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Encyclopedia > Communist
Part of the Politics series on
Communism

History of communism
Politics is a process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Schools of communism
Marxism · Leninism
Marxism-Leninism
Trotskyism · Maoism
Eurocommunism
Council communism
Anarchist communism
Christian communism
Luxemburgism
Marxism is the philosophy, social theory and political practice based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century German socialist philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is therefore a branch of Marxism. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛泽东思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), is a variant of Marxism-Leninism derived from the teachings of the Chinese communist Mao Zedong. ... Eurocommunism was an attempt in the 1970s by various Western European communist parties to develop a theory and practice of social transformation that was more relevant in a Western European democracy. ... Council communism is a Radical Left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s. ... Anarchist communism is a form of anarchism that advocates the abolition of the State and capitalism in favor of a horizontal network of voluntary associations through which everyone will be free to satisfy his or her needs. ... Christian communism is a form of religious communism centered around Christianity. ... Luxemburgism (also written Luxembourgism) is a specific revolutionary theory within communism, based on the writings of Rosa Luxemburg. ...


Political Parties
Communist International
World Communist Movement
International Communist Current
Communist Workers International
Fourth International In modern usage, a communist party is a political party which promotes communism, the sociopolitical philosophy based on Marxism. ... The first edition of Communist International, journal of the Comintern published in Moscow and Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg) in May 1919. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The International Communist Current is a centralised international left communist organisation with sections throughout the world. ... The Communist Workers International (German: Kommunistische Arbeiter-Internationale, KAI) or Fourth Categories: ... The Fourth International has been the Trotskyist movements most important international organisation. ...


States
The Soviet Union
People's Republic of China
Cuba · Vietnam
Laos · North Korea
This article is about one-party states governed by Communist parties. ...


Related subjects
Socialism ·
Religious communism
New Left · Planned economy
Historical materialism
Marxist philosophy
Left communism
Democratic centralism
Anti-communism
Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... Religious communism is a term used by some Communists that claim that before communism became associated with atheism, the word communism was mainly used by religious groups. ... The New Left is a term used in political discourse to refer to radical left-wing movements from the 1960s onwards. ... A planned economy is an economic system in which decisions about the production, allocation and consumption of goods and services are planned ahead of time, usually in a centralized fashion, though some proposed systems favour decentralized planning. ... Historical materialism is the methodological approach to the study of society, economics and history which was first articulated by Karl Marx (1818-1883), although Marx himself never used the term. ... See also Marxian economics Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory designs work in philosophy which is strongly influenced by Karl Marxs materialist approach to theory or which is written by Marxists. ... Left Communism is a term describing a whole range of communist viewpoints which oppose the political ideas of the Bolsheviks from a position which is asserted to be more authentically Marxist and proletarian than the views held by the Communist International after its first two Congresses. ... Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties, and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist policy inside a political party. ... Anti-communism is an ideology of opposition to communist organization, government and ideology. ...

Communism Portal
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Communism is a political ideology that seeks to establish a future classless, stateless social organization based upon common ownership of the means of production. It can be classified as a branch of the broader socialist movement. Communism also refers to a variety of political movements which claim the establishment of such a social organization as their ultimate goal. In modern usage, a communist party is a political party which promotes communism, the sociopolitical philosophy based on Marxism. ... This article is about one-party states governed by Communist parties. ... This is an overview of the ideologies of parties. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... A state is an organized political community, occupying a territory, and possessing internal and external sovereignty, that enforces a monopoly on the use of force. ... Social organization or social institution is a group of social positions, connected by social relations, performing a social role. ... Common ownership is a principle according to which the assets of an enterprise or other organisation are held indivisibly rather than in the names of the individual members. ... The means of production are physical, non-human, inputs used in production. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... Politics is the process and method of decision-making for groups of human beings. ...


Early forms of human social organization have been described as "primitive communism." However, communism as a political goal generally is a conjectured form of future social organization which has never been implemented. There is a considerable variety of views among self-identified communists, including Maoism, Trotskyism, council communism, Luxemburgism, and various currents of left communism, which are generally the more widespread varieties. However, various offshoots of the Soviet (what critics call the "Stalinist") and Maoist forms of Marxism-Leninism comprise a particular branch of communism that has the distinction of having been the primary driving force for communism in world politics during most of the 20th Century. The competing branch of Trotskyism has not had such a distinction. Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin for wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... Primitive communism, according to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, is the original society of humanity. ... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛泽东思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng SÄ«xiÇŽng), is a variant of Marxism-Leninism derived from the teachings of the Chinese communist Mao Zedong. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Council communism is a Radical Left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s. ... Luxemburgism (also written Luxembourgism) is a specific revolutionary theory within communism, based on the writings of Rosa Luxemburg. ... Left Communism is a term describing a whole range of communist viewpoints which oppose the political ideas of the Bolsheviks from a position which is asserted to be more authentically Marxist and proletarian than the views held by the Communist International after its first two Congresses. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system named after Josef Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... International relations (IR), a branch of political science, is the study of foreign affairs of and relations among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...


Karl Marx held that society could not be transformed from the capitalist mode of production to the communist mode of production all at once, but required a state transitional period which Marx described as the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The communist society Marx envisioned emerging from capitalism has never been implemented, and it remains theoretical. However, the term "Communism," especially when the word is capitalized, is often used to refer to the political and economic regimes under communist parties which claimed to be the dictatorship of the proletariat. Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was an immensely influential German philosopher, political economist, and socialist revolutionary. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... In the writings of Karl Marx and the Marxist theory of historical materialism, a mode of production (in German: Produktionsweise, meaning the way of producing) is a specific combination of: productive forces: these include human labor-power, tools, equipment, buildings and technologies, materials, and improved land social and technical relations... A communist revolution is a social revolution inspired by the ideas of Marxism that aims to replace capitalism with communism, normally with socialism (public ownership over the means of production) as an intermediate stage. ... The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a... For any word written in a language with whose alphabet or alphabet equivalent has two cases, such as those using the Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, or Armenian alphabet, capitalization (or capitalisation) is the writing of that word with its first letter in majuscules (uppercase) and the remaining letters in minuscules (lowercase). ... In modern usage, a communist party is a political party which promotes communism, the sociopolitical philosophy based on Marxism. ...


In the late 19th century, Marxist theories motivated socialist parties across Europe, although their policies later developed along the lines of "reforming" capitalism, rather than overthrowing it. The exception was the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. One branch of this party, commonly known as the Bolsheviks and headed by Vladimir Lenin, succeeded in taking control of the country after the toppling of the Provisional Government in the Russian Revolution of 1917. In 1918, this party changed its name to the Communist Party, thus establishing the contemporary distinction between communism and other trends of socialism. Socialist Party is the name of several different political parties around the world that are explicitly called Socialist though some are Social Democratic and some are not. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... Social Pyramid. Reads top to bottom - We rule you; We fool you; We shoot you; We eat for you; and finally; We work for all - We feed all The Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party, or RSDLP (Росси́йская Социа́л-Демократи́ческая Рабо́чая Па́ртия = РСДРП), also known as the Russian Social-Democratic Workers Party and the Russian Social-Democratic... Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City and on the cover of the book Lenin’s Final Fight published by Pathfinder. ... (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин, Vladimir Ilič Lenin; IPA:; born Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov; April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Communist revolutionary of Russia, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the main theorist of what has come to be called... State emblem of the Russian Provisional Government The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd after the deterioration of the Russian Empire and the tsars abdication. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, which, after the elimination of the Russian autocracy system, and the Provisional Government (Duma), resulted in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the All...


After the success of the October Revolution in Russia, many socialist parties in other countries became communist parties, signaling varying degrees of allegiance to the new Communist Party of the Soviet Union. After World War II, Communists consolidated power in Eastern Europe, and in 1949, the Communist Party of China (CPC) led by Mao Zedong established the People's Republic of China. Among the other countries in the Third World that adopted a communist form of government at some point were Cuba, North Korea, North Vietnam, Laos, Angola, and Mozambique. By the early 1980s almost one-third of the world's population lived in communist states. The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution or November Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ... Combatants Allies: Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France/Free France, United States, China, Canada, India, Australia, Poland, New Zealand, South Africa, Greece, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, Bulgaria, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Burma, Slovakia Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8... Current division of Europe into five (or more) regions: one definition of Eastern Europe is marked in orange Eastern Europe is an eastern region of Europe variably defined. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name) also known as Chinese Communist Party (CCP) (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; Pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976) (also Mao Tse-Tung in Wade-Giles transliteration) was a Chinese Marxist theorist, soldier, and statesman who led Chinas communist revolution after decades of foreign occupation and civil war in the 20th century. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN), or less commonly, Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi, September 2nd1945 and was recognized by the Peoples Republic of China and the... The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... This article is about one-party states governed by Communist parties. ...


Since the early 1970s, the term "Eurocommunism" was used to refer to the policies of communist parties in western Europe, which sought to break with the tradition of uncritical and unconditional support of the Soviet Union. Such parties were politically active and electorally significant in France and Italy. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Eurocommunism was an attempt in the 1970s by various Western European communist parties to develop a theory and practice of social transformation that was more relevant in a Western European democracy. ...


There is a history of anti-communism in the United States. However, many sections of South America, Central America and Latin America continue to have strong communist movements of various types. Anti-communism is an ideology of opposition to communist organization, government and ideology. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Map of Central America Central America is a central region of the Americas. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


With the collapse of Communist rule in Eastern Europe from the late 1980s and the breakup of the Soviet Union on December 8, 1991, communism's influence has decreased dramatically in Europe. However, around a quarter of the world's population still lives in Communist states, mostly in the People's Republic of China. The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... // The rise of Gorbachev Although reform in the Soviet Union stalled between 1969–1982, a generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents


Early communism

Main article: History of communism

The notion of communism has a history long predating Marx and Engels. In ancient Greece the idea of communism was connected to a myth about the "golden age" of humanity, when society lived in full harmony, before the development of private property. Some have argued that Plato's The Republic and works by other ancient political theorists advocated communism in the form of communal living, and that various early Christian sects, in particular the early Church, as recorded in Acts of the Apostles, and indigenous tribes in the pre-Columbian Americas practiced communism in the form of communal living and common ownership. Christian communism espouses the idea that Christianity was meant to be communist in nature. This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Golden Age by Pietro da Cortona. ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Plato. ... Communalism is a modern term that describes a broad range of social movements and social theories which are in some way centered upon the community. ... The Acts of the Apostles (Greek Praxeis Apostolon) is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... An Atsina named Assiniboin Boy Photo by Edward S. Curtis. ... The term Pre-Columbian is used to refer to the cultures of the New World in the era before significant European influence. ... Christian communism is a form of religious communism centered around Christianity. ...


In the 16th century, Thomas More portrayed a society based on common ownership of property, whose leaders administered it through the application of reason in his 1516 treatise Utopia. François Rabelais also described such an utopian society in his books through the mythic Abbey of Thélème. In the 17th century, communist thought arguably surfaced again in England. Eduard Bernstein, in his 1895 Cromwell and Communism [3] argued that several groupings in the English Civil War, especially the Diggers (or "True Levellers") espoused clear communistic, agrarian ideals, and that Oliver Cromwell's attitude to these groups was at best ambivalent and often hostile.[1] For the Elizabethan play, see Sir Thomas More (play). ... wikisource contains Utopia De Optimo Reipublicae Statu deque Nova Insula Utopia (translated On the Best State of a Republic and on the New Island of Utopia) or more simply Utopia is a 1516 book by Sir Thomas More. ... François Rabelais François Rabelais (ca. ... The Abbey of Thélème is a metaphorical society found in the fantasy Gargantua and Pantagruel written by François Rabelais in the sixteenth century. ... Eduard Bernstein Eduard Bernstein (January 6, 1850 - December 18, 1932) was a German social democratic theoretician and politician, member of the SPD, and founder of evolutionary socialism or reformism. ... The term English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651. ... For other meanings see Diggers (disambiguation) and Levellers (disambiguation) The Diggers were a group begun by Gerrard Winstanley in 1649 which called for a total destruction of the existing social order and replacement with a communistic and agrarian lifestyle based around the precepts of Christian Nationalism, wishing to rid England... For other meanings see Diggers (disambiguation) and Levellers (disambiguation) The Diggers were a group begun by Gerrard Winstanley in 1649 which called for a total destruction of the existing social order and replacement with a communistic and agrarian lifestyle based around the precepts of Christian Nationalism, wishing to rid England... Unfinished portrait miniature of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper, 1657. ...


Criticism of the idea of private property continued into the Enlightenment era of the 18th century, through such thinkers as Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a period which includes the Age of Reason. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau (June 28, 1712 – July 2, 1778) was a Genevan philosopher of the Enlightenment whose political ideas influenced the French Revolution, the development of socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. ...


The word "communist" itself was coined in 1840 by Goodwyn Barmby, after the French word communisme, while discussing the egalitarianism associated with Gracchus Babeuf, one of the most radical participants in the 1789 French Revolution, and the Abbé Constant. A correspondent of Engels, Goodwyn Barmby himself founded the London Communist Propaganda Society in 1841. "Utopian socialism", a term itself coined by Marx in contrast with "scientific socialism" (a term coined by Engels), designed all utopian writings and foundation of settlements by writers such as Robert Owen, Charles Fourier, and Saint-Simon. John Goodwyn Barmby, like his wife Catherine Barmby, were influential supporters of Robert Owen in the late 1830s and early 1840s before moving into the radical Unitarian stream of Christianity in the 1840s. ... Egalitarianism can refer to moral as well as factual theories. ... François-Noël Babeuf (November 23, 1760 - May 27, 1797), known as Gracchus Babeuf, was a French political agitator and journalist of the revolutionary period. ... Liberty Leading the People, a painting by Delacroix commemorating the July Revolution of 1830 but which has come to be generally accepted as symbolic of French popular uprisings against the monarchy in general and the French Revolution in particular. ... Eliphas Lévi Eliphas Lévi, born Alphonse Louis Constant, (February 8, 1810 - May 31, 1875) was a French occult author and magician. ... Utopian socialism is a term used to define the first currents of modern Socialist thought. ... Scientific Socialism is a socio-political-economic theory pioneered by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... It has been suggested that utopianism be merged into this article or section. ... Robert Owen Robert Owen continues to be looked up to in this Manchester statue Robert Owen (May 14, 1771 – November 17, 1858) was a Welsh socialist and social reformer. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Henri de Saint-Simon Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, often referred to as Henri de Saint-Simon (October 17, 1760 – May 19, 1825), the founder of French socialism, was born in Paris. ...


Karl Marx saw primitive communism as the original hunter-gatherer state of mankind from which it arose. When humanity was capable of producing surplus, private property developed, society became unequal, resulting in classical society, and then to the feudal mode of production, to its current state of capitalism reached by a violent primitive accumulation of capital, which in part depended on the development of mercantilism. He then proposed that the next step in social evolution would be a return to communism, but at a higher level than when mankind had originally practiced primitive communism (in accordance with the influence of Hegel's dialectic on Marx). Primitive communism, according to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, is the original society of humanity. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... In the writings of Karl Marx and the Marxist theory of historical materialism, a mode of production (in German: Produktionsweise, meaning the way of producing) is a specific combination of: productive forces: these include human labor-power, tools, equipment, buildings and technologies, materials, and improved land social and technical relations... Primitive accumulation of capital is a concept introduced by Karl Marx in part 8 of the first volume of Das Kapital (in German: ursprungliche Akkumulation, literally original accumulation or primeval accumulation). Its purpose is to help explain how the capitalist mode of production can come into being. ... A painting of a French seaport from 1638, at the height of mercantilism. ...


In its contemporary form, communism grew out of the workers' movement of 19th century Europe. At the time, as the Industrial Revolution advanced, socialist critics blamed capitalism for creating a new class of unskilled, urban factory workers who labored under harsh conditions, and for widening the gulf between rich and poor. Engels, who lived in Manchester, observed the organization of the Chartist movement (see History of British socialism), while Marx departed from his university comrades to meet the proletariat in France and Germany. The labour movement (or labor movement) is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments. ... A Watt steam engine in Madrid. ... Manchester is a city in England, considered by many to be the countrys second city [1][2]. It is a centre of the arts, the media, higher education and big business. ... A movement for social and political reform in the United Kingdom during the mid_19th century, Chartism gains its name from the Peoples Charter of 1838, which set out the main aims of the movement. ... // Origins The Reformation occurred later in Britain than in most of mainland Europe. ...


Marxism

Main article: Marxism
Karl Marx
Karl Marx

Like other socialists, Marx and Engels sought an end to capitalism and the systems which they perceived to be responsible for the exploitation of workers. But whereas earlier socialists often favored longer-term social reform, Marx and Engels believed that popular revolution was all but inevitable, and the only path to socialism. Marxism is the philosophy, social theory and political practice based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century German socialist philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary. ... Karl Marx This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Karl Marx This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ...


According to the Marxist argument for communism, the main characteristic of human life in class society is alienation; and communism is desirable because it entails the full realization of human freedom. Marx here follows Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in conceiving freedom not merely as an absence of constraints but as action having moral content. They believed that communism allowed people to do what they want but also put humans in such conditions and such relations with one another that they would not wish to have need for exploitation. Whereas for Hegel, the unfolding of this ethical life in history is mainly driven by the realm of ideas, for Marx, communism emerged from material, especially the development of the means of production. Look up alienation, alienate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The means of production are physical, non-human, inputs used in production. ...


Marxism holds that a process of class conflict and revolutionary struggle will result in victory for the proletariat and the establishment of a communist society in which private ownership is abolished over time and the means of production and subsistence belong to the community. Marx himself wrote little about life under communism, giving only the most general indication as to what constituted a communist society. It is clear that it entails abundance in which there is little limit to the projects that humans may undertake. In the popular slogan that was adopted by the communist movement, communism was a world in which each gave according to his abilities, and received according to his needs.' The German Ideology (1845) was one of Marx's few writings to elaborate on the communist future: The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... The German Ideology was a book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels around April or early May 1845. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

"In communist society, where nobody has one exclusive sphere of activity but each can become accomplished in any branch he wishes, society regulates the general production and thus makes it possible for me to do one thing today and another tomorrow, to hunt in the morning, fish in the afternoon, rear cattle in the evening, criticise after dinner, just as I have a mind, without ever becoming hunter, fisherman, herdsman or critic."[2]

Marx's lasting vision was to add this vision to a positive scientific theory of how society was moving in a law-governed way toward communism, and, with some tension, a political theory that explained why revolutionary activity was required to bring it about.


By the end of the nineteenth century the terms "socialism" and "communism" were often used interchangeably. However, Marx and Engels argued that communism would not emerge from capitalism in a fully developed state, but would pass through a "first phase" in which most productive property was owned in common, but with some class differences remaining. The "first phase" would eventually give way to a "higher phase" in which class differences were eliminated, and a state was no longer needed. Lenin frequently used the term "socialism" to refer to Marx and Engels' supposed "first phase" of communism and used the term "communism" interchangeably with Marx and Engels' "higher phase" of communism.


These later aspects, particularly as developed by Lenin, provided the underpinning for the mobilizing features of 20th century Communist parties. Later writers such as Louis Althusser and Nicos Poulantzas modified Marx's vision by allotting a central place to the state in the development of such societies, by arguing for a prolonged transition period of socialism prior to the attainment of full communism. Louis Pierre Althusser (October 16, 1918 - October 23, 1990) was a Marxist philosopher. ... Nicos Poulantzas (1936-1979) was a Greco-French Marxist political sociologist. ...


Some of Marx's contemporaries, such as the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin, espoused similar ideas, but differed in their views of how to reach to a harmonic society with no classes. To this day there has been a split in the workers movement between Marxist communists and anarchists. The anarchists are against, and wish to abolish, every state organization. Among them, anarchist-communists such as Peter Kropotkin believed in an immediate transition to one society with no classes under gift economics, while anarcho-syndicalists believe that labor unions, as opposed to Communist parties, are the organizations that can help change the society. Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Trolo) (Russian — Михаил Александрович Бакунин, Michel Bakunin — on the grave in Bern), (May 18 (30 N.S.), 1814–June 19 (July 1 N.S.), 1876) was a well known Russian anarchist. ... Anarchism is the name for both a political philosophy and manner of organizing society, derived from the Greek αναρχία (without archons or without rulers). Thus anarchism, in its most general meaning, is the belief that all forms of rulership are undesirable and should be abolished. ... Anarchist communism is a form of anarchism that advocates the abolition of the State and capitalism in favor of a horizontal network of voluntary associations through which everyone will be free to satisfy his or her needs. ... Peter Kropotkin Prince Peter Alexeevich Kropotkin (In Russian Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин) (December 9, 1842 - February 8, 1921) was one of Russias foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates of what he called anarchist communism: the model of society he advocated for most of his life was that of a communalist society... Anarcho-syndicalist flag. ...


The growth of modern Communism

Main article: Marxism-Leninism
Vladimir Lenin following his return to Petrograd

In Russia, the 1917 October Revolution was the first time any party with an avowedly Marxist orientation, in this case the Bolshevik Party, seized state power. The assumption of state power by the Bolsheviks generated a great deal of practical and theoretical debate within the Marxist movement. Marx believed that socialism and communism would be built upon foundations laid by the most advanced capitalist development. Russia, however, was one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous, largely illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers. It should be noted, however, that Marx had explicitly stated that Russia might be able to skip the stage of bourgeois capitalism. [4] Other socialists also believed that a Russian revolution could be the precursor of workers' revolutions in the west. Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... Lenin (note that this is only the left half of the original picture; the right half featured Trotsky, so the picture got sliced in two by stalinist censorship in the 30s, and the Trotsky half was removed) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this... Lenin (note that this is only the left half of the original picture; the right half featured Trotsky, so the picture got sliced in two by stalinist censorship in the 30s, and the Trotsky half was removed) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this... (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин, Vladimir Ilič Lenin; IPA:; born Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov; April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Communist revolutionary of Russia, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the main theorist of what has come to be called... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Categories: 1911 Britannica | Historical stubs | Feudalism ...


The moderate socialist Mensheviks opposed Lenin's communist Bolsheviks' plan for socialist revolution before capitalism was more fully developed. The Bolsheviks successful rise to power was based upon the slogans "peace, bread, and land" and "All power to the Soviets," slogans which tapped the massive public desire for an end to Russian involvement in the First World War, the peasants' demand for land reform, and popular support for the Soviets. Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First World War, also known as... Land reform (also agrarian reform although that can have a broader meaning) is the government-initiated or government-backed redistribution of — i. ... A soviet (Russian: сове́т) originally was a workers local council in late Imperial Russia. ...


The usage of the terms "communism" and "socialism" shifted after 1917, when the Bolsheviks changed their name to the Communist Party and installed a single-party regime devoted to the implementation of socialist policies under Leninism. The Second International had dissolved in 1916 over national divisions, as the separate national parties that composed it did not maintain a unified front against the war, instead generally supporting their respective nation's role. Lenin thus created the Third International (Comintern) in 1919 and sent the Twenty-one Conditions, which included democratic centralism, to all European socialist parties willing to adhere. In France, for example, the majority of the SFIO socialist party split in 1921 to form the SFIC (French Section of the Communist International). Henceforth, the term "Communism" was applied to the objective of the parties founded under the umbrella of the Comintern. Their program called for the uniting of workers of the world for revolution, which would be followed by the establishment of a dictatorship of the proletariat as well as the development of a socialist economy. Ultimately, their program held, there would develop a harmonious classless society, with the withering away of the state. A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is therefore a branch of Marxism. ... The phrase Second International has two meanings: For the international association of socialist parties of the late 19th century, see Second International (politics) and a successor organization, the Socialist International For one of the Merriam-Webster dictionaries of American English, see Websters New International Dictionary, Second Edition This is... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First World War, also known as... The term Third International has two well-established meanings: For the unabridged dictionary, see Websters Third New International Dictionary. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... For a party to join the Comintern, it had to accept 21 conditions. ... Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties, and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist policy inside a political party. ... Sfio, or Safe/Fast I/O, is an I/O library developed by AT&T Research, with several improvements over the ANSI C stdio library. ... The French Communist Party (French: Parti communiste français or PCF) is a political party in France which advocates the principles of communism. ... The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a...


Following the "war communism" period, the Bolsheviks formed in 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), or Soviet Union, from the former Russian Empire. In the middle of the Russian Civil War (1918-1920), the Bolsheviks nationalized all productive property. After three years of war and the 1921 Kronstadt rebellion, Lenin declared the New Economic Policy (NEP) in 1921, which was to do a "limited place for a limited time to capitalism." The NEP lasted until 1930, when Joseph Stalin's personal fight for leadership spelled the end of it. War communism or wartime communism (1917-1921) was the harsh economic policy adopted by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War with an aim to keep towns and the Red Army supplied with weapons and food in the conditions when all normal economical mechanisms and relations were being destroyed by... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1925) Area Approx. ... The Russian Civil War was fought from 1918 to 1922. ... Nationalization or nationalisation is the act of taking assets into state ownership. ... This article is about the events that took place in Russia, 1921. ... The New Economic Policy (NEP; in Russian Новая экономическая политика - Novaya Ekonomicheskaiya Politika or НЭП) was officially decided in the course of the 10th Congress of the Russian Communist Party. ... (Russian: Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин, Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin; December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), also spelled Josef Stalin, was the leader (Premier) of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s to his death in 1953 and General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet...


Following Lenin's democratic centralism, the Communist parties were organized on a hierarchical basis, with active cells of members as the broad base; they were made up only of elite cadres [citation needed] approved by higher members of the party as being reliable and completely subject to party discipline. For other uses of the term, see Cadre (disambiguation). ... Party discipline is the ability of a political party to get its members to support the policies of the party leadership. ...


The Soviet Union and other countries ruled by Communist Parties are often described as 'Communist states' with 'state socialist' economic bases. This usage indicates that they proclaim that they have realized part of the socialist program by abolishing private control of the means of production and establishing state control over the economy; however, they do not declare themselves truly communist, as they have not established communal ownership. This article is about one-party states governed by Communist parties. ...


Stalinism

Main article: Stalinism

The Stalinist version of socialism, with some important modifications, shaped the Soviet Union and influenced Communist Parties worldwide. It was heralded as a possibility of building communism via a massive program of industrialization and collectivization. The rapid development of industry, and above all the victory of the Soviet Union in the Second World War, maintained that vision throughout the world, even around a decade following Stalin's death, when the party adopted a program in which it promised the establishment of communism within thirty years. Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system named after Josef Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... In the Soviet Union, collectivisation was a policy introduced in the late 1920s, of consolidation of individual land and labour into co-operatives called collective farms (Russian: колхоз, kolkhoz) and state farms (sovkhozes). ...


However, under Stalin's leadership, evidence emerged that dented faith in the possibility of achieving communism within the framework of the Soviet model. Stalin had created in the Soviet Union a repressive state that dominated every aspect of life. Later, growth declined, and rent-seeking and corruption by state officials increased, which dented the legitimacy of the Soviet system. In economics, rent seeking is the process by which an individual or firm seeks to profit through manipulation of the economic environment rather than through trade and the production of added wealth. ...


Despite the activity of the Comintern, the Soviet Communist Party adopted the Stalinist theory of "socialism in one country" and claimed that, due to the "aggravation of class struggle under socialism," it was possible, even necessary, to build socialism in one country alone. This departure from Marxist internationalism was challenged by Leon Trotsky, whose theory of "permanent revolution" stressed the necessity of world revolution. The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system named after Josef Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... Socialism in One Country was a thesis put forward by Joseph Stalin in 1924 and further supported by Bukharin that given the catastrophic failures of all communist revolutions in Europe from 1917-1921 except their own, rather than relying on the idea that an underdeveloped and agrarian country like Russia... The theory of aggravation of the class struggle along with the development of socialism was one of cornerstones of Stalinism in the internal politics of the Soviet Union. ... (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... Permanent Revolution, (permanent in the sense that it must be continuous until final victory) is the theory that the bourgeois democratic tasks in countries with delayed bourgeois democratic development cannot be accomplished except through the establishment of a workers state, and further, that the creation of a workers state would...


Trotskyism

Main article: Trotskyism

Trotsky and his supporters organized into the "Left Opposition," and their platform became known as Trotskyism. But Stalin eventually succeeded in gaining full control of the Soviet regime, and their attempts to remove Stalin from power resulted in Trotsky's exile from the Soviet Union in 1929. After Trotsky's exile, world communism fractured in two distinct branches: Stalinism and Trotskyism. Trotsky later founded the Fourth International, a Trotskyist rival to the Comintern, in 1938. Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... The Left Opposition was a faction within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during 1923-1927. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system named after Josef Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... The Fourth International has been the Trotskyist movements most important international organisation. ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Most recently, Trotskyist ideas have occasionally found an echo among political movements in countries, such as Venezuela, where the Committee for a Marxist International has had contact with President Hugo Chávez of Venezuela. Many Trotskyist parties are also active in politically stable, developed countries such as Great Britain, France, Spain and Germany. The Committee for a Marxist International (also known as the International Marxist Tendency) is a Trotskyist tendency based on the ideas of Ted Grant and Alan Woods. ... Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (IPA: ) (born July 28, 1954) is the 53rd[1] and current President of Venezuela. ...


However, as a whole, Trotsky's theories and attitudes were never re-accepted in worldwide mainstream communist circles after Trotsky's expulsion, either within or outside of the Soviet bloc. This remained the case even after the Secret Speech and subsequent events exposed the fallibility of Stalinism and Maoism. Today, even given the fact that there are areas of the world where Trotskyist movements are rather large, the rest of the communist movement, and the working class as a whole, continues to not take Trotskyism seriously enough to coalesce in a mass movement around it or any of its offshoots. Thus, Trotskyism has never been successful in building a mass social movement capable of overthrowing a capitalist state apparatus. A map of the Eastern Bloc. ... The Secret Speech is the common name of a speech given on February 25, 1956 by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev denouncing the actions of Josef Stalin. ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system named after Josef Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛泽东思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), is a variant of Marxism-Leninism derived from the teachings of the Chinese communist Mao Zedong. ... Social movements are broader political associations focussed on specific issues. ...


Maoism

Main article: Maoism

After the death of Stalin in 1953, the Soviet Union's new leader, Nikita Khrushchev, denounced Stalin's crimes and his cult of personality. He called for a return to the principles of Lenin, thus presaging some change in Communist methods. However, Khrushchev's reforms heightened ideological differences between the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union, which became increasingly apparent in the 1960s. As the Sino-Soviet Split in the international Communist movement turned toward open hostility, China portrayed itself as a leader of the underdeveloped world against the two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛泽东思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), is a variant of Marxism-Leninism derived from the teachings of the Chinese communist Mao Zedong. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1953 calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The outrageously crowded Woodstock festival epitomized the popular antiwar movement of the 60s. ... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ...


Parties and groups that supported the Communist Party of China in their criticism against the new Soviet leadership proclaimed themselves as 'anti-Revisionist' and that the CPSU and the parties aligned with it were revisionist, "capitalist-roaders." Around the world the Sino-Soviet split resulted in splits and forming of new parties. Notably, the Party of Labour of Albania sided with China. Effectively CPC under Mao's leadership became the rallying forces of a parallel international Communist tendency. The ideology of CPC, Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tse-Tung Thought (generally referred to as 'Maoism'), was adopted by many of these groups. The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name) also known as Chinese Communist Party (CCP) (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; Pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Albanian Party of Labour (Partia e Punës e Shqipërisë, PPSh) was the sole legal political party in Albania during communist rule (1946-1991). ... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛泽东思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng SÄ«xiÇŽng), is a variant of Marxism-Leninism derived from the teachings of the Chinese communist Mao Zedong. ...


One notable example of the influence of Maoist ideas of an egalitarian agrarian revolution under Mao's conception of New Democracy was Democratic Kampuchea, lead by Khmer Rouge and to a lesser degree Pol Pot, although these are not considered Maoist parties. Still, China and North Korea were the only communist states where Khmer Rouge delegations visited during their reign. Later, China was to arm Khmer Rouge rebels, after they had been overthrown by Vietnamese invasion. Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛泽东思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), is a variant of Marxism-Leninism derived from the teachings of the Chinese communist Mao Zedong. ... For other uses of the term, including political parties with the name New Democracy, see New Democracy (disambiguation). ... Kampuchea (Cambodia) Located on the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia , Kampuchea has emerged from 2 decades (10 years) of civil war & invasion from V- ietnam. ... Flag of the Khmer Rouge Photos from the Khmer Rouge regimes archives showing a few of their millions of victims (Photos on display at the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum, Phnom Penh Skulls of Khmer Rouge victims at the Killing Fields site at Choeung Ek The Khmer Rouge (Khmer: ) was... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Flag of the Khmer Rouge Photos from the Khmer Rouge regimes archives showing a few of their millions of victims (Photos on display at the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum, Phnom Penh Skulls of Khmer Rouge victims at the Killing Fields site at Choeung Ek The Khmer Rouge (Khmer: ) was...


After the death of Mao and the take-over of Deng Xiaoping, the international Maoist movement fell in disarray. One sector accepted the new leadership in China, a second renounced the new leadership and reaffirmed their commitment to Mao's legacy and a third renounced Maoism altogether and aligned with the Albanian Communist party. Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping (Simplified Chinese: 邓小平; Traditional Chinese: 鄧小平; Pinyin: Dèng Xiǎopíng; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904–February 19, 1997) was a leader in the Communist Party of China (CPC). ...


Other anti-revisionist currents

After the break-up between the Communist Party of China and the Party of Labour of Albania in 1978, the Albanians rallied a new separate international tendency. This tendency would demarcate itself by a strict defense of the legacy of Joseph Stalin and fierce criticism of virtually all other Communist groupings. The Albanians were able to win over a large share of the Maoists in Latin America, most notably the Communist Party of Brazil. This tendency has occasionally been labeled as 'Hoxhaism' after the Albanian Communist leader Enver Hoxha. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The Communist Party of Brazil (Partido Comunista do Brasil) is a political party in Brazil. ... Enver Hoxha, (IPA , October 16, 1908–April 11, 1985) was the paramount leader of Albania from the end of World War II until his death in 1985, as the First Secretary of the Communist Albanian Party of Labour. ...


After the fall of the Communist government in Albania, the pro-Albanian parties are grouped around an international conference and the publication 'Unity and Struggle'. Another important institution for them is the biannual International Anti-Imperialist and Anti-Fascist Youth Camp, which was initiated in 1970s. The International Conference of Marxist-Leninist Parties and Organizations (ICMLPO) is a name used by two unrelated networks of communist groups: International Conference of Marxist-Leninist Parties and Organizations (International Newsletter): A grouping of parties and organizations adhering to Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought. ...


Cold War years

By virtue of the Soviet Union's victory in the Second World War in 1945, the Soviet Army had occupied nations in both Eastern Europe and East Asia; as a result, communism as a movement spread to many new countries. This expansion of communism both in Europe and Asia gave rise to a few different branches of its own, such as Maoism. Combatants Allies: Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France/Free France, United States, China, Canada, India, Australia, Poland, New Zealand, South Africa, Greece, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, Bulgaria, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Burma, Slovakia Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Current division of Europe into five (or more) regions: one definition of Eastern Europe is marked in orange Eastern Europe is an eastern region of Europe variably defined. ... The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations. ... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛泽东思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), is a variant of Marxism-Leninism derived from the teachings of the Chinese communist Mao Zedong. ...


Communism had been vastly strengthened by the winning of many new nations into the sphere of Soviet influence and strength in Eastern Europe. Governments modeled on Soviet Communism took power with Soviet assistance in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Poland, Hungary and Romania. A Communist government was also created under Marshal Tito in Yugoslavia, but Tito's independent policies led to the expulsion of Yugoslavia from the Cominform, which had replaced the Comintern, and Titoism, a new branch in the world communist movement, was labeled "deviationist." Albania also became an independent Communist nation after World War II. GDR redirects here. ... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Cominform (from Communist Information Bureau) is the common name for what was officially referred to as the Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers Parties. It was the first official forum of the international communist movement since the dissolution of the Comintern, and confirmed the new realities after World... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... Titoism is a term describing political ideology named after Yugoslav leader, Josip Broz Tito, primarily used to describe the schism between the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia after the Second World War (see Cominform) when the Communist Party of Yugoslavia refused to take further dictates from Moscow. ... In Communism, deviationism is an expressed belief which is not in accordance with official party doctrine for the time and area. ...


By 1950 the Chinese Communists held all of Mainland China, thus controlling the most populous nation in the world. Other areas where rising Communist strength provoked dissension and in some cases led to actual fighting include the Korean Peninsula, Laos, many nations of the Middle East and Africa, and, especially, Vietnam (see Vietnam War). With varying degrees of success, Communists attempted to unite with nationalist and socialist forces against what they saw as Western imperialism in these poor countries. 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name) also known as Chinese Communist Party (CCP) (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; Pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The highlighted area in the map is what is commonly known as mainland China. Mainland China (Simplified Chinese: 中国大陆; Traditional Chinese: 中國大陸; pinyin: Zhōnggúo Dàlù; literally The Chinese Massive Landmass or Continental China) is an informal (disputed — see talk page) geographical term which is usually synonymous with the area... The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) United States of America South Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand the Philippines Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) National Liberation Front (Viet Cong) Strength ~1,200,000 (1968) ~420,000 (1968) Casualties South Vietnamese dead: 230,000 South Vietnamese wounded: 300,000 US dead... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is a form of identity that holds that (ethnically or culturally defined) nations are the fundamental units for human social life, and makes certain cultural and political claims based upon that belief; in particular, the claim that the nation is the... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... The term Western world or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... Imperialism is a policy of extending control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires. ...


Communism after the collapse of the Soviet Union

In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev became leader of the Soviet Union and relaxed central control, in accordance with reform policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring). The Soviet Union did not intervene as Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Romania, and Hungary all abandoned Communist rule by 1990. In 1991, the Soviet Union itself dissolved. (Russian: , Mihail Sergeevič Gorbačëv, IPA: , commonly anglicized as Gorbachev; born March 2, 1931) was leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Poster showing Mikhail Gorbachev Perestroika ( , Russian: ) is the Russian word (which passed into English) for the economic reforms introduced in June 1987 by the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. ... GDR redirects here. ... This article is about the year. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


By the beginning of the 21st century, states under control by Communist parties under a single-party system include the People's Republic of China, Cuba, Laos, North Korea, and Vietnam. President Vladimir Voronin of Moldova is a member of the Communist Party of Moldova, but the country is not run under single-party rule. Communist parties, or their descendent parties, remain politically important in many European countries and throughout the Third World, particularly in India. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Vladimir Nicolae Voronin (born May 25, 1941) is the current President of the Republic of Moldova. ... The Communist Party of Moldova (Moldovan: Partidul Comuniştilor din Republica Moldova) is the ruling political party in Moldova. ...


The People's Republic of China has reassessed many aspects of the Maoist legacy; and the People's Republic of China, Laos, Vietnam, and, to a lesser degree, Cuba have reduced state control of the economy in order to stimulate growth. The People's Republic of China runs Special Economic Zones dedicated to market-oriented enterprise, free from central government control. Several other communist states have also attempted to implement market-based reforms, including Vietnam. Officially, the leadership of the People's Republic of China refers to its policies as "market socialism." A Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is a geographical region that has economic laws different from a countrys typical economic laws. ... Market socialism is an economic system in which the means of production are owned by the workers in each company (meaning in general that profits in each company are distributed between them: profit sharing) and the production is not centrally planned but mediated through the market. ...


Theories within Marxism as to why communism in Eastern Europe was not achieved after socialist revolutions pointed to such elements as the pressure of external capitalist states, the relative backwardness of the societies in which the revolutions occurred, and the emergence of a bureaucratic stratum or class that arrested or diverted the transition press in its own interests. Marxist critics of the Soviet Union referred to the Soviet system, along with other Communist states, as "state capitalism," arguing that Soviet system fell far short of Marx's communist ideal. They argued that the state and party bureaucratic elite acted as a surrogate capitalist class in the heavily centralized and repressive political apparatus. There are multiple definitions of the term state capitalism. ...


Non-Marxists, in contrast, have often applied the term to any society ruled by a Communist Party and to any party aspiring to create a society similar to such existing nation-states. In the social sciences, societies ruled by Communist Parties are distinct for their single party control and their socialist economic bases. While anticommunists applied the concept of "totalitarianism" to these societies, many social scientists identified possibilities for independent political activity within them, and stressed their continued evolution up to the point of the dissolution of the Soviet Union and its allies in Eastern Europe during the late 1980s and early 1990s.[3][4] Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ... Totalitarianism is a typology employed by political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ...


Today, Marxist revolutionaries are active in India, Nepal, and Colombia.


Criticism of communism

Main article: Criticisms of communism.

A diverse array of writers and political activists have published criticism of communism, such as Soviet bloc dissidents Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Václav Havel; social theorists Hannah Arendt, Raymond Aron, Ralf Dahrendorf, Seymour Martin Lipset, and Karl Wittfogel; economists Friedrich Hayek, Ludwig von Mises, and Milton Friedman; historians and social scientists Robert Conquest, Stéphane Courtois, Richard Pipes, and R. J. Rummel; anti-communist leftists Ignazio Silone, Saul Alinsky, Richard Wright, Arthur Koestler, and Bernard-Henri Levy; novelist Ayn Rand; and philosophers Leszek Kołakowski and Karl Popper. Some writers such as Courtois go beyond attributing the estimated tens of millions of deaths and other large-scale human rights abuses during the 20th Century merely to the Communist regimes associated with these atrocities;[5] rather, these authors present the events occurring in these countries, particularly under Stalin, Mao, and Pol Pot, as an argument against Marxism itself. Some of the critics were former Marxists, such as Wittfogel, who applied Marx's concept of "Oriental despotism" to communist societies such as the Soviet Union, and Silone, Wright, Koestler (among other writers) who contributed essays to the book The God that Failed (the title refers not to the Christian God but Marxism itself). This article is on criticisms of communism, a branch of socialism. ... Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (Russian: ; born in Kislovodsk, Russia, on December 11, 1918) is a Russian novelist, dramatist and historian. ... Václav Havel (official portrait) Václav Havel, GCB, CC (IPA: ) (VA-slav HA-vel) (born October 5, 1936) is a Czech writer and dramatist. ... Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a German political theorist. ... Raymond Aron (March 14, 1905 — October 17, 1983) was a French philosopher, sociologist and political scientist. ... Ralf Gustav Dahrendorf, Baron Dahrendorf (born May 1, 1929) is a German-British sociologist, philosopher, political scientist and politician. ... Seymour Martin Lipset is a political sociologist and a senior fellow at the conservative Hoover Institution. ... Karl August Wittfogel, an historian and Sinologist, was born September, 1896 in Woltersdorf, Germany. ... Friedrich Hayek Friedrich August von Hayek (May 8, 1899 in Vienna – March 23, 1992 in Freiburg) was an Austrian economist and political philosopher, noted for his defense of liberal democracy and free-market capitalism against socialist and collectivist thought in the mid-20th century. ... Ludwig von Mises Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (September 29, 1881 – October 10, 1973) was a notable economist and a major influence on the modern libertarian movement. ... Milton Friedman Milton Friedman (born July 31, 1912) is an American economist, known for his work on macroeconomics, microeconomics, economic history, statistics, and for his advocacy of laissez-faire capitalism. ... Dr. George Robert Ackworth Conquest (born July 15, 1917), British historian, became one of the best-known writers on the Soviet Union with the publication in 1968 of his classic account of Stalins purges of the 1930s, The Great Terror. ... Stéphane Courtois is a French historian, currently employed as research director (i. ... Richard Pipes, Warsaw (Poland), October 20, 2004 Richard Edgar Pipes (b. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ignazio Silone (May 1, 1900 - August 22, 1978) is the pseudonym of Secondo Tranquilli, an Italian author. ... Saul Alinsky off the cover of Let Them Call Me Rebel: Saul Alinsky, His Life and Legacy by Sanford D. Horwitt. ... Richard Nathaniel Wright (September 4, 1908 – November 28, 1960) was an African-American author of novels, short stories and non-fiction. ... Arthur Koestler Arthur Koestler (September 5, 1905, Budapest – March 3, 1983, London) was a Hungarian polymath who became a naturalized British subject. ... Bernard-Henri L vy is a French philosopher and writer. ... It has been suggested that The Ayn Rand Collective be merged into this article or section. ... Leszek KoÅ‚akowski (born 23 October 1927 in Radom, Poland) is the most notable living Polish philosopher. ... Sir Karl Raimund Popper, CH, KT, MA, Ph. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Oriental Despotism is the quality ascribed by Karl Marx to large cities of the Middle East and Asia, which would not have been truly independent, mainly due to their geographical location. ... The God that Failed is a song from Metallicas self-titled album. ...


There have also been more direct criticisms of Marxism, such as criticisms of the labor theory of value or Marx's predictions. Nevertheless, Communist parties outside of the Warsaw Pact, such as the Communist parties in Western Europe, Asia, Latin America, and Africa, differed greatly. Thus a criticism that is applicable to one such party is not necessarily applicable to another. This article is on criticisms of Marxism, a branch of socialism. ... The labor theory of value (LTV) is a theory in classical economics concerning the value of an exchangeable good or service. ... This article is on criticisms of Marxism, a branch of socialism. ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement among airlines about financial liability. ...


Comparing "Communism" to "communism"

According to the 1996 third edition of Fowler's Modern English Usage, communism and derived words are written with the lowercase "c" except when they refer to a political party of that name, a member of that party, or a government led by such a party, in which case the word "Communist" is written with the uppercase "C." Thus, one may be a communist (an advocate of communism) without being a Communist (a member of a Communist Party or another similar organization). 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, often referred to simply as Fowlers Modern English Usage, or Fowler, is a style guide to British English usage. ... Minuscule, or lower case, is the smaller form (case) of letters (in the Roman alphabet: a, b, c, ...). Originally alphabets were written entirely in majuscule (capital) letters which were spaced between well-defined upper and lower bounds. ... Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ...


See also

Political ideologies

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An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... This is an overview of the ideologies of parties. ... This is a list of political parties around the world by ideology. ... Anarchism is the name for both a political philosophy and manner of organizing society, derived from the Greek αναρχία (without archons or without rulers). Thus anarchism, in its most general meaning, is the belief that all forms of rulership are undesirable and should be abolished. ... Christian Democracy is a heterogeneous political ideology. ... Communitarianism as a group of related but distinct philosophies began in the late 20th century, opposing aspects of liberalism and capitalism while advocating phenomena such as civil society. ... This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Statue of Emmeline Pankhurst, a famous suffragette, in Victoria Tower Gardens next to the Houses of Parliament, Westminster. ... Green politics is a body of political ideas informed by environmentalism aimed at developing a sustainable society. ... This article is about political Islamism. ... This article discusses liberalism as a major worldwide political ideology, its development, and its many modern-day variations. ... Libertarianism is a political philosophy[1] advocating that individuals should be free to do whatever they wish with their person or property, as long as they do not infringe on the same liberty of others. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is a form of identity that holds that (ethnically or culturally defined) nations are the fundamental units for human social life, and makes certain cultural and political claims based upon that belief; in particular, the claim that the nation is the... National Socialism redirects here. ... Progressivism is a political philosophy whose adherents promote public policies that they believe would lead to positive social change. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... Poster promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s: Toward a New Life (in Romanian),The Promised Land (in Hungarian), in small (down) text is written First Palestinian sound movie 1844 Discourse on the Restoration of the Jews by Mordecai Noah, page one. ... This article is about one-party states governed by Communist parties. ... Anti-communism is an ideology of opposition to communist organization, government and ideology. ... This article is on criticisms of communism, a branch of socialism. ... Post-Communism is a name sometimes given to the period of political and economic transition in former communist states located in parts of Europe and Asia. ... In communist political theory, communize is a verb meaning to abolish ownership of the means of production, which, in societies dominated by the capitalist mode of production, are owned by individual capitalists, states, or other collective institutions. ... Malayalam editon of the Manifesto The Communist Manifesto, also known as The Manifesto of the Communist Party, first published on February 21, 1848 by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, is one of the worlds most historically influential political tracts. ...

Schools of communism

Council communism is a Radical Left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s. ... Developed by Daniel De Leon, Marxism_Deleonism is a form of Marxism. ... Eurocommunism was an attempt in the 1970s by various Western European communist parties to develop a theory and practice of social transformation that was more relevant in a Western European democracy. ... Enver Hoxha (1908-1985) Enver Hoxha [en-vehr hoj-e] (October 16, 1908–April 11, 1985) was the communist leader of Albania from the end of World War II until his death, primarily as the First Secretary of the Albanian Party of Labour. ... The Juche Idea (pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the official ideology of North Korea and the political system based on it. ... Left Communism is a term describing a whole range of communist viewpoints which oppose the political ideas of the Bolsheviks from a position which is asserted to be more authentically Marxist and proletarian than the views held by the Communist International after its first two Congresses. ... Marxism is the philosophy, social theory and political practice based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century German socialist philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is therefore a branch of Marxism. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛泽东思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng SÄ«xiÇŽng), is a variant of Marxism-Leninism derived from the teachings of the Chinese communist Mao Zedong. ... Religious communism is a term used by some Communists that claim that before communism became associated with atheism, the word communism was mainly used by religious groups. ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system named after Josef Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... Titoism is a term describing political ideology named after Yugoslav leader, Josip Broz Tito, primarily used to describe the schism between the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia after the Second World War (see Cominform) when the Communist Party of Yugoslavia refused to take further dictates from Moscow. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ...

Organisations and people

In modern usage, a communist party is a political party which promotes communism, the sociopolitical philosophy based on Marxism. ... There are, at present, a number of communist parties active in various countries across the world, and a number who used to be active. ... This is a list of the major figures in history who identified themselves as communists. ...

References

  1. ^ Eduard Bernstein, (1895). Kommunistische und demokratisch-sozialistische Strömungen während der englischen Revolution, J.H.W. Dietz, Stuttgart. ISBN 081246303. Sources available at [1]
  2. ^ Karl Marx, (1845). The German Ideology, Marx-Engels Institute, Moscow. ISBN 1573922587. Sources available at [2]
  3. ^ H. Gordon Skilling (April 1966). "Interest Groups and Communist Politics". World Politics 18 (3): 435-451.�UNIQ3ab34e171166e61b-HTMLCommentStrip7c7dfbc41ccbeb7000000002
  4. ^ Arch Getty (1985). Origins of the Great Purges: The Soviet Communist Party Reconsidered: 1933-1938. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521335701.
  5. ^ Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Panne, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stéphane Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard University Press, 1999, hardcover, 858 pages, ISBN 0674076087

The German Ideology was a book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels around April or early May 1845. ... Stéphane Courtois is a French historian, currently employed as research director (i. ... The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a controversial book edited by doctor Stéphane Courtois which attempts to catalog various crimes (deaths, torture, deportations, etc. ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ...

External links

Online resources for original Marxist literature

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Look up communism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

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Wikinfo links

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The Communist Party of Vietnam (Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam) is the currently ruling, as well as the only legal political party in Vietnam.
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