lithuania, which in turn was later merged with Social Democratic Party of Lithuania under the later's name, but with leadership dominated by ex-communists. LDDP symbol LLJU symbol Democratic Labour Party of Lithuania (LDDP, in Lithuanian Lietuvos Demokratine Darbo Partija), a social democratic political party in Lithuania, that emerged out of the Lithuanian section of the CPSU. LDDP was led by Algirdas Brazauskas, the first president of independent Lithuania. ... The Social Democratic Party of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos socialdemokratų partija) is the ruling political party in Lithuania, formed from the merger of the Democratic Labour Party of Lithuania and the Lithuanian Social-Democratic Party. ...


In Moldova

The Communist Party of Moldova (Romanian: Partidul Comunist al Moldovei, PCM) was the republic-level chapter of the CPSU in the Moldavian SSR from 1940 to 1991. During that time, except for the period of 1941-1944, it was the sole legal political party in the republic. It was outlawed by the pro-Romanian Popular Front government in August 1991, just after Moldova declared independence. The Communist Party of Moldova (Moldovan: Partidul Comuniştilor din Republica Moldova) is the ruling political party in Moldova. ...


After the Communist party was legalised again by the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova on 7 September 1993, the PCM was reborn as the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova, which has governed Moldova since 2001. The Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (Partidul ComuniÅŸtilor din Republica Moldova) is a communist political party in Moldova, led by Vladimir Voronin. ...


Branches

Republic Branch
Russian SFSR Коммунистическая партия РСФСР, Kommunisticheskaya partiya RSFSR (1990-1991)
Ukrainian SSR Комуністична партія (більшовиків) України, Komunistychna partiya (bilshovykiv) Ukrayiny, KP(b)U (1918)
Комуністична партія України, Komunistychna partiya Ukrayiny
Belarusian SSR Communist Party of Belorussia
Uzbek SSR Communist Party of Uzbekistan
Kazakh SSR Communist Party of Kazakhstan
Georgian SSR Communist Party of Georgia
Azerbaijan SSR Azərbaycan Kommunist partiyası
Lithuanian SSR Lietuvos komunistų partija
Moldovan SSR Partidul Comunist al Moldovei
Latvian SSR Latvijas Komunistiskā Partija
Kyrgyz SSR Communist Party of Kirghizia
Tajik SSR Ҳизби Коммунистӣи Тоҷикистон
Armenian SSR Հայաստանի կոմունիստական կուսակցության
Turkmen SSR Communist Party of Turkmenistan
Estonian SSR Eestimaa Kommunistlik Partei
Turkestan SSR Communist Party of Turkestan
Bukhara Communist Party of Bukhara
Khorezm Communist Party of Khorezm
Karelo-Finnish SSR Communist Party of the Karelo-Finnish SSR
Transcaucasian SFSR Transcaucasian Regional Communist Party of the RKP(b)/VKP(b)

[1] State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ... For the post-Soviet party, see Communist Party of Ukraine and Communist Party of Ukraine (renewed). ... language None. ... The Communist Party of Belorussia (Russian: ), known as Communist Party (bolsheviks) of Belorussia (Russian: ) until 1952, was a communist party in Belarus 1918-1991, created following the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... State motto: Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tashkent Official language None. ... The Communist Party of Uzbekistan, initially known as Communist Party (bolshevik) of Uzbekistan, was the ruling communist party of the Uzbek SSR, and a part of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... State motto: Барлық елдердің пролетарлары, бірігіңдер! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until February 25, 1921 December 30, 1922 April 9, 1991 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km² -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... State motto: Lithuanian: Visų Å¡alių proletarai, vienykitÄ—s! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Vilnius Official language None. ... Communist Party of Lithuania (Lithuanian: ) - communist party in Lithuania, established in early October 1918. ... State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ... State motto: Visu zemju proletārieÅ¡i, savienojieties! Official language Latvian, Russian (de facto). ... The Socialist Party of Latvia (Latvian: Latvijas Sociālistiskā partija) was formed in 1994 in response to the banning of the Communist party after the collapse of the Soviet Union. ... State motto: Бардык өлкөлордүн пролетарлары, бириккиле! Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... State motto: ÕŠÖ€Õ¸Õ¬Õ¥Õ¿Õ¡Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€ Õ¢Õ¸Õ¬Õ¸Ö€ Õ¥Ö€Õ¯Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€Õ«, միացեք! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... State motto: Turkmen: Әхли юртларың пролетарлары, бирлешиң! Ökhli yurtlaryn proletalary, birlishin Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Ashgabat Official language Turkmen and Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until August 7, 1921 May 30, 1925 October 27, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 4th in the USSR 488,100 km² 4. ... The Communist Party of the Turkmenistan was the ruling communist party of the Turkmen SSR, and a part of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... State motto: Kõigi maade proletaarlased, ühinege (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language Estonian, Russian (de facto) Capital Tallinn Chairman of the Supreme Council Arnold Rüütel (at the time of regaining independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until July 21, 1940 August 6, 1940 August 20, 1991... Communist Party of Estonia (in Estonian: Eestimaa Kommunistlik Partei, in Russian: Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Estonii; EKP) was a political party in Estonia. ... The Communist Part of Turkestan was a the Turkestani branch of the Russian Communist Party (bolsheviks). ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... Communist Party of Bukhara was a political party in Bukhara. ... Khiva (alternative names include Khorasam, Khoresm, Khwarezm, Khwarizm, Khwarazm, Chiwa and Chorezm) is a city in present day Uzbekistan, in the Province of Khorezm. ... Communist Party of Khorezm was a political party in Khiva/Khorezm. ... State motto: Kaikkien maiden proletaarit, liittykää yhteen! (Workers of all countries, unite) Image:SovietUnionKarelia. ... G. N. Kupriyanov, First Secretary of the Party, speaks at the 9 May 1945 victory celebrations Communist Party of the Karelo-Finnish SSR, initially known as the Communist Party (bolshevik) of the Karelo-Finnish SSR, was the branch of the All-Union Communist Party (bolshevik)/Communist Party of the Soviet... The Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was a short-lived (1922-1936) Soviet republic, consisting of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, which were traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics in the Soviet Union. ...


Name

  • 1912-1918: Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (bolsheviks)
  • 1918-1925: All Russian Communist Party (bolsheviks)
  • 1925-1934: All Union Communist Party (bolsheviks)
  • 1934-1952: Communist Party of the Soviet Union (bolsheviks)
  • 1952-1991: Communist Party of the Soviet Union

Name in different Soviet languages

Language Abbreviation Full name
Russian КПСС Коммунистическая Партия Советского Союза, Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza
Ukrainian КПРС Комуністична Партія Радянського Союзу, Komunistychna Partiya Radyans’koho Soyuzu
Belarusian КПСС Камуністычная Партыя Савецкага Саюза, Kamunistychnaya Partyya Savyetskaha Sayuza
Uzbek
Kazakh СОКП
Georgian
Azerbaijan СИКП Совет Иттифагы Коммунист Партијасы
Lithuanian TSKP Tarybų Sąjungos komunistų partija
Moldovan ПКУС Партидул Комунист ал Униуний Советиче
Latvian PSKP Padomju Savienības Komunistiskā Partija
Kyrgyz ССКП Советтер Союзунун Коммунисттик партиясы
Tajik
Armenian ՍՄԿԿ
Turkmen
Estonian NLKP Nõukogude Liidu Kommunistlik Partei

Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎) is a Western Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... Kyrgyz or Kirghiz (Кыргыз тили) is a Northwestern Turkic language, and, together with Russian, an official language of Kyrgyzstan. ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ...

See also

In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... The following is a list of self-identified socialists, divided by geographical location. ...

References

  1. ^ [1]

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
RUSNET :: Encyclopedia :: C :: CPSU (1224 words)
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union arose from the Bolshevik wing of the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party (RSDWP).
In 1918, when the Bolsheviks became the ruling party of Russia, they changed their organisation's name to the All-Russian Communist Party; it was renamed the All-Union Communist Party in 1925 after the founding of the USSR and finally to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1952.
Constitutionally, the Soviet government and the CPSU were separate bodies, but virtually all high government officials were party members, and it was this system of interlocking dual membership in party and governmental bodies that enabled the CPSU to both make policy and see that it was enforced by the government.
Communist party, in Russia and the Soviet Union. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (1182 words)
Communist party, in Russia and the Soviet Union.
The party (from 1925 the All-Union Communist party), was strongly urban.
The Communist Party of Russia, the largest and most well-financed of the new parties, won the largest bloc of seats in the 1995 parliamentary elections, and in the first round of the 1996 Russian presidential election, Communist candidate Gennady Zyuganov received almost as many votes as Yeltsin.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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