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Encyclopedia > Commonwealth of the Philippines
Mancomunidad de Filipinas
Komonwelt ng Pilipinas
Commonwealth of the Philippines
Insular area of the United States

 

1935-1942
1944-1946

 

Flag
Flag Badge
Anthem
Lupang Hinirang
Location of the Philippines in Asia
Capital Manila ¹
Language(s) Pilipino, English, Spanish
Government Republic
President
 - 1935-1944 Manuel L. Quezon
 - 1944-1946 Sergio Osmeña
 - 1946 Manuel Roxas
Vice President
 - 1935-1944 Sergio Osmeña
 - 1946 Elpidio Quirino
Historical era American colonization
 - Philippine Independence Act March 24, 1935
 - Independence July 4, 1946
Area
 - 1939 300,000 km² (115,831 sq mi)
Population
 - 1939 est. 18,434,000 
     Density 61.4 /km²  (159.1 /sq mi)
Currency Peso
¹ Capital held by enemy forces between December 24, 1941 and February 27, 1945. Temporary capitals Corregidor from December 24, 1941-; Iloilo City from February 22; Bacolod from February 26; Buenos Aires, Bago City from February 27; Oroquieta from March 19; Bukidnon from March 23; Melbourne, Australia from April; Washington, DC from May, 1942 to October, 1944; Tacloban from October 20, 1944.
²In exile.

The Commonwealth of the Philippines was the political designation of the Philippines from 1935 to 1946 when the country was a commonwealth with the United States. Before 1935, the Philippines was an insular area with non-commonwealth status, and before that, it had been a U.S. territory.[1] Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Flag Anthem: Himno Nacional Filipino Location of the Philippines in Asia Capital Manila Baguio Tokyo, Japan Language(s) Japanese/Nihonggo (official), Filipino Government Unitary Republic President  - 1943-1945 Jose P. Laurel Historical era World War II  - Establishment October 14 1943  - Disestablishment August 17 1945 Area  - 1945 300,000 km2 115... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Flag Anthem: Himno Nacional Filipino Location of the Philippines in Asia Capital Manila Baguio Tokyo, Japan Language(s) Japanese/Nihonggo (official), Filipino Government Unitary Republic President  - 1943-1945 Jose P. Laurel Historical era World War II  - Establishment October 14 1943  - Disestablishment August 17 1945 Area  - 1945 300,000 km2 115... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... This article is about the country in Southeast Asia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links PhilippinesCommonwealthcoa. ... Flag ratio: 1:2 The national flag of the Philippines features an eight-rayed sun and three stars, all in gold, on a white equilateral triangle on the mast. ... The Coat of Arms of the Philippines features the eight-rayed sun of the Philippines with each ray representing the first eight provinces (Manila, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Cavite) which rebelled against Spanish rule, and the three five-pointed stars representing the three primary geographic regions of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... When the national anthem was first played, this was the flag displayed to the Filipino people. ... Image File history File links LocationPhilippines. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Nickname: Motto: Linisin Ibangon Maynila Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Manila Coordinates: 14°35 N 121° E Country Region Districts 1st to 6th districts of Manila Barangays 897 Incorporated (city) June 10, 1574 Government  - Mayor Alfredo Lim (2007-2010 GO)  - Vice Mayor Isko Moreno (AM/PDP-Laban... Filipino (formerly Pilipino) is the national and an official language of the Philippines as designated in the 1987 Philippine Constitution. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina (b. ... Sergio Osmeña (September 9, 1878 – October 19, 1961) was the second President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. ... Manuel Acuña Roxas (January 1, 1892 – April 15, 1948) was the first president of the independent Republic of the Philippines. ... Seal of the Vice President of the Philippines The Vice President of the Philippines is the second highest executive official of the Philippine government. ... Sergio Osmeña (September 9, 1878 – October 19, 1961) was the second President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. ... Elpidio Rivera Quirino (November 16, 1890 – February 29, 1956) was the sixth President of the Philippines. ... Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... The Tydings-McDuffie Act (officially the Philippine Independence Act; Public Law 73-127) approved on March 24, 1934 was a United States federal law which provided for self-government of the Philippines and for Filipino independence (from the United States) after a period of ten years. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... ISO 4217 Code PHP User(s) Philippines Inflation 2. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Corregidor and the entrance to Manila Bay Corregidor in 1941 Corregidor is an island in the entrance of the Philippines Manila Bay. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Map of Iloilo showing the location of Iloilo City Coordinates: 10. ... For the municipality in Lanao del Norte, see Bacolod, Lanao del Norte. ... Bago City is a 1st class city in the province of Negros Occidental, Philippines. ... Oroquieta City is a 3rd class city in the province of Misamis Occidental, Philippines. ... Bukidnon is a landlocked province of the Philippines located in the Northern Mindanao region. ... The City of Melbournes coat of arms The central business district of Melbourne, viewed from the north Alternate meanings: Melbourne (disambiguation) Melbourne is the capital and largest city of the state of Victoria, and the second largest city in Australia, with a population of 52,117 in the Central... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Nickname: Map of Leyte showing the location of Tacloban City. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... For other uses of Commonwealth, see Commonwealth. ... An insular area is United States territory that is neither a part of one of the fifty states nor a part of the District of Columbia, the nations federal district. ... United States territory is any extent of region under the jurisdiction of the federal government of the United States,[1] including all waters[2] (around islands or continental tracts). ...


The creation of the Commonwealth was envisioned under the Philippine Independence Act, popularly known as the Tydings-McDuffie Act as a ten-year transitional government in preparation for full Philippine independence and sovereignty,[2][3] which was promised through the Philippine Autonomy Act or Jones Law.[4][5] The Tydings-McDuffie Act or the Philippine Independence Act (Public Law 73-127) approved on March 24, 1934 is a piece of U.S. legislation which provided for the independence of the Philippines (from the United States) on July 4, 1946. ... The Jones Law, otherwise known as the Philippine Autonomy Act, was a United States statute enacted in 1916, which was the first formal and official declaration of the United States commitment to grant independence to the Philippines, since it took over the territory after the Spanish-American War in 1898. ...


It marked the end of the colonial eras as well as the transition of the nomenclature of the Philippines from the plural "Las Islas Filipinas" and "Philippine Islands" of the Spanish and American colonial periods, to the singular, "Philippines", which is a sign of unity, sovereignty, and national identity.

Contents

Structure

The Commonwealth had its own constitution, which remained effective until 1973,[6] and was self-governing[7] although foreign policy and military affairs would be under the responsibility of the United States, and certain legislation required the approval of the American president.[8] For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ...


It featured a very strong executive, a unicameral National Assembly,[9] and a Supreme Court,[10] all composed entirely of Filipinos, as well as an elected Resident Commissioner to the United States House of Representatives (as Puerto Rico does today). An American High Commissioner and an American Military Advisor,[11] were also present in the government while an American Field Marshall was in charge of the Philippine Army. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the Philippines (Filipino: Kataas-taasang Hukuman ng Pilipinas) is the... From 1907 until 1944, the Philippines sent what were called Resident Commissioners to the United States House of Representatives in order to represent the islands, which were a dependency of the United States at the time. ... The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. ... High Commissioner of the Philippines was the title of the personal representative of the President of the United States to the Commonwealth of the Philippines during the period 1935-1946. ... The Office of the Military Advisor to the Commonwealth Government (OMACG) was created in 1935 by the Philippine and American governments for the purposes of developing a system of national defense for the Commonwealth of the Philippines by 1946. ... Douglas MacArthur in 1944, wearing the headgear of a Philippine Field Marshal A Field Marshal of the Philippines is a rank that existed during the Second World War as a position held by Douglas MacArthur. ... The Philippine Army (PA) is the ground arm of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP). ...


In 1939-40, after an amendment in the Constitution, a bicameral Congress,[12] consisting a of Senate,[12] and of a House of Representatives,[12] was restored replacing the National Assembly.[12] The Congress of the Philippines is the primary legislature of the Philippines. ... The Senate of the Philippines is the upper chamber of the bicameral legislature of the Philippines, the Congress of the Philippines. ... The House of Representatives (Kapulungan ng mga Kinatawan in Filipino) is the lower chamber of the Congress of the Philippines. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


History

Main articles: History of the Philippines (1898-1946) and History_of_the_Philippines#Commonwealth

This article covers the history of the Philippines from 1898 to 1946. ... The history of the Philippines begins with the arrival of the first humans in the Philippines by land bridges at least 30,000 years ago. ...

Creation

See also: Philippine Constitutional Convention election, 1934
23 March 1935: Constitutional Convention. Seated, left to right: George H. Dern, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Manuel L. Quezon

In December 1932, the United States Congress passed the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act with the premise of granting Filipinos independence. Provisions of the bill included reserving several military and naval bases for the United States, as well as imposing tariffs and quotas on Philippine exports.[13][1] It was vetoed by President Herbert Hoover but the American Congress overrode his veto in 1933 and passed the bill.[14] The bill, however, was opposed by the then Philippine Senate President Manuel L. Quezon and was also rejected by the Philippine Senate.[8] Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      This article on elections in the Philippines give information on election and election... Image File history File linksMetadata 1935Constitution. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 1935Constitution. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... George Henry Dern (born 1872) was an American politician, and the 54th War Secretary. ... FDR redirects here. ... Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina (b. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy at the age of thirty The Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act was the first law setting a specific date for Philippine independence from the United States. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... The Senate of the Philippines is the upper chamber of the bicameral legislature of the Philippines, the Congress of the Philippines. ...


This led to the creation and passing of a new bill known as Tydings-McDuffie Act, which allowed the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippine with a ten-year period of peaceful transition to full independence.[1]


Pre-War

In October 1935, presidential elections were held and candidates included former president Emilio Aguinaldo and Iglesia Filipina Indepediente leader Gregorio Aglipay. Manuel L. Quezon and Sergio Osmeña of the Nacionalista Party were proclaimed winners, winning the seats of president and vice-president, respectively.[1] The first Presidential election of the Commonwealth of the Philippines was held on September 16, 1935 in the Philippines. ... Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (March 22, 1869 – February 6, 1964) was a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Gregorio Labayan Aglipay was born on May 8, 1860 in Batac, Ilocos Norte, an orphan who grew up in the tobacco fields in the last volatile decades of the Spanish occupation of the Philippines. ... Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina (b. ... Sergio Osmeña (September 9, 1878 – October 19, 1961) was the second President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. ... The Nacionalista Party logo with party motto, Ang Bayan Higit sa Lahat (Nation, Above All). ...


The new government embarked on ambitious nation-building policies in preparation for economic and political independence.[1] These included national defense (such as the National Defense Act of 1935, which organized a draft service in the country), greater control over the economy, the perfection of democratic institutions, reforms in education, improvement of transport, the promotion of local capital and industrialization, and the colonization of Mindanao. The National Defense Act of 1935 (Commonwealth Act No. ... “Conscript” redirects here. ...


However, uncertainties, espescially in the diplomatic and military situation in Southeast Asia, in the level of U.S. commitment to the future Republic, and in the economy due to the Great Depression, proved to be major problems. The situation was further complicated by the presence of agrarian unrest, and of power struggles between Osmeña and Quezon,[1] especially after Quezon was permitted to be reelected after a six-year term. Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Republic of the Philippines is a country of South East Asia, located in the western Pacific Ocean some 1,210 km (750 mi) from mainland Asia. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...


A proper evaluation of the policies' effectiveness or failure is difficult due to Japanese invasion during World War II. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


World War II

Main article: Japanese Occupation of the Philippines


Japan launched a surprise attack on the Philippines on December 8, 1941. The Commonwealth government drafted the Philippine Army into the U.S. Army Forces Far East, which would resist Japanese occupation. Manila was declared an open city to prevent its destruction[15] and was occupied by the Japanese on January 2, 1942.[16] Meanwhile, battles against the Japanese continued in Bataan, Correigidor, and Leyte until the final surrender of United States-Philippine forces on May 1942.[17] In September 1940, Germany, Italy, and Japan had allied under the Tripartite Pact. ... Battle of the Philippines Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date December 8, 1941-May 8, 1942 Place the Philippines Result Japanese victory The Battle of the Philippines was the invasion of the Philippines by Japan in 1941-42, and the defence of the islands by Filipino and United States... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... The Philippine Army (PA) is the ground arm of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP). ... USAFFE (United States Army Forces - Far East) included the Philippine Department, Philippine Army (2 regular and 10 reserve divisions), and the Far East Air Force (formerly, Philippine Army Air Corps). ... In war, in the event of the imminent capture of a city, the government/military structure of the country that owns the city will sometimes declare it an open city, thus announcing that they have abandoned all defensive efforts. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States and Philippines Japan Commanders Vicente Lim Tomas Capinpin Douglas MacArthur Jonathan Wainwright George M. Parker Edward P. King Masaharu Homma Susumu Morioka Kineo Kitajima Kameichiro Nagano Strength 30,000 U.S. troops 870,000 Filipino troops 75,000 Japanese troops Casualties 10,000 killed, 20,000 wounded... Combatants United States and Philippines Japan Commanders Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV George F. Moore Samuel L. Howard Masaharu Homma Kureo Tanaguchi Kizon Mikami Strength 13,000 U.S. and Filipino troops 75,000 Japanese troops Casualties 800 killed 1,000 wounded 11,000 POWs 900 killed 1,200 wounded The... Combatants United States, Australia, The Philippines Empire of Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Walter Krueger Franklin C. Sibert John R. Hodge Ruperto C. Kangleon Tomoyuki Yamashita Sosaku Suzuki Shiro Makino Strength 200,000 U.S. troops 153,000 Australian troops 856,000 Filipino troops 3,189 Filipino guerrillas 55,000 Japanese...


Quezon and Osmeña were escorted by troops to Corregidor and later left for the United States. There, they set up a government in exile,[18] which participated in the Pacific War Council as well as the Declaration by United Nations. During exile, Quezon became ill with tuberculosis, and eventually died. Osmeña later replaced him as president. The Pacific War Council was an inter-governmental body established in 1942 and intended to control the Allied war effort in the Pacific and Asian campaigns of World War II. Following the establishment of the short-lived American-British-Dutch-Australian military command (ABDACOM) in January 1942, the governments of... The Declaration by United Nations was a World War II document agreed to on January 1, 1942 during the Arcadia Conference by 26 governments, several of them governments-in-exile. ...


Meanwhile, the Japanese military organized a new government in the Philippines known as the Second Philippine Republic, which was headed by President José P. Laurel. This government ended up being unpopular.[19] Flag Anthem: Himno Nacional Filipino Location of the Philippines in Asia Capital Manila Baguio Tokyo, Japan Language(s) Japanese/Nihonggo (official), Filipino Government Unitary Republic President  - 1943-1945 Jose P. Laurel Historical era World War II  - Establishment October 14 1943  - Disestablishment August 17 1945 Area  - 1945 300,000 km2 115... José Paciano Laurel y García (March 9, 1891 - November 6, 1959) was the president of the Japanese-sponsored Republic of the Philippines from 1943 to 1945. ...


The resistance continued in the Philippines. This included the Hukbalahap ("People's Army Against the Japanese"), which consisted of 30,000 armed people and controlled much of Central Luzon.[19] Remnants of the Philippine Army also fought the Japanese through guerrilla warfare and were successful since all but twelve of the forty-eight provinces were liberated.[19] The Hukbalahap was the militant arm of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), formed in 1942 to fight the Japanese occupation in the Philippines during World War II. The term is a contraction of the Filipino term Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon which means Peoples Army... Central Luzon region contains the largest plain of the Philippines, and produces most of the countrys rice supply. ... The Philippine Army (PA) is the ground arm of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP). ... Map of the Philippines showing the regions and provinces (click for larger version). ...


MacArthur's Allied forces landed on Leyte on October 20, 1944 and were welcomed as liberators,[1] as other landings followed. Fighting continued until Japan's formal surrender on September 2, 1945. Estimates for Filipino casualties reached one million, and Manila was extensively damaged .[19] In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


After the war, the Commonwealth was restored and a one-year transitional period in preparation for independence began. Elections followed in April 1946 with Manuel Roxas winning as the first president of the independent Republic of the Philippines and Elpidio Quirino winning as vice-president. aaaaaaaaaaa ... Manuel Acuña Roxas (January 1, 1892 – April 15, 1948) was the first president of the independent Republic of the Philippines. ... Elpidio Rivera Quirino (November 16, 1890 – February 29, 1956) was the sixth President of the Philippines. ...


Independence

Main article: Filipino-American Friendship Day

The Commonwealth ended when the United States recognized Philippine independence on July 4, 1946, as scheduled.[11][20] However, the economy remained dependent to the U.S..[21] This was due to the Bell Trade Act, otherwise known as the Philippine Trade Act, which was a precondition for receiving war rehabilitation grants from the United States.[22] Filipino-American Friendship Day, July 4, is a day in the Philippines designated by President Diosdado Macapagal to commemorate the liberation of the country by joint Filipino and American forces from the Japanese occupation at the end of World War II, in 1946. ... Philippine independence refers to the struggles of the Filipinos for independence from colonial rule —first by Spain, and then by the United States. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Policies

Uprisings and agrarian reform

At the time, tenant farmers held grievances often rooted to debt caused by the sharecropping system, as well as by the dramatic increase in population, which added economic pressure to the tenant farmers' families.[23] As a result, an agrarian reform program was initiated by the Commonwealth. However, success of the program was hampered by ongoing clashes between tenants and landowners. A tenant (from the Latin tenere, to hold), in legal contexts, holds real property by some form of title from a landlord. ... Chopping cotton on rented land near White Plains, Greene County, Ga. ... Agrarian reform can refer either, narrowly, to government-initiated or government-backed redistribution of agricultural land (see land reform) or can refer more broadly to an overall redirection of the agrarian system of the country, which often includes land reform measures. ...


An example of these clashes includes one intitiated by Benigno Ramos through his Sakdalista movement,[24] which advocated tax reductions, land reforms, the breakup of the large estates or haciendas, and the severing of American ties. The uprising, which occurred in Central Luzon on May, 1935, claimed about a hundred lives. The Sakdalista (coming from the tagalog word sakdal, meaning Accuse) Philippine party was founded in 1930 by a right wing leader, Benigno Ramos, a writer and discontented former government clerk. ... The Sakdalista (coming from the tagalog word sakdal, meaning Accuse) party was founded in 1930 by a right wing leader, Benigno Ramos, a writer and discontented former government clerk. ... Hacienda is a Spanish word describing a vast ranch, common in the Pampa. ...


National language

Due to the diverse number Philippine languages, a program for the "development and adoption of a common national language based on the existing native dialects" was drafted in the 1935 Philippine constitution.[25] The Commonwealth created a Surian ng Wikang Pambansa (National Language Institute), which was composed of President Quezon and six other members from various ethnic groups. A deliberation was held and Tagalog[25] (due to its extensive literary tradition) was selected as the basis for the "national language" to be called "Pilipino". Languages in the Philippines number more than 170 and almost all of them belong to the Western Malayo-Polynesian languages. ... Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ...


In 1940, the Commonwealth authorized the creation of a dictionary and grammar book for the language. On the same year, Commonwealth Act 570 was passed, allowing Pilipino to become an official language upon independence.[25] Filipino (formerly Pilipino) is the national and an official language of the Philippines as designated in the 1987 Philippine Constitution. ...


Mindanao

The Commonwealth also had a policy involving the colonization of Mindanao. Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. ...


Economy

The economy of the Commowealth was mostly agricultural based. Products included abaca, coconuts and coconut oil, sugar, and timber.[26] Image File history File linksMetadata Quezon_Roosevelt. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Quezon_Roosevelt. ... Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina (b. ... FDR redirects here. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


The performance of the economy was initially good despite challenges from various agrarian uprisings. Taxes collected from a robust coconut industry helped boost the economy by funding infrastructure and other development projects. However, growth was halted due to the outbreak of World War II.[26] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Demographics

Main article: Demographics_of_the_Philippines#1941

In 1941, the estimated population of the Philippines reached 17,000,000 while Manila's population was 684,000. The number of Chinese rose to 117,000. There were also 30,000 Japanese, with 20,000 living in Davao, and 9,000 Americans. English was spoken by 27% of the population, while Spanish was spoken by only 3%. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Nickname: Motto: Linisin Ibangon Maynila Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Manila Coordinates: 14°35 N 121° E Country Region Districts 1st to 6th districts of Manila Barangays 897 Incorporated (city) June 10, 1574 Government  - Mayor Alfredo Lim (2007-2010 GO)  - Vice Mayor Isko Moreno (AM/PDP-Laban... Nickname: Map of Davao Region showing the location of Davao City Coordinates: 7° 30 N, 126° E Country Region Province None Districts 1st to 3rd Districts of Metro Davao Barangays 184 Incorporated (town) 1848 Incorporated (city) October 16, 1936 Government  - Mayor Rodrigo Duterte (Hugpong/PDP-Laban) (2007-2010)  - Vice Mayor... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The following is the estimated number of speakers of the dominant languages:[25]

Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Cebuano, also known as Sugboanon, is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines by about 20,000,000 people (according to Ethnologue). ... Ilocano, also Iloko and Ilokano, refers to the language and culture associated with the Ilocano people, the third largest ethnic group in the Philippines. ... Hiligaynon language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Hiligaynon (or Ilonggo) is an Austronesian language spoken in Western Visayas in the Philippines. ... Wáray-Wáray (commonly spelled as Waray-Waray; also referred to as Winaray or L(in) eyte-Samarnon) is a language spoken in the provinces of Samar, Northern Samar, Eastern Samar, Leyte (eastern portion), and Biliran in the Philippines. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Pangasinan language (Pangasinan: salitan Pangasinan; Spanish: idioma pangasinense) belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian languages branch of the Austronesian languages family. ...

List of Presidents

Color Legend
Nacionalista
Liberal

The colors indicate the political party or coalition of each President at Election Day. The Nacionalista Party is the oldest political party in the Philippines today responsible for leading the country throughout the majority of the 20th century since 1907. ... The Liberal Party (Filipino: Partido Liberal) is a liberal party in the Philippines, founded in 1945 by a breakaway from the Nacionalista Party. ...

# President Took office Left office Party Vice President Term
1 Manuel L. Quezon November 15, 1935 August 1, 19441 Nacionalista Sergio Osmeña 1
2
2 Sergio Osmeña August 1, 1944 May 28, 1946 Nacionalista vacant
3 Manuel Roxas May 28, 1946 July 4, 1946² Liberal Elpidio Quirino 3

1 Died due to tuberculosis at Saranac Lake, New York.
² End of Commonwealth government, independent Republic inaugurated.
Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina (b. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Nacionalista Party is the oldest political party in the Philippines today responsible for leading the country throughout the majority of the 20th century since 1907. ... Sergio Osmeña (September 9, 1878 – October 19, 1961) was the second President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. ... The first Presidential election of the Commonwealth of the Philippines was held on September 16, 1935 in the Philippines. ... Presidential and legislative elections were held on November 11, 1941 in the Philippines. ... Sergio Osmeña (September 9, 1878 – October 19, 1961) was the second President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nacionalista Party is the oldest political party in the Philippines today responsible for leading the country throughout the majority of the 20th century since 1907. ... Manuel Acuña Roxas (January 1, 1892 – April 15, 1948) was the first president of the independent Republic of the Philippines. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Liberal Party (Filipino: Partido Liberal) is a liberal party in the Philippines, founded in 1945 by a breakaway from the Nacionalista Party. ... Elpidio Rivera Quirino (November 16, 1890 – February 29, 1956) was the sixth President of the Philippines. ... Presidential and legislative elections were held on April 23, 1946 in the Philippines. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... The village of Saranac Lake, bottom, with Lower Saranac Lake, above, from Baker Mountain, to the East. ...


See also

The political history of the Philippines as a unified archipelago begins with the rule of the Spanish monarchs of the Philippines. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Philippines, The period of U.S. influence. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  2. ^ Tydings-McDuffie Act. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  3. ^ Text of the Tydings-McDuffie Act. The ChanRobles Group. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  4. ^ Jones Act. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  5. ^ Philippine Historical Commission. "Philippine Legislature, 100 Years. Quezon City: Philippine Historical Commission, 2000: chapter 4. ISBN 971-92245-0-9
  6. ^ Constitutions of the Philippines. The ChanRobles Group. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  7. ^ Text of the 1935 Constitution. The ChanRobles Group. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  8. ^ a b Philippines - Commonwealth Politics. U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  9. ^ Agoncillo, Teodoro "The Fateful Years: Japan's Adventure in the Philippines." (1) Hayden, J. Ralston "The Philippines: A Study in National Development."
  10. ^ The Yamashita Standard. PBS. Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
  11. ^ a b Philippine History. DLSU-Manila. Retrieved on 2007-02-11.
  12. ^ a b c d A History of Plebiscites in the Philippines. Arab News. Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
  13. ^ Hare-Hawes-Cutting-Act. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  14. ^ Agoncillo, History of the Filipino People, p. 345-346
  15. ^ Agoncillo, History of the Filipino People, p. 390
  16. ^ Agoncillo, History of the Filipino People, p. 392
  17. ^ Lacsamana, Philippine History and Government, p. 168
  18. ^ Agoncillo, History of the Filipino People, p. 415
  19. ^ a b c d Philippines - World War II. U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2007-02-11.
  20. ^ American Colony and Philippine Commonwealth 1901 - 1941. University of Alberta. Retrieved on 2007-02-11.
  21. ^ Philippines - Economic Relations with the United States. U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2007-02-11.
  22. ^ Balitang Beterano: Facts about Philippine Independence. Philippine Headline News Online. Retrieved on 2007-02-11.
  23. ^ Philippine history - American Colony and Philippine Commonwealth (1901-1941). Windows on Asia. Retrieved on 2007-02-11.
  24. ^ Republic of the Philippies, Philippine Almanac, p. 140
  25. ^ a b c d Republic of the Philippies, Philippine Almanac, p. 338
  26. ^ a b American Colony and Philippine Commonwealth (1901-1941). Filipinas Heritage Library. Retrieved on 2007-02-12.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Under American Rule and the Commonwealth of the Philippines (0 words)
This granted the Philippines a large amount of autonomy but at the same time, the US retained some control over the country (as the case was with Philippine foreign affairs).
A bicameral legislature is established with the Philippine Assembly as the lower chamber and the Philippine Commission as the upper chamber.
August 29, 1916: Under the Jones Act, an elected Philippine Senate replaces the appointed Philippine Commission as the upper chamber of the legislature and the Philippine Assembly is renamed the House of Representatives.
Philippines, The. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (3871 words)
The Philippines extend 1,152 mi (1,855 km) from north to south, between Taiwan and Borneo, and 688 mi (1,108 km) from east to west, and are bounded by the Philippine Sea on the east, the Celebes Sea on the south, and the South China Sea on the west.
The Philippine legislature ratified the bill; a constitution, approved by President Roosevelt (Mar., 1935) was accepted by the Philippine people in a plebiscite (May); and Quezon was elected the first president (Sept.).
Philippine opposition to García on issues of government corruption and anti-Americanism led, in June, 1959, to the union of the Liberal and Progressive parties, led by Vice President Diosdad Macapagal, the Liberal party leader, who succeeded García as president in the 1961 elections.
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