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Encyclopedia > Communication

Communication is the process of transfering information from a sender to a reciever with the use of a medium in which the communicated information is understood by both sender and reciever. It is a process that allows organisms to exchange information by several methods. Communication requires that all parties understand a common language that is exchanged. There are auditory means, such as speaking, singing and sometimes tone of voice, and nonverbal, physical means, such as body language, sign language, paralanguage, touch, eye contact, or the use of writing. Communication is defined as a process by which we assign and convey meaning in an attempt to create shared understanding. This process requires a vast repertoire of skills in intrapersonal and interpersonal processing, listening, observing, speaking, questioning, analyzing, and evaluating. Use of these processes is developmental and transfers to all areas of life: home, school, community, work, and beyond. It is through communication that collaboration and cooperation occur.[1] Communication is the articulation of sending a message, through different media [2] whether it be verbal or nonverbal, so long as a being transmits a thought provoking idea, gesture, action, etc. This article is about compression waves. ... Nonverbal communication (NVC) is usually understood as the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless messages. ... For other uses, see Body language (disambiguation). ... Two sign language Intepreters working as a team for a school. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Metacommunicative competence. ... This article is about the study of touching behaviour in humans. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gaze aversion. ... Write redirects here. ... Conveyancing - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... For wartime collaboration, see Collaborationism. ... This article is about cooperation as used in the social sciences. ... In communications and information processing, a transmitter (sometimes abbreviated XMTR) is an object (source) which sends information to an observer (receiver). ... For gestures in computing, see mouse gesture. ...


Communication happens at many levels (even for one single action), in many different ways, and for most beings, as well as certain machines. Several, if not all, fields of study dedicate a portion of attention to communication, so when speaking about communication it is very important to be sure about what aspects of communication one is speaking about. Definitions of communication range widely, some recognizing that animals can communicate with each other as well as human beings, and some are more narrow, only including human beings within the parameters of human symbolic interaction.


Nonetheless, communication is usually described along a few major dimensions: Content (what type of things are communicated), source, emisor, sender or encoder (by whom), form (in which form), channel (through which medium), destination, receiver, target or decoder (to whom), and the purpose or pragmatic aspect. Between parties, communication includes acts that confer knowledge and experiences, give advice and commands, and ask questions. These acts may take many forms, in one of the various manners of communication. The form depends on the abilities of the group communicating. Together, communication content and form make messages that are sent towards a destination. The target can be oneself, another person or being, another entity (such as a corporation or group of beings). An encoder is a device used to encode a signal (such as a bitstream) or data into a form that is acceptable for transmission or storage. ... A Digitrax DH163AT DCC decoder in an Athearn locomotive before the shell goes on. ... Message in its most general meaning is an object of communication. ... Destination was a disco studio group from New York who had one chart entry: Move On Up / Up Up Up / Destinations Theme, which spent four weeks at #1 on the Hot Dance Music/Club Play chart in 1979. ... Interpersonal communication is the process of sending and receiving information or communication with another person. ...



Communication can be seen as processes of information transmission governed by three levels of semiotic rules: Data transmission is the conveyance of any kind of information from one space to another. ... Semiotics (also spelled Semeiotics) is the study of signs and sign systems. ...

  1. Syntactic (formal properties of signs and symbols),
  2. pragmatic (concerned with the relations between signs/expressions and their users) and
  3. semantic (study of relationships between signs and symbols and what they represent).

Therefore, communication is social interaction where at least two interacting agents share a common set of signs and a common set of semiotic rules. This commonly held rule in some sense ignores autocommunication, including intrapersonal communication via diaries or self-talk. In linguistics, syntax is the study of the rules, or patterned relations, that govern the way the words in a sentence come together. ... Pragmatism is a school of philosophy which originated in the United States in the late 1800s. ... In general, semantics (from the Greek semantikos, or significant meaning, derived from sema, sign) is the study of meaning, in some sense of that term. ... Semiotics (also spelled Semeiotics) is the study of signs and sign systems. ... Autocommunication is a term used in communication studies, semiotics and other cultural studies to describe communication from and to oneself. ... This article is in need of attention. ... == c programming[[a--203. ...

In a simple model, information or content (e.g. a message in natural language) is sent in some form (as spoken language) from an emisor/ sender/ encoder to a destination/ receiver/ decoder. In a slightly more complex form a sender and a receiver are linked reciprocally. A particular instance of communication is called a speech act. In the presence of "communication noise" on the transmission channel (air, in this case), reception and decoding of content may be faulty, and thus the speech act may not achieve the desired effect. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... An encoder is a device used to encode a signal (such as a bitstream) or data into a form that is acceptable for transmission or storage. ... A Digitrax DH163AT DCC decoder in an Athearn locomotive before the shell goes on. ... The notion speech act is a technical term in linguistics and the philosophy of language. ... This article is about noise as in sound. ...


Theories of coregulation describe communication as a creative and dynamic continuous process, rather than a discrete exchange of information. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Contents

Types of communication

Language

Main article: Language

A language is a syntactically organized system of signals, such as voice sounds, intonations or pitch, gestures or written symbols which communicate thoughts or feelings. If a language is about communicating with signals, voice, sounds, gestures, or written symbols, can animal communications be considered as a language? Animals do not have a written form of a language, but use a language to communicate with each another. In that sense, an animal communication can be considered as a separated language. For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... Write redirects here. ...


Human spoken and written languages can be described as a system of symbols (sometimes known as lexemes) and the grammars (rules) by which the symbols are manipulated. The word "language" is also used to refer to common properties of languages. Language learning is normal in human childhood. Most human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others around them. There are thousands of human languages, and these seem to share certain properties, even though many shared properties have exceptions. This article is about modern humans. ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... Definition A lexeme is an abstract unit of morphological analysis in linguistics, that roughly corresponds to a set of words that are the same in basic meaning. ... For the rules of the English language, see English grammar. ... This article is about audible acoustic waves. ... For gestures in computing, see mouse gesture. ...


There is no defined line between a language and a dialect, but the linguist Max Weinreich is credited as saying that "a language is a dialect with an army and a navy". Constructed languages such as Esperanto, programming languages, and various mathematical formalisms are not necessarily restricted to the properties shared by human languages. For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... Max Weinreich (1893/94 Goldingen(Kuldiga), Courland (Latvia) - 1969 New York) was a Yiddish linguist. ... One of the most frequently stated aphorisms in the discussion of the distinction between dialect and language is, a language is a dialect with an army and navy. This is commonly attributed to one of the leading figures in modern Yiddish linguistics, Max Weinreich, and the aphorism therefore often appears... A constructed or artificial language — known colloquially as a conlang — is a language whose phonology, grammar, and/or vocabulary have been devised by an individual or group, instead of having naturally evolved as part of a culture. ... This article is about the language. ...


Dialogue

Main article: Dialogue

A dialogue is a reciprocal conversation between two or more entities. The etymological origins of the word (in Greek διά(diá,through) + λόγος(logos,word,speech) concepts like flowing-through meaning) do not necessarily convey the way in which people have come to use the word, with some confusion between the prefix διά-(diá-,through) and the prefix δι-(di-, two) leading to the assumption that a dialogue is necessarily between only two parties. For other uses, see Dialogue (disambiguation). ... Look up reciprocal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the film, see The Conversation. ... Etymology is the study of the origins of words. ...


Nonverbal communication

Nonverbal communication is the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless messages. Such messages can be communicated through gesture, body language or posture; facial expression and eye contact, object communication such as clothing, hairstyles or even architecture, or symbols and infographics. Speech may also contain nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, including voice quality, emotion and speaking style, as well as prosodic features such as rhythm, intonation and stress. Likewise, written texts have nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, spatial arrangement of words, or the use of emoticons.A portmanteau of the English words emotion (or emote) and icon, an emoticon is a symbol or combination of symbols used to convey emotional content in written or message form Nonverbal communication (NVC) is usually understood as the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless messages. ... Message in its most general meaning is an object of communication. ... For gestures in computing, see mouse gesture. ... For other uses, see Body language (disambiguation). ... While not moving, a human can be in one of the following main positions. ... Photographs from the 1862 book Mécanisme de la Physionomie Humaine by Guillaume Duchenne. ... A baby wearing many items of winter clothing: headband, cap, fur-lined coat, shawl and sweater. ... Street haircut in Harbin, China. ... This article is about building architecture. ... ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Metacommunicative competence. ... For other uses, see Rhythm (disambiguation). ... Intonation is a term used to cover particular uses of tones in linguistics and music. ... Stress has different meanings in different fields: Look up stress in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An emoticon, also called a smiley, is a sequence of printable characters such as :) or :-) that is intended to represent a human facial expression and convey an emotion. ...


Non-human living organisms

Communication in many of its facets is not limited to humans, or even to primates. Every information exchange between living organisms — i.e. transmission of signals involving a living sender and receiver — can be considered a form of communication. Thus, there is the broad field of animal communication, which encompasses most of the issues in ethology. On a more basic level, there is cell signaling, Cellular communication (biology)|cellular communication, and chemical communication between primitive organisms like bacteria, and within the plant and fungal kingdoms. All of these communication processes are sign-mediated interactions with a great variety of distinct coordinations. This article is about modern humans. ... For the ecclesiastical use of this term, see primate (religion) Families 13, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all lemurs, monkeys, and apes, including humans. ... Information exchange is an informal term that can either refer to bidirectional information transmission/information transfer in telecommunications and computer science or communication seen from a system-theoretic or information-theoretic point of view. ... Within evolutionary biology, signalling theory refers to the scientific theory around how organisms signal their condition to others. ... The receiver in information theory is the receiving end of a communication channel (in particular the binary symmetric channel) in information theory. ... Animal communication is any behaviour on the part of one animal that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cell signaling is part of a complex system of communication that governs basic cellular activities and coordinates cell actions. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ...


Animals

Animal communication is any behaviour on the part of one animal that has an effect on the current or future behavior of another animal. Of course, human communication can be subsumed as a highly developed form of animal communication. The study of animal communication, called zoosemiotics' (distinguishable from anthroposemiotics, the study of human communication) has played an important part in the development of ethology, sociobiology, and the study of animal cognition. This is quite evident as humans are able to communicate with animals especially dolphins and other animals used in circuses however these animals have to learn a special means of communication. Animal communication, and indeed the understanding of the animal world in general, is a rapidly growing field, and even in the 21st century so far, many prior understandings related to diverse fields such as personal symbolic name use, animal emotions, animal culture and learning, and even sexual conduct, long thought to be well understood, have been revolutionized. Animal communication is any behaviour on the part of one animal that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal. ... Behavior or behaviour refers to the actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to the environment. ... Human communication is the field dedicated to understanding how people communicate: with themselves intrapersonal communication another person interpersonal communication within groups group dynamics within organizations organizational communication across cultures cross-cultural communication The study of human communication is known as anthroposemiotics. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Animal cognition, is the title given to a modern approach to the mental capacities of animals other than humans. ... For other uses, see Name (disambiguation). ... Emotion in animals considers the question, do animals feel, in the sense we understand it? Different answers have been suggested throughout human history, by animal lovers, scientists, and others who interact with animals, but the core question has proven hard to answer since we can neither obtain spoken answers, nor... In a draw in a mountainous region, a shepherd guides a flock of about 20 sheep amidst scrub and olive trees. ... Ethology is the scientific study of animal behavior considered as a branch of zoology. ... Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species. ... For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ...


Plants fungi

Among plants, communication is observed within the plant organism, i.e. within plant cells and between plant cells, between plants of the same or related species, and between plants and non-plant organisms, especially in the rootzone. Plant roots communicate in parallel with rhizobia bacteria, with fungi and with insects in the soil. This parallel sign-mediated interactions which are governed by syntactic, pragmatic and semantic rules are possible because of the decentralized "nervous system" of plants. As recent research shows 99% of intraorganismic plant communication processes are neuronal-like. Plants also communicate via volatiles in the case of herbivory attack behavior to warn neighboring plants. In parallel they produce other volatiles which attract parasites which attack these herbivores. In stress situations plants can overwrite the genetic code they inherited from their parents and revert to that of their grand- or great-grandparents.[3] The cells of plants are quite different from the cells of most other organisms. ... Primary and secondary roots in a cotton plant In vascular plants, the root is that organ of a plant body that typically lies below the surface of the soil (compare with stem). ... Soybean root nodules, each containing billions of Bradyrhizobium bacteria Rhizobia (from the Greek words riza = root and bios = Life) are soil bacteria that fix nitrogen (diazotrophy) after becoming established inside root nodules of legumes (Fabaceae). ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... Neurons (also called nerve cells) are the primary cells of the nervous system. ... Look up volatile in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage Herbivory is a form of predation in which an organism known as an herbivore, consumes principally autotrophs[1] such as plants, algae and photosynthesizing bacteria. ... A parasite is an organism that lives in or on the living tissue of a host organism at the expense of it. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ...


Fungi communicate to coordinate and organize their own growth and development such as the formation of mycelia and fruiting bodies. Additionally fungi communicate with same and related species as well as with nonfungal organisms in a great variety of symbiotic interactions, especially with bacteria, unicellular eukaryotes, plants and insects. The used semiochemicals are of biotic origin and they trigger the fungal organism to react in a specific manner, in difference while to even the same chemical molecules are not being a part of biotic messages doesn’t trigger to react the fungal organism. It means, fungal organisms are competent to identify the difference of the same molecules being part of biotic messages or lack of these features. So far five different primary signalling molecules are known that serve to coordinate very different behavioral patterns such as filamentation, mating, growth, pathogenicity. Behavioral coordination and the production of such substances can only be achieved through interpretation processes: self or non-self, abiotic indicator, biotic message from similar, related, or non-related species, or even “noise”, i.e., similar molecules without biotic content. A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into E. coli. ... IT FEELS REALLY GOOD IF YOU IMATATE THE ANIMALS. LOL! “Mounting” redirects here. ... Pathogenicity is the ability of an organism to cause disease in another organism. ...


Bacteria

There are communication processes between different species of bacteria and between bacteria and non bacterial life such as eukaryotic hosts. Beneath the semiochemicals necessary for developmental processes of bacterial communities such as division, sporulation, and synthesis of secondary metabolites there are physical contact-mediated behavioral patterns being important in biofilm organisation. There are three classes of signalling molecules for different purposes, i.e. signalling within the organism to coordinate gene expressions to generate adequate response behavior, signalling between same or related and different species. The most popular communicative behavior is „quorum sensing“. Quorum sensing is the term for description of sign-mediated interactions in which chemical molecules are produced and secreted by bacteria. They are recognized of the bacterial community dependent on a critical concentration and in a special ratio to the population density. These molecules trigger the expression of a great variety of gene transcriptions. Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Spore. ... Synthesis (from the ancient Greek σύν (with) and θεσις (placing), is commonly understood to be an integration of two or more pre-existing elements which results in a new creation. ... Metabolites are the intermediates and products of metabolism. ... Staphylococcus aureus biofilm on an indwelling catheter. ... Quorum sensing is the process by which many bacteria coordinate gene expression according to the local density of bacteria producing signaling molecules. ...


The semiochemicals used by bacteria are of great variety, especially because some signalling molecules are multiple re-usable components. Today three kinds of communicative goals are distinguished: (A) reciprocal communication, active sign-mediated interactions which is beneficial for both interacting parts; (B) messages which are produced as response on a triggering event which may be an indicator for a receiver which was not specially targeted by the producer. A coincidental event which is neutral – except of the energy costs of production – to the producer but beneficial for the receiver; (C) signalling to manipulate the receiver, i.e. to cause a response behavior which is onesided beneficial to the producer and harms the receivers often in that they behave against their normal goals. The three classes of bacteria communication enable bacteria to generate and coordinate different behavioral patterns:[4] self and non-self identification, i.e. identification of other colonies and measurement of their size, pheromone based courtship for mating, alteration of colony structure in formatting of fruiting bodies, initiation of developmental and growth processes e.g. sporulation.[5]


Sources

  • Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin 117, 497-529.
  • Severin, Werner J., Tankard, James W., Jr., (1979). Communication Theories: Origins, Methods, Uses. New York: Hastings House, ISBN 0801317037

See also

Main article: List of basic communication topics

Communication is the process of generation, transmission, or reception of messages to oneself or another entity, usually via a mutually understood set of signs. ... In organizational development (OD) and consensus decision-making, facilitation refers to the process of designing and running a successful meeting. ...

References

  1. ^ communication. office of superintendent of Public instruction. Retrieved on March 14.
  2. ^ media. online Etymology dictionary. Retrieved on March 14, 2008.
  3. ^ Witzany, G. (2007). Bio-communication of Plants. Nature Precedings : hdl:10101/npre.2007.1429.1
  4. ^ Witzany, G. (2008) Bio-Communication of Bacteria and its Evolutionary Interrelations to Natural Genome Editing Competences of Viruse. Nature Precedings : hdl:10101/npre.2008.1738.1
  5. ^ bacteria communication. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society B, Biological sciences 362(1483), 1113–124. Retrieved on March 14, 2008.

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • A brief history of communication across ages
  • Communicating for change and impact
  • How Human Communication Fails (Tampere University of Technology)
  • The Transmission Model of Communication (Daniel Chandler)

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