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Encyclopedia > Commune (country subdivision)

A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. A municipality is typically governed by a mayor and a city council or municipal council. Chicago from the air. ... Main street in Bastrop, Texas, a small town A town is a residential community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. ... A village is a human residential settlement commonly found in rural areas. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger,greater) is in modern times the title of the highest ranking municipal officer, who discharges certain judicial and administrative functions, in many systems an elected politician, who serves as chief executive and/or ceremonial official of many types of municipalities. ... A city council is the most common style of legislative government in a city or town. ... Municipal council (conseil municipal)(maire) Despite enormous differences in population, each of the communes of the French Republic possesses a mayor (maire) and a municipal council (conseil municipal) which manage the commune from the mairie (city hall), with exactly the same powers no matter the size of the commune (with...


Municipalities are not necessarily the same as townships. A municipality is a general-purpose district, as opposed to a special-purpose district. The term township is used to denote a lower level territorial subdivision. ... Generally a special-purpose district, also known as a special district, is a type of district differing from general-purpose districts like municipalities, counties, etc. ...


In most countries, a municipality is the smallest administrative subdivision to have its own democratically elected representative leadership. Look up country in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Democracy (literally rule by the people, from the Greek δῆμος demos, people, and κράτος kratos, rule) is a form of government for a nation state, or for an organization in which all the citizens have a voice in shaping policy. ... An election is a decision making process where people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... In a broad definition, a republic is a state or country that is led by people whose political power is based on principles that are not beyond the control of the people of that state or country. ...


In some countries, municipalities are referred to as "communes" (for example, French commune or Spanish comuna). The term derives from the medieval commune. Note that the word has absolutely no implication of communism. But the word "communism" derives from the word "commune" because of its striving towards a commune-like society. Defensive towers at San Gimignano, Tuscany, bear witness to the factional strife within communes. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


Municipalities as second-level entities

A Daïra (Arabic: ‎ circle; plural Dawaïr) is a subdivision of a wilaya in Algeria and in Western Sahara. ... Australia, having a federal system of government, is divided into states and territories. ... Local government areas called districts are used, or have been used, in several countries. ... Since Austria is a federal republic according to the constitutional framework of Austrian politics, Austrias nine provinces are customarily referred to as States of Austria or Bundesländer, singular Bundesland. ... Belgium comprises 589 municipalities (Dutch: gemeenten, French: communes, German: Gemeinde) grouped into five provinces in each of two regions and into a third region, the Brussels-Capital Region, comprising 19 municipalities that do not belong to a province. ... Belgium is divided into three regions, two of them are subdivided into five provinces each. ... The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ... Cantons are provincial units used in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Republika Srpska is composed of 63 municipalities. ... Brazil is divided into 26 estados (states, singular: estado) and one district, the Distrito Federal (Brazilian Federal District) which contains the capital city, Brasília. ... A regional municipality (or region) is a type of Canadian municipal government which works much like a county; the method of government depends on how it is defined. ... A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... Map of Canada Canada is a federation of ten provinces which, together with three territories, comprise the worlds second largest country in total area. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Official languages French Flower Blue Flag Iris (Iris versicolor Linné) Tree Yellow Birch Bird Snowy Owl Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 75 24 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Official languages None (English,French,Gaelic) Flower Trailing arbutus Tree Red Spruce Bird Osprey Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 11 10 Area... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English (French has some legal status but is not fully co-official) Flower White Trillium Tree Eastern White Pine Bird Common Loon Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: From many peoples, strength) Official languages English Flower Western Red Lily Tree Paper Birch Bird Sharp-tailed Grouse Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 14 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Official languages English and French, per mandate of the Constitution Act 1982 Flower Prairie Crocus Tree White Spruce Bird Great Grey Owl Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 14... A rural municipality is a form of municipality in the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan. ... Motto: Fortis et liber (Latin: Strong and free) Official languages English (see below) Flower   Wild rose Tree Lodgepole Pine Bird Great Horned Owl Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ralph Klein (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 28 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total... Municipal Districts are Census subdivision used in Canada for the administration of rural areas including farmlands and unincorporated places such as hamlets. ... Below the provinces Chile is divided into comunas, often translated as municipality. ... Chile is divided into thirteen regions, each of which is headed by an intendant (intendente). ... The counties of Croatia are called županije in Croatian, županija is the singular form. ... Slovakia is subdivided into 8 kraje (singular - kraj, usually translated as regions, but actually meaning rather county), each of which is named after their principal city. ... Denmark is divided into 13 counties (amter), and 271 municipalities (kommuner). ... Denmark is divided into 13 counties (amter), and 271 municipalities (kommuner): Copenhagen County comprise the municipalities in metropolitan Copenhagen, except Copenhagen Municipality and Frederiksberg Municipality. ... This is a list of the rural municipalities (vallad, singular - vald) of Estonia. ... The municipalities (kunta in Finnish, kommun in Swedish) represent the local level of administration in Finland and act as the fundamental administrative units of the country. ... Finland consists of 6 provinces (Finnish: läänit, Swedish: län). ... The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... France is divided into 26 régions: 21 of these are in the continental part of metropolitan France, one is Corse on the island of Corsica (although strictly speaking Corse is in fact a territorial collectivity, not a région, but is referred to as a région in common... There are 439 German districts, administrative units in Germany. ... The term prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) indicates the office, seat, territorial circonscription of a Prefect; consequentally, like that word, is its applied in English in relation to actual Prefects, whose title is just that (or the forms it takes in other, especially Romance, languages), in the broadest sense in... Nomos (plural: Nomoi) can refer to: the prefectures of Greece, the administrative division immediately below the peripheries of Greece (Greek: νομός, νομοί) the subdivisions of Ancient Egypt, see Nome (subnational division) law (Greek: νόμος, νόμοι). It is the origin of the suffix -onomy. ... The peripheries (περιφέρειες) are the subnational subdivisions of Greece. ... An arrondissement is an administrative division in some French- or Dutch-speaking countries: // France Municipal arrondissement Main article: Municipal arrondissement in France Paris Main article: Arrondissements of Paris The city of Paris, in France is divided into 20 arrondissements. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France, roughly analogous to British counties. ... In Italy, the comune, (plural comuni) is the basic administrative unit of both provinces and regions, and may be properly approximated in casual speech by the English word township or municipality. ... In Italy, the province (in Italian: provincia) is an administrative division of an intermediate level, between municipality (comune) and region (Regione). ... The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws... Nickname: The Eternal City Location within Province of Rome in the Region of Lazio Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Mayor of Rome Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1,285 km²  (496. ... Jersey is divided into parishes Saint Helier Saint Saviour Saint Clement Grouville (historically Saint Martin de Grouville) Saint Martin (historically Saint Martin le Vieux) Trinity Saint John Saint Mary Saint Ouen Saint Peter Saint Brelade Saint Lawrence Categories: UK geography stubs | Parishes of Jersey | Parishes ... This is a list of Communes of Luxembourg. ... A municipio (Spanish for municipality) is a second-level political and administrative division in Mexico. ... The United Mexican States or Mexico (Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México) is a federal republic made up of 31 states (estados) and one Federal District, (Distrito Federal), which contains the capital, Mexico City. ... Other Mexican States Capital Mexico City Area 1,479 km² Ranked 32nd Population (2000 census) 8,591,300 Ranked 2nd Head of Govt Andrés Manuel López Obrador PRD Federal Deputies (30) PRD = 27 PAN = 3 Federal Senators PAN = 1 PVEM = 1 PRD = 1 ISO 3166_2 Postal abbr. ... A municipio (Spanish for municipality) is one of the two types of second level municipality in Mexico. ... The Mexican Federal District is divided into 16 boroughs (delegaciones) for local government and administrative purposes: Mexican post codes beginning with 01 are in Álvaro Obregón; those beginning with 04 are in Coyoacán, etc. ... All provinces of the Netherlands are divided into municipalities (gemeenten), together 467 (2005); among these we can distinguish: those comprising one main city, town or village with the same name as the municipality, and possibly some additional villages; for example Utrecht, comprising the city Utrecht and the villages De Meern... The modern day Netherlands are divided into twelve provinces (provincies in Dutch), listed below with their capital city: Map of the Netherlands, with provinces and capital cities See also the ranked list of Dutch provinces // Structure A Dutch province represents the administrative layer in between the national government and the... An autonomous region or autonomous district is a subnational region with special powers of self-rule. ... Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte, sometimes shortened to RAAN, is an autonomous region in Nicaragua. ... Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur, sometimes shortened to RAAS, is an autonomous region in Nicaragua. ... Norway is divided into 19 administrative regions, called counties (fylker, singular - fylke), and 431 municipalities/communes (kommuner). ... Norway is divided into 19 administrative regions, called counties (fylker, singular - fylke, Nynorsk: singular and plural fylke; until 1918 known as singular and plural- amt), and 433 municipalities (kommuner - Nynorsk: kommunar). ... A municipality (bayan, sometimes munisipalidad, in Filipino) is a local government unit in the Philippines. ... Map of the Philippines showing the regions and provinces (click for larger version). ... A barangay (Tagalog: baranggay , pronounced as ba-rang-gai, gai as in guy), also known by its former name, the barrio, is the smallest local government unit in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for a village, district or ward. ... Gmina is the principal unit (lowest level) of the territorial division in Poland, and is equivalent to a commune or municipality. ... A powiat (pronounced povyat; plural, powiaty) is the Polish third-level unit of administration, equivalent to a county, district or prefecture (NUTS-3) in some countries. ... Municipio (Spanish and Italian) and Município (Portuguese) are the terms used for the following subnational entities: Municipalities of Argentina Municipalities of Columbia Município (Brazil) Municipio (Italy) Municipalities of Mexico Municipalities of Portugal Municipio (Spain) Municipalities of Venezuela Note: The municipalities of Chile are not municipios but comunas. ... A municipality (municipiu in Romanian) is, along with a commune, the lowest level of administrative subdivision in Romania. ... A commune (comună in Romanian) is the lowest level of administrative subdivision in Romania. ... Motto: none Anthem: Bože pravde (English: God of Justice) Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Official language(s) Serbian1 Government Republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Formation and independence    - Formation of Serbia 814   - Formation of the Serbian Empire 1345   - Independence from the Ottoman Empire July 13, 1878... An opÅ¡tina is a country subdivision in Serbia. ... Okrug is a term to denote administrative subdivision in some Slavic states. ... Slovakia is subdivided into 8 kraje (singular - kraj, usually translated as regions, but actually meaning rather county), each of which is named after their principal city. ... Slovakia A comprehensive list of villages and municipalities by region in Slovakia. ... In South Africa, a district municipality or Category C municipality is a municipality which executes some the functions of local government for a district. ... In South Africa, a metropolitan municipality or Category A municipality is a municipality which executes all the functions of local government for a city or conurbation. ... A map of the nine provinces of South Africa South Africa is currently divided into nine provinces. ... Municipalities in South Africa are a division of local government that lie one level down from provincial government, and form the lowest level of democratically elected government structures in the country. ... The Municipalities or Kommuner represent the local level of self government in Sweden. ... A county, or län, is an administrative and political subdivision of Sweden. ... Municipalities are the smallest government division in Switzerland. ... The twenty-six cantons of Switzerland are the states of the federal state of Switzerland. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Greater Belfast is an area surrounding and including Belfast in Northern Ireland. ... Motto: (French for God and my right)2 Anthem: UK: God Save the Queen Regional: (De facto) Londonderry Air Capital Belfast Largest city Belfast Official language(s) English (De facto), Irish, Ulster Scots 3 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Office suspended... Greater London is the top level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... Coat of arms The City of London is a small area in Greater London. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Minor parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal • • A state of the United States is any one of the fifty subnational entities referred to... A borough is an administrative division used in the Canadian province of Quebec, in some states of the United States, and formerly in New Zealand. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... Municipio (Spanish and Italian) and Município (Portuguese) are the terms used for the following subnational entities: // Município Município (Brazil) Município (Portugal), more commonly called concelho Municipio Municipio (Colombia) Municipio (Italy), more commonly called comune Municipio (Mexico) Municipio (Puerto Rico) Municipio (Spain) Municipio (Venezuela) See also Munic... Capital District (spanish Distrito Capital) is the capital area of Venezuela which is placed on the same rank of states. ... Map of Venezuela Venezuela is divided into 23 states (estados), 1 Capital District (Distrito Capital) and the Federal Dependencies (Dependencias Federales de Ultramar) that consist on a large number of Venezuelan islands. ...

First-level entities and other forms of municipalities

Direct-controlled municipalities are the highest-level cities in China, with status equal to that of the provinces. ... Pinyin is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard Mandarin, where pin means spell and yin means sound. The most common variant of pinyin in use is called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n), also known as scheme... Chicago from the air. ... A province, in the context of China, is a translation of sheng (省 shÄ›ng), which is an administrative division of China. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: Běijīng; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Peking), is the capital city of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Tianjin (Chinese: 天津; pinyin: tiān jīn; Postal System Pinyin: Tientsin) is a harbour municipality in China on the Hai He River (from Beijing) and Bohai Gulf of the Yellow Sea (Pacific Ocean). ... Alternate meanings: See Shanghai (disambiguation) Shanghai (Chinese: 上海; pinyin: shàng hǎi; Shanghainese IPA: /zɑ̃ hɛ/) is Chinas largest city and is situated on the banks of the Chang Jiang delta. ... Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: 重庆; Traditional Chinese: 重慶; pinyin: Chóngqìng; Wade_Giles: Chung_ching; Postal System Pinyin: Chungking) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four municipalities, which have provincial_level status. ... Direct-controlled municipalities are the highest-level cities in China, with status equal to that of the provinces. ... Motto: None Anthem(s): National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei City (de facto) Nanjing (de jure)1 Largest city Taipei City Official language(s) Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  - President Chen Shui-bian  - Vice President Annette Lu  - Premier Su Tseng-chang Establishment Xinhai Revolution   - Declared... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... The Republic of China (ROC) currently administers two historical provinces of China (one completely and one for a small part) and centrally administers two municipalities: Taiwan Province; consists of the Taiwanese main island, except the two municipalities, plus Penghu county (Pescadores Islands) Sixteen counties Five provincial cities Fukien (Fuchien) Province... Nickname: the City of Azaleas Government Official Website City of Taipei Mayor Ma Ying-jeou Capital District Xinyi Geographical characteristics Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 16 of 25 271. ... Kaohsiung City (Traditional Chinese:高雄市, Tongyong Pinyin: Gaosyóng, Hanyu Pinyin: Gāoxióng, POJ: Ko-hiông; coordinates 22°38N, 120°16E) is a city located in southern Taiwan. ... Direct-controlled municipalities are the highest-level cities in China, with status equal to that of the provinces. ... The municipalities of the Republic of Macedonia are first-order administrative divisions. ... Many of the municipalities of Portugal are older than the country itself. ... Alphabetically, the concelhos (municipalities) of Portugal are: A Abrantes Águeda Aguiar da Beira Alandroal Albergaria-a-Velha Albufeira Alcácer do Sal Alcanena Alcobaça Alcochete Alcoutim Alenquer Alfândega da Fé Alijó Aljezur Aljustrel Almada Almeida Almeirim Almodôvar Alpiarça Alter do Chão Alvaiázere Alvito Amadora... Generally, a local administrative unit (LAU) is an area of governmental administration below a province, region, state or other major national subdivision. ... Districts There are 18 Districts (distritos, singular - distrito) in mainland Portugal: note: Territorial division in Portugal is currently in flux, because of planned decentralization. ... A freguesia (pron. ... There are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the United States Government, but Puerto Rico has 78 municipalities at the second order. ... Motto: None Anthem(s): Oj, svijetla majska zoro Capital Podgorica Largest city Podgorica Official language(s) Serbian of the Ijekavian dialect1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Milo Đukanović Independence From Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area  - Total 14,026 km² (159th) 5... An opÅ¡tina is a country subdivision in Serbia. ... There are 25 municicipalities of Libya. ... Slovenia is divided into 193 municipalities (občine, singular - občina), of which 11 have urban status (written bold). ... Generally, a local administrative unit (LAU) is an area of governmental administration below a province, region, state or other major national subdivision. ... Municipio (Spanish and Italian) and Município (Portuguese) are the terms used for the following subnational entities: // Município Município (Brazil) Município (Portugal), more commonly called concelho Municipio Municipio (Colombia) Municipio (Italy), more commonly called comune Municipio (Mexico) Municipio (Puerto Rico) Municipio (Spain) Municipio (Venezuela) See also Munic... Generally, a local administrative unit (LAU) is an area of governmental administration below a province, region, state or other major national subdivision. ... In addition to its seventeen autonomous communities, Spain is divided into fifty provinces. ... Parroquia is a Population entity typical from Galicia (Spain). ...

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