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Encyclopedia > Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
Flag of the Commonwealth of Nations
Flag
The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008.
Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK
Official language English
Membership 53 sovereign states
Leaders
 -  Head of the Commonwealth Queen Elizabeth II
 -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 and took office 1 April 2008
Establishment
 -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926 
 -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931 
 -  London Declaration 28 April 1949 
Area
 -  Total 31,462,574 km² 
12,147,768 sq mi 
Population
 -  2005 estimate 1,921,974,000 
 -  Density 61.09/km² 
158.2/sq mi
Website
thecommonwealth.org

The Commonwealth of Nations, usually known as the Commonwealth, is a voluntary association of 53 independent sovereign states, most of which are former British colonies, or dependencies of these colonies (the exceptions being the United Kingdom itself and Mozambique). Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Commonwealth_of_Nations. ... The flag of the Commonwealth of Nations consists of the Commonwealth symbol in gold on a blue background. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 37 KB) The Commonwealth of Nations. ... Marlborough House, London Marlborough House is a mansion in Westminster, London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The present British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is the second to be recognised as Head of the Commonwealth in the 53 member states of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The Commonwealth Secretary-General is the head of the Commonwealth Secretariat, the central body which has served the Commonwealth of Nations since its establishment in 1965. ... Kamalesh Sharma is the High Commissioner of India in London, and has been elected to the office of Secretary General of the Commonwealth of Nations from 2008[1]. Kamalesh Sharma in an alumnus of the St. ... The Balfour Declaration of 1926 is a statement of the October-November 1926 Imperial Conference of British Empire leaders in London. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Statute of Westminster relating to the British Empire and its dominions. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The London Declaration was a declaration issued by the governments of the Commonwealth of Nations on the issue of Indias continued membership of the Commonwealth. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... A voluntary association (also sometimes called an unincorporated association, or just an association) is a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement to form a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ...


The Commonwealth is an international organisation through which countries with diverse social, political, and economic backgrounds co-operate within a framework of common values and goals, outlined in the Singapore Declaration.[1] These include the promotion of democracy, human rights, good governance, the rule of law, individual liberty, egalitarianism, free trade, multilateralism, and world peace.[2] For the political science journal, see International Organization. ... The Singapore Declaration of Commonwealth Principles was a declaration issued by the assembled Heads of Government of the Commonwealth of Nations, setting out the core political values that would form the main part of the Commonwealths membership criteria. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The terms governance and good governance are increasingly being used in development literature. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The rule of law, in its most basic form, is the principle that no one is above the law. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... Multilateralism is an international relations term that refers to multiple countries working in concert. ... World peace is an ideal of freedom, peace, and happiness among and within all nations. ...


Queen Elizabeth II is the Head of the Commonwealth, recognised by each state, and as such is the symbol of the free association of the organisation's members. This position, however, does not imply political power over Commonwealth member states. In practice, the Queen heads the Commonwealth in a symbolic capacity, and it is the Commonwealth Secretary-General who is the chief executive of the organisation. The Commonwealth is not a political union, and does not allow the United Kingdom to exercise any power over the affairs of the organisation's other members. Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The present British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is the second to be recognised as Head of the Commonwealth in the 53 member states of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... A Political Union is a type of state which is composed of smaller states. ...


Elizabeth II is also the Head of State, separately, of sixteen members of the Commonwealth, called Commonwealth realms. As each realm is an independent kingdom, Elizabeth II, as monarch, holds a distinct title for each, though, by a Prime Ministers' Conference in 1952, all include the words "Head of the Commonwealth" at the end; for example: Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Australia and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth. Beyond the realms, the majority of the members of the Commonwealth have their own, separate Heads of State: thirty-two members are Commonwealth republics and five members are Commonwealth kingdoms each with their own monarchs: the Sultan of Brunei; the King of Lesotho; the Supreme Ruler of Malaysia; the King of Swaziland; and the King of Tonga. For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) is a biennial summit meeting of the heads of government from all Commonwealth nations. ... The Commonwealth republics, shown in pink A Commonwealth republic is any one of the 31 sovereign states of the Commonwealth of Nations that have a republican form of government. ... The Sultan of Brunei is the head of state of Brunei. ... Royal Standard of the King of Lesotho This page lists Paramount Chiefs and Kings of Lesotho. ... Flag of the Supreme Head of Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong is a Malay title usually translated as Supreme Ruler or Paramount Ruler, is the official title of the constitutional head of state of the federation of Malaysia. ... This page contains a list of paramount chiefs and kings (Ngwenyamas) of Swaziland. ... The Tupou Dynasty of Tonga is the only remaining constitutional monarchy of Polynesia. ...


Every four years the Commonwealth's members celebrate the Commonwealth Games, the world's second-largest multi-sport event after the Olympic Games. Current flag of the Commonwealth Games Federation Locations of the games, and participating countries Commonwealth Games Federation seal, adopted in 2001 The Commonwealth Games is a multinational, multi-sport event. ... A multi-sport event is a competition in which athletes compete in a number of different sports. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ...

Contents

History

Origins

Although performing a vastly different function, the Commonwealth is the successor of the British Empire. In 1884, whilst visiting Adelaide, South Australia, Lord Rosebery described the changing British Empire, as some of its colonies became more independent, as a "Commonwealth of Nations"[citation needed]. For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... For other uses, see Adelaide (disambiguation). ... For the song, see South Australia (song). ... Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery (May 7, 1847 - May 21, 1929) was a British Liberal statesman and Prime Minister. ...


Conferences of British and colonial Prime Ministers had occurred periodically since 1887, leading to the creation of the Imperial Conferences in the late 1920s.[3] The formal organisation of the Commonwealth developed from the Imperial Conferences, where the independence of the self-governing colonies and especially of dominions was recognised. The Irish Oath of Allegiance, agreed in 1921, included the Irish Free State's adherence to and membership of the group of nations forming the British Commonwealth of Nations. In the Balfour Declaration at the Imperial Conference in 1926, Britain and its dominions agreed they were equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by common allegiance to the Crown, and freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations. This relationship was eventually formalised by the Statute of Westminster in 1931. A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Imperial Conferences were gatherings of British Empire government leaders in London in 1887, 1897, 1902, 1907, 1911, 1921, 1923, 1926, 1930 and 1937. ... Imperial Conferences were gatherings of British Empire government leaders in London in 1887, 1897, 1902, 1907, 1911, 1921, 1923, 1926, 1930 and 1937. ... A self-governing colony is a colony with an elected legislature, in which politicians are able to make most decisions without reference to the colonial power with formal or nominal control of the colony. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... The Irish Oath of Allegiance was a controversial provision in the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, which Irish TDs (members of the Irish parliament) and Senators were required to take, in order to take their seats in Dáil Éireann (The Chamber of Deputies) and Seanad Éireann (the Irish Senate). ... This article is about the prior state. ... The Balfour Declaration of 1926 is a report of the October-November 1926 Imperial Conference of British Empire leaders in London. ... This article is about the Statute of Westminster relating to the British Empire and its dominions. ...


Remaining members gain independence

After World War II, the Empire was gradually dismantled, partly owing to the rise of independence movements in the then-subject territories and partly owing to the British Government's straitened circumstances resulting from the cost of the war. The word "British" was dropped in 1949 from the title of the Commonwealth to reflect the changing position.[4] Burma (a.k.a. Myanmar, 1948), and Aden (1967) are the only former colonies not to have joined the Commonwealth upon post-war independence. Among the former protectorates and mandates, Egypt (independent in 1922), Iraq (1932), Transjordan (1946), Palestine (became in part, the state of Israel in 1948), Sudan (1956), Kuwait (1961), Bahrain (1971), Oman (1971), Qatar (1971), and the United Arab Emirates (1971) never became members of the Commonwealth. The Republic of Ireland left the Commonwealth upon becoming a republic in 1949. However, the Ireland Act 1949 passed by the Parliament of Westminster gave citizens of the Republic of Ireland a status similar to that of other citizens of the Commonwealth in UK law. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Anthem: Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw , Largest city Yangon (Rangoon) Official languages Burmese Recognised regional languages Jingpho, Shan, Karen, Mon, Rakhine Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Senior General Than Shwe  -  Vice Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Vice-Senior General... Port of Aden (around 1910). ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... Mandates in the Middle east and Africa. ... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Ireland Act 1949 is a UK Act of Parliament which was intended to deal with the consequences of the then recently passed Republic of Ireland Act 1948 as passed by the Irish parliament (Oireachtas). ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... The law of the United Kingdom consists of several independent legal systems which use common law principles, civil law principles, or both. ...


Members with heads of state other than the British Sovereign

The issue of countries with constitutional structures not based on a shared Crown, but who wished to remain members of the Commonwealth, was resolved in April 1949 at a Commonwealth prime ministers' meeting in London. Under this London Declaration, India agreed that, when it became a republic, in January 1950, it would accept the British Sovereign as a "symbol of the free association of its independent member nations and, as such, Head of the Commonwealth". The London Declaration was a declaration issued by the governments of the Commonwealth of Nations on the issue of Indias continued membership of the Commonwealth. ...


The other Commonwealth countries in turn recognised India's continuing membership of the association. (At Pakistan’s insistence, India was not regarded as an exceptional case and it was assumed that other states would be accorded the same treatment as India.)


The London Declaration is often seen as marking the beginning of the modern Commonwealth. Following India's precedent, other nations became republics, or constitutional monarchies with monarchs different from the British. Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not...


Old, New and White Commonwealth

As the Commonwealth grew, Britain and pre-1945 Dominions (a term formally dropped in the 1940s) became informally known as the "Old Commonwealth", particularly since the 1960s when some of them disagreed with poorer, African and Asian (or New Commonwealth) members about various issues at Commonwealth Heads of Government meetings. Accusations that the old, "White" Commonwealth had different interests from African Commonwealth nations in particular, and charges of racism and colonialism arose during heated debates about Rhodesia in the 1960s and 1970s, the imposition of sanctions against apartheid-era South Africa in the 1980s and, more recently, about whether to press for democratic reforms in Nigeria and then Zimbabwe.[citation needed] The term New Commonwealth is also used in the United Kingdom (especially in the 1960s and 1970s) to refer to recently decolonised countries, which are predominantly non-white and underdeveloped. It was often used in debates about immigration from these countries.[citation needed] Old Commonwealth and White Commonwealth are informal terms used to describe the predominantly white members of the Commonwealth of Nations located in the developed world, specifically the United Kingdom and the realms of Canada, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The term New Commonwealth was commonly used in the 1960s and 1970s to refer to members of the Commonwealth of Nations that had joined in recent years as a result of decolonization. ... The leaders of the nations with membership in the Commonwealth of Nations (or British Commonwealth) are collectively known as the Commonwealth Heads of Government. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... International sanctions are actions taken by countries against others for political reasons, either unilaterally or multilaterally. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the undoing of colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction. ...


In recent years, the term "White Commonwealth" has been used in a derogatory sense to imply that the wealthier, white nations of the Commonwealth had different interests and goals from the non-white, and particularly the African members. Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe has used the term frequently to allege that the Commonwealth's attempts to force political changes in his country are motivated by racism and colonialist attitudes and that the White Commonwealth dominates the Commonwealth of Nations as a whole.[citation needed] Flag of the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary association of independent sovereign states, most of which were once governed by the United Kingdom as part of the British Empire, and are its former colonies. ... Mugabe redirects here. ...


Membership

Membership criteria

Main article: Commonwealth of Nations membership criteria

The criteria for membership of the Commonwealth of Nations have developed over time from a series of separate documents. The Statute of Westminster 1931, as the fundamental founding document of the organisation, laid out that membership required dominionhood. The 1949 London Declaration ended this, allowing republican and indigenous monarchic members on the condition that they recognised the British monarch as the 'Head of the Commonwealth'.[5] In the wake of the wave of decolonisation in the 1960s, these constitutional principles were augmented by political, economic, and social principles. The first of these was set out in 1961, when it was decided that respect for racial equality would be a requisite of membership, leading directly to the withdrawal of South Africa's re-application (which they were required to make under the formula of the London Declaration upon becoming a republic). The fourteen points of the 1971 Singapore Declaration dedicated all members to the principles of world peace, liberty, human rights, equality, and free trade.[2] The Commonwealth of Nations currently has 53 members, which must abide by the membership criteria, which are enforced through the Millbrook Programme. ... This article is about the Statute of Westminster relating to the British Empire and its dominions. ... The London Declaration was a declaration issued by the governments of the Commonwealth of Nations on the issue of Indias continued membership of the Commonwealth. ... The present British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is the second to be recognised as Head of the Commonwealth in the 53 member states of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the undoing of colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Singapore Declaration of Commonwealth Principles was a declaration issued by the assembled Heads of Government of the Commonwealth of Nations, setting out the core political values that would form the main part of the Commonwealths membership criteria. ... World peace is an ideal of freedom, peace, and happiness among and within all nations. ... For other uses, see Liberty (disambiguation). ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ...


These criteria were unenforceable for two decades,[6] until, in 1991, the Harare Declaration was issued, dedicating the leaders to applying the Singapore principles to the completion of decolonisation, the end of the Cold War, and the fall of Apartheid in South Africa.[7] The mechanisms by which these principles would be applied were created, and the manner clarified, by the 1995 Millbrook Commonwealth Action Programme, which created the Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group (CMAG), which has the power to rule on whether members meet the requirements for membership under the Harare Declaration.[8] Also in 1995, an Inter-Governmental Group was created to finalise and codify the full requirements for membership. Upon reporting in 1997, as adopted under the Edinburgh Declaration, the Inter-Governmental Group ruled that any future members would have to have a direct constitutional link with an existing member.[9] The Harare Declaration is a re-statement of the principles of the Commonwealth of Nations, agreed on by the heads of government of its member countries at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in 1991. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... The Millbrook Commonwealth Action Programme on the Harare Declaration, sometimes abbreviated to just Millbrook, is a policy programme of the Commonwealth of Nations, designed to implement and uphold the Harare Declaration, which sets out the basic political membership criteria of the Commonwealth. ... The Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group on the Harare Declaration, abbreviated to CMAG, is a group of representatives of members of the Commonwealth of Nations that is responsible for upholding the Harare Declaration. ... The Edinburgh Declaration was a declaration by the Heads of Government of the Commonwealth of Nations concerning the organisations membership criteria. ...


In addition to this new rule, the former rules were consolidated into a single document. These requirements, which remain the same today, are that members must:

These requirements are undergoing review, and a report on potential amendment is to be presented to the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2007.[10] New members will not be admitted at the 2007 CHOGM, with 2009 set as the earliest date of entry.[11] The Harare Declaration is a re-statement of the principles of the Commonwealth of Nations, agreed on by the heads of government of its member countries at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in 1991. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states that recognize Queen Elizabeth II as their Queen and head of state. ... The present British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is the second to be recognised as Head of the Commonwealth in the 53 member states of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2007 will be the twentieth Meeting of the Heads of Government of the Commonwealth of Nations. ...


Members

Countries whose membership is suspended are shown in Bold text.

Country Joined Capital Population Land area (km²)
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda 1981 St. John's &0000000000081000.00000081,000 &0000000000000442.000000442
Flag of Australia Australia 1931 Canberra &0000000021134563.00000021,134,563 &0000000007741220.0000007,741,220
Flag of the Bahamas Bahamas 1973 Nassau &0000000000319000.000000319,000 &0000000000013878.00000013,878
Flag of Bangladesh Bangladesh 1972 Dhaka &0000000139215000.000000139,215,000 &0000000000143998.000000143,998
Flag of Barbados Barbados 1966 Bridgetown &0000000000287000.000000287,000 &0000000000000430.000000430
Flag of Belize Belize 1981 Belmopan &0000000000264000.000000264,000 &0000000000022966.00000022,966
Flag of Botswana Botswana 1966 Gaborone &0000000001769000.0000001,769,000 &0000000000581730.000000581,730
Flag of Brunei Brunei 1984 Bandar Seri Begawan &0000000000366000.000000366,000 &0000000000005765.0000005,765
Flag of Cameroon Cameroon 1995 Yaounde &0000000016038000.00000016,038,000 &0000000000475442.000000475,442
Flag of Canada Canada 1931 Ottawa &0000000033039967.00000033,039,967 &0000000009970610.0000009,970,610
Flag of Cyprus Cyprus 1961 Nicosia &0000000000826000.000000826,000 &0000000000009251.0000009,251
Flag of Dominica Dominica 1978 Roseau &0000000000079000.00000079,000 &0000000000000751.000000751
Flag of Fiji Fiji1 1970
1997
Suva &0000000000841000.000000841,000 &0000000000018274.00000018,274
Flag of The Gambia Gambia 1965 Banjul &0000000001478000.0000001,478,000 &0000000000011295.00000011,295
Flag of Ghana Ghana 1957 Accra &0000000021664000.00000021,664,000 &0000000000238533.000000238,533
Flag of Grenada Grenada 1974 St. George's &0000000000102000.000000102,000 &0000000000000344.000000344
Flag of Guyana Guyana 1966 Georgetown &0000000000750000.000000750,000 &0000000000214969.000000214,969
Flag of India India 1949 New Delhi &0000001087124000.0000001,087,124,000 &0000000003166414.0000003,166,414
Flag of Jamaica Jamaica 1962 Kingston &0000000002639000.0000002,639,000 &0000000000010991.00000010,991
Flag of Kenya Kenya 1963 Nairobi &0000000033467000.00000033,467,000 &0000000000580367.000000580,367
Flag of Kiribati Kiribati 1979 Tarawa &0000000000097000.00000097,000 &0000000000000726.000000726
Flag of Lesotho Lesotho 1966 Maseru &0000000001798000.0000001,798,000 &0000000000030355.00000030,355
Flag of Malawi Malawi 1964 Lilongwe &0000000012608000.00000012,608,000 &0000000000118484.000000118,484
Flag of Malaysia Malaysia 1957 Kuala Lumpur (legislative)
Putrajaya (executive)
&0000000027356000.00000027,356,000 &0000000000329847.000000329,847
Flag of the Maldives Maldives 1982 Malé &0000000000321000.000000321,000 &0000000000000298.000000298
Flag of Malta Malta 1964 Valletta &0000000000400000.000000400,000 &0000000000000316.000000316
Flag of Mauritius Mauritius 1968 Port Louis &0000000001233000.0000001,233,000 &0000000000002040.0000002,040
Flag of Mozambique Mozambique 1995 Maputo &0000000019424000.00000019,424,000 &0000000000801590.000000801,590
Flag of Namibia Namibia 1990 Windhoek &0000000002009000.0000002,009,000 &0000000000824292.000000824,292
Flag of Nauru Nauru² 1968 Yaren (unofficial) &0000000000013000.00000013,000 &0000000000000021.00000021
Flag of New Zealand New Zealand 1931 Wellington &0000000004109000.0000004,109,000 &0000000000270534.000000270,534
Flag of Nigeria Nigeria³ 1960
1999
Abuja &0000000128709000.000000128,709,000 &0000000000923768.000000923,768
Flag of Pakistan Pakistan4 1949
1989
2004
Islamabad &0000000161488000.000000161,488,000 &0000000000880940.000000880,940
Flag of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea 1975 Port Moresby &0000000005772000.0000005,772,000 &0000000000462840.000000462,840
Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis 1983 Basseterre &0000000000042000.00000042,000 &0000000000000261.000000261
Flag of Saint Lucia Saint Lucia 1979 Castries &0000000000159000.000000159,000 &0000000000000539.000000539
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines   1979 Kingstown &0000000000118000.000000118,000 &0000000000000388.000000388
Flag of Samoa Samoa 1970 Apia &0000000000184000.000000184,000 &0000000000002831.0000002,831
Flag of the Seychelles Seychelles 1976 Victoria &0000000000080000.00000080,000 &0000000000000455.000000455
Flag of Sierra Leone Sierra Leone 1961 Freetown &0000000005336000.0000005,336,000 &0000000000071740.00000071,740
Flag of Singapore Singapore 1965 Singapore &0000000004680600.0000004,680,600 &0000000000000704.000000704
Flag of the Solomon Islands Solomon Islands 1978 Honiara &0000000000466000.000000466,000 &0000000000028896.00000028,896
Flag of South Africa South Africa5 1931
1994
Pretoria (executive)
Bloemfontein (judicial)
Cape Town (legislative)
&0000000047208000.00000047,208,000 &0000000001221037.0000001,221,037
Flag of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 1948 Sri Jayawardhanapura Kotte   
 
&0000000020570000.00000020,570,000 &0000000000065610.00000065,610
Flag of Swaziland Swaziland 1968 Mbabane &0000000001034000.0000001,034,000 &0000000000017364.00000017,364
Flag of Tanzania Tanzania 1961 Dodoma &0000000037627000.00000037,627,000 &0000000000945087.000000945,087
Flag of Tonga Tonga 1970 Nukuʻalofa &0000000000102000.000000102,000 &0000000000000747.000000747
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago 1962 Port of Spain &0000000001301000.0000001,301,000 &0000000000005130.0000005,130
Flag of Tuvalu Tuvalu 1978 Funafuti &0000000000010000.00000010,000 &0000000000000026.00000026
Flag of Uganda Uganda 1962 Kampala &0000000025827000.00000025,827,000 &0000000000241038.000000241,038
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom 1931 London &0000000060609155.00000060,609,155 &0000000000242900.000000242,900
Flag of Vanuatu Vanuatu 1980 Port Vila &0000000000207000.000000207,000 &0000000000012189.00000012,189
Flag of Zambia Zambia 1964 Lusaka &0000000011479000.00000011,479,000 &0000000000752618.000000752,618
Total &0000001921974000.0000001,921,974,000 &0000000031462574.00000031,462,574

1 Left 1987, rejoined 1997, suspended since 2006.
2 Special member status 1968 to 1999, again since 2006.
3 Suspended between 1995 and 1999.
4 Left in 1972, rejoined in 1989, was suspended in 1999, re-admitted in 2004 and suspended again in 2007. Suspension lifted in May 2008.
5 Left 1961, rejoined 1994.
Image File history File links Flag_of_Antigua_and_Barbuda. ... St Johns is the capital city of the nation of Antigua and Barbuda, a country located in the West Indies in the Caribbean Sea. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942 was an Act of the Parliament of Australia which formally accepted the Statute of Westminster 1931, an Act of the British Imperial Parliament which established the legislative independence of the various self-governing Dominions of the British Empire, allowing their parliaments and governments... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Bahamas. ... For other uses of Nassau, see Nassau (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bengali: Ḍhākā; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Barbados. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belize. ... Belmopan, estimated population 12,300, is the capital of Belize. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Botswana. ... Satellite image of Gaborone Location of Gaborone in Botswana Gaborone (pron. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brunei. ... Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque Bandar Seri Begawan, estimated population 46,229 (1991), is the capital and the royal town of the Sultanate of Brunei. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cameroon. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Capitals in Africa | Cities in Cameroon ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... District Nicosia District Government  - Mayor Eleni Mavrou Population (2004)  - City 270,000 (Greek part) 85,000 (Turkish part) 355,000 (Total) Time zone EET (UTC+2) Website: www. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Dominica. ... There are also separate articles concerning the Minnesota county of the same name, and its chief town. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Fiji. ... Suva is the capital city of Fiji. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_The_Gambia. ... Location of Banjul in The Gambia Street in Banjul city Banjul (formerly Bathurst) is the capital of The Gambia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ghana. ... Accra, population 1,970,400 (2005), is the capital of Ghana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Grenada. ... St. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guyana. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... , This article is about the capital city of India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jamaica. ... The City of Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kenya. ... Location of Nairobi Coordinates: , Country Province HQ City Hall Founded 1899 Constituencies of Nairobi List Makadara Kamukunji Starehe Langata Dagoretti Westlands Kasarani Embakasi Government  - Mayor Geoffrey Majiwa Area  - City 684 km² (264. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kiribati. ... For other uses, see Tarawa (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lesotho. ... Maseru (also Masero) is the capital of Lesotho. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malawi. ... Location of Lilongwe in Malawi. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ... Motto: Bandar raya Taman, Bandar raya Bestari (English :Garden City, Intelligent City ) Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1995, October 19th Made into Federal Territory 2001, February 1st Government  - Administered by Perbadanan Putrajaya Putrajaya Corporation  - Chairman Samsudin Osman Area  - City 46 km²  (17. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Maldives. ... Malé (Dhivehi: މާލެ), (pronounced: Maa-lay) population 81,647 (2004), is the capital of the Republic of Maldives located at the southern edge of North Male Atoll Kaafu Atoll. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta. ... Valletta (Maltese: , commonly referred to as Il-Belt - The City) is the capital city of Malta. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mauritius. ... The arms of Port Louis Port Louis banking district, and the main avenue leading to the Government House (seen in the background) Port Louis (pronounced locally as paw-louee) is the capital of Mauritius. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mozambique. ... Maputo, formerly Lourenço Marques, is the capital and largest city of Mozambique. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Namibia. ... --193. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nauru. ... Yaren, in earlier times Makwa, is a district and constituency of the island nation of Nauru, located in the south of the island, at (-0. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... The Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1947 was a constitutional Act of the New Zealand New Zealand Parliament that formally granted New Zealand full external autonomy. ... For the first Duke of Wellington, see Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nigeria. ... Aso Rock Abuja is the capital city of Nigeria. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Location within Pakistan Coordinates: , Country Pakistan Province Constructed 1960s Union Council 40 UC (District Govt. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Papua_New_Guinea. ... Downtown Port Moresby Port Moresby (IPA: ), or Pot Mosbi in Tok Pisin, population 255,000 (2000), is the capital of Papua New Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Kitts_and_Nevis. ... Not to be confused with Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Lucia. ... For the town in France, see Castries, Hérault. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Vincent_and_the_Grenadines. ... Kingstown Kingstown, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Location Map Kingstown, estimated population 15,900 (July 1999), is the chief port of Saint Vincent, and the capital of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Samoa. ... Apia, Samoa is the capital of Samoa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Seychelles. ... For other uses, see Victoria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sierra_Leone. ... For other places with the same name, see Freetown (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Singapore. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Solomon_Islands. ... Honiara, population 49,107 (1999), is the capital of the Solomon Islands and of Guadalcanal Province, although it is a separately administered town. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country Province Established 1855 Area  - Total 1,644 km² (634. ... Bloemfontein (pronounced , Afrikaans and Dutch for spring of Bloem (bloom), flower spring or fountain of flowers is the capital city of the Free State Province of South Africa. ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area [2]  - Total 2,454. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... , District Government  - Mayor Swarnalatha Silva (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) Area  - City 17 km²  (6. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Swaziland. ... Location of Mbabane in Swaziland Mbabane, with an estimated population of 70,000 (2003), is the capital of Swaziland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tanzania. ... Dodoma, population 324,347 (2002 census), is the national capital of Tanzania and also the capital of that countrys Dodoma Region. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tonga. ... Busy Talamahu market in Nukualofa Tonga Royal Palace Nukualofa, population 22,400 (1996), is the capital of Tonga. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Trinidad_and_Tobago. ... Port of Spain, population 49,000 (2000), is the capital of Trinidad and Tobago and the countrys second largest city by population, after San Fernando. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tuvalu. ... Funafuti is the sinking capital of the small island nation of Tuvalu. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uganda. ... Kampala is the capital city of Uganda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vanuatu. ... Port Vila (population 29,356, coordinates ) is the capital city of Vanuatu. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Zambia. ... Lusaka is the capital and largest city of Zambia. ...

Member information

The Commonwealth comprises fifty-three of the world's countries and has a combined population of 1.9 billion people, almost a third of the world population and over twice as many as the whole of the Americas (North and South) put together. Of that figure, 1.4 billion people live in the Indian subcontinent, and 93% live in Asia and Africa combined. World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... North American redirects here. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...


The total GDP is about US$7.8 trillion (about 16% of the total world economy).[citation needed] The land area of the Commonwealth nations is about 31.5 million km² (12.1 million square miles), or about 21% of the total world land area. USD redirects here. ...


The five largest Commonwealth nations by population are India (1.1 billion), Pakistan (165 million), Bangladesh (148 m), Nigeria (137 m), and the United Kingdom (60 m). Tuvalu is the smallest member, with only 11,000 people.


The three largest Commonwealth nations by area are Canada at 3.8 million square miles, Australia at 3.0 million square miles, and India at 1.2 million square miles.


The largest military spenders are the United Kingdom at GBP£33.4 billion (US$66.8 billion), India at GBP£10.6 billion (US$26.250 billion), and Australia and Canada at GBP£5.3 billion (US$10.5 billion) respectively.[citation needed] The Commonwealth of Nations is not a military alliance. See: List of countries by military expenditures. Military spending in 2006, in billions of euros, according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute and the European Defence Agency. ...


Nauru joined as a "Special Member", but was a full member from May 1999 to January 2006 when it reverted back. [12]

Flags of the members of the Commonwealth in Horse Guards Road, next to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, London.
Flags of the members of the Commonwealth in Horse Guards Road, next to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, London.

Membership is open to countries that accept the association's basic aims and have a present or past constitutional link to a Commonwealth member. Not all members have had direct constitutional ties to Britain: some South Pacific countries were formerly under Australian or New Zealand administration, while Namibia was governed by South Africa from 1920 until independence in 1990. Cameroon joined in 1995 although only a fraction of its territory had formerly been under British administration through the League of Nations mandate of 1920–46 and United Nations Trusteeship arrangement of 1946–61. There is only one member of the present Commonwealth that has never had any constitutional link to the British Empire or a Commonwealth member: Mozambique, a former Portuguese colony, was admitted in 1995 on the back of the triumphal re-admission of South Africa and Mozambique's first democratic elections, held in 1994. The move was supported by Mozambique's neighbours, all of whom were members of the Commonwealth and who wished to offer assistance in overcoming the losses incurred from the country's opposition to white minority regimes in Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and South Africa. In 1997, amid some discontent, Commonwealth Heads of Government agreed that Mozambique's admission should be seen as a special case and not set a precedent.[citation needed] Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan) joined in 1972 in its own right after breaking away from Pakistan (formerly West Pakistan), which was a member until it left later in the same year. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 517 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Commonwealth of Nations The Mall (London) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 517 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Commonwealth of Nations The Mall (London) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Horse Guards from St. ... The Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Whitehall, seen from St. ... For other uses, see Commonwealth (disambiguation). ... Mandates in the Middle east and Africa. ... UN redirects here. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... West Pakistan was the popular and sometimes official (1955–1970) name of the western wing of Pakistan until 1971, when the eastern wing (East Pakistan) became independent as Bangladesh. ...


Non-members

Applicants

Rwanda (since 2003), Sudan, Algeria, Madagascar and Yemen have applied to join the Commonwealth, and there was some interest expressed by Israel (being formerly administered by the United Kingdom) and the Palestinian National Authority.[13] “Palestinian government” redirects here. ...


Other eligible applicants could come from any of the remaining inhabited British overseas territories, Crown dependencies, Australian external territories and Associated States of New Zealand if any become fully independent.[14] Many such jurisdictions are already directly represented within the Commonwealth, particularly through the Commonwealth Family.[15] Location of the British Overseas Territories The British Overseas Territories are fourteen[1] territories which the United Kingdom considers to be under its sovereignty, but not as part of the United Kingdom itself. ... Crown dependencies are possessions of the British Crown, as opposed to overseas territories or colonies. ... The states and territories of Australia make up the Commonwealth of Australia under a federal system of government. ... An associated state is used to describe a free relationship between a territory and a larger nation. ... The Commonwealth Family is a network of associations, organisations, and charities affiliated to the Commonwealth of Nations. ...

See also: Commonwealth of Nations membership criteria: Prospective members

A delegation led by the current President of Somaliland, Dahir Riyale Kahin, was invited to the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in Uganda in 2007. Presently, Somaliland's independence is not internationally recognised, but its history as a British colony would mean that it would be able to apply for re-entry into the Commonwealth, should it ever achieve international recognition. The Commonwealth of Nations currently has 53 members, which must abide by the membership criteria, which are enforced through the Millbrook Programme. ... For other territories formerly called Somaliland, see Somaliland (disambiguation). ...


Suspensions

In recent years the Commonwealth has suspended several members "from the Councils of the Commonwealth" for failure to uphold democratic government. Suspended members are not represented at meetings of Commonwealth leaders and ministers, although they remain members of the organisation.


Fiji, which was not a member of the Commonwealth between 1987 and 1997 as a result of a republican coup d'état, was suspended in 2000–2001 after a military coup. Fiji was suspended once again following the military coup of December 2006.[16] Coup redirects here. ...


Nigeria was suspended between 1995 and 1999.


Zimbabwe was suspended in 2002 over concerns with the electoral and land reform policies of Robert Mugabe's Zanu-PF government, before withdrawing from the organization in 2003. The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland came close to being admitted as a full commonwealth member, but prospects for this were suspended, indefinitely, following Southern Rhodesia's unilateral declaration of independence in 1965. Mugabe redirects here. ... The Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) has been the ruling party in Zimbabwe since independence in 1980, led by Robert Mugabe, first as Prime Minister with the party simply known as ZANU, and then as President from 1988 after taking over ZAPU and renaming the party ZANU... Anthem God Save the Queen The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland Capital Salisbury Language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1953-1963 Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1953-1957 Lord Llewellin  - 1957-1963 The Earl of Dalhousie  - 1963 Sir Humphrey Gibbs Prime Minister  - 1953-1956 Sir Godfrey Huggins  - 1956-1963 Sir... Flag Anthem God Save the Queen Capital Salisbury Language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1923-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1952 George VI  - 1952-1980¹ Elizabeth II Governor  - 1923-1928 Sir John Robert Chancellor  - 1959-1969² Sir Humphrey Gibbs  - 1979-1980 Lord Soames Premier, then Prime Minister... The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) of Rhodesia from the United Kingdom was signed on November 11, 1965 by the Smith administration, whose Rhodesian Front party[1] opposed black majority rule in the then British colony. ...


Pakistan was first suspended between 1999 and 2004. On 12 November 2007, in response to the 2007 Pakistani state of emergency, the Commonwealth gave Pakistan a 10-day deadline to restore its constitution and lift other emergency measures or face another suspension from the 53-nation grouping.[17] On 22 November 2007, after the 10-day deadline had expired, Pakistan was suspended from the Commonwealth for violating its key principles, on the grounds of President Musharraf's refusal to give up his role as head of the army, restore an independent judiciary and lift the state of emergency in the country.[18] After general elections were held in Pakistan on 18 February 2008, Pakistan was invited to rejoin the Commonwealth.[citation needed]. The Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group (CMAG), which addresses serious or persistent violations of the Commonwealth’s values and principles, said on 12 May 2008 that it had lifted Pakistan’s suspension from the councils of the Commonwealth with immediate effect..[19] is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Pervez Musharraf has led Pakistan since 1999. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... General Pervez Musharraf (born August 11, 1943, Delhi, India) became de facto ruler (using the title Chief Executive and assuming extensive power) of [[the office of President of Pakistan (becoming Head of State) on June 20, 2001. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


Withdrawal

As membership is purely voluntary, member governments can choose at any time to leave the Commonwealth. Pakistan left in 1972 in protest at the Commonwealth's recognition of breakaway Bangladesh, but rejoined in 1989. Zimbabwe left in 2003 when Commonwealth Heads of Government refused to lift the country's suspension on the grounds of human rights violations and deliberate misgovernment.


Other termination

Although Heads of Government have the power to suspend member states from active participation, the Commonwealth has no provision for the expulsion of members. However, Commonwealth realms that become republics automatically cease to be members, unless (like India in 1950) they obtain the permission of other members to remain in the organisation as a republic. The Republic of Ireland left the Commonwealth when it became a republic, on 18 April 1949, after passing the Republic of Ireland Act 1948; because it preceded India's London Declaration, remaining in the Commonwealth was not an option.[citation needed]  The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republic of Ireland Act was an enactment of Oireachtas Éireann passed in 1948, which came into force on April 18, 1949[1] and which declared that the official description of the Irish state was to be the Republic of Ireland. ... The London Declaration was a declaration issued by the governments of the Commonwealth of Nations on the issue of Indias continued membership of the Commonwealth. ...


South Africa was prevented from continuing as a member after it became a republic in 1961, due to hostility from many members, particularly those in Africa and Asia as well as Canada, to its policy of apartheid. The South African government withdrew its application to remain in the organisation as a republic when it became clear at the 1961 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference that any such application would be rejected. South Africa was re-admitted to the Commonwealth in 1994, following the end of apartheid earlier that same year. A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...


The Maldives left the Commonwealth in 1965 after declaring their independence from the United Kingdom; they were re-admitted to the Commonwealth on 9 July 1982. is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


The declaration of a republic in the Fiji Islands in 1987, after military coups designed to deny Indo-Fijians political power in Fiji, was not accompanied by application to remain. Commonwealth membership was held to have lapsed until 1997, after racist provisions in the republican constitution were repealed and reapplication for membership made. Fiji Coups of 1987 refers to the 1987 overthrow of the government of Fiji by Lieutenant Colonel Sitiveni Rabuka, then third in command of the Royal Fiji Military Forces. ... Indo-Fijians are people born in Fiji, but are ethnically Indian. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota...


Hong Kong was not a member but participated in certain elements as a British colony; these ceased after the 1997 handover of British rule to China.


France

France secretly considered membership in the 1950s, under the leadership of Prime Minister Guy Mollet. In the context of nationalisation of the Suez Canal, colonial unrest, and increasing tensions between British-backed Jordan and French-backed Israel, Mollet saw a union between Britain and France as a possible solution. A British Government document of the time reported "That the French would welcome a common citizenship arrangement on the Irish basis". The request was turned down by the British prime minister Anthony Eden, along with a request for Commonwealth membership, and a year later France signed the Treaty of Rome with Germany and the other founding nations of the Common Market, later to become the EU. [20][21] Guy Mollet (31 December 1905 - 3 October 1975) was a French Socialist politician. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... This article concerns British nationality law in respect of citizens of the Republic of Ireland. ... For the eponymous hat, see Anthony Eden hat. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


Objectives and activities

The Commonwealth's objectives were first outlined in the 1971 Singapore Declaration, which committed the Commonwealth to the institution of world peace; promotion of representative democracy and individual liberty; the pursuit of equality and opposition to racism; the fight against poverty, ignorance, and disease; and free trade.[2] To these were added opposition to discrimination on the basis of gender by the Lusaka Declaration of 1979 (which mostly concerned racism),[22] and environmental sustainability by the Langkawi Declaration of 1989.[23] These objectives were reinforced by the Harare Declaration in 1991. The Singapore Declaration of Commonwealth Principles was a declaration issued by the assembled Heads of Government of the Commonwealth of Nations, setting out the core political values that would form the main part of the Commonwealths membership criteria. ... World peace is an ideal of freedom, peace, and happiness among and within all nations. ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ... The Langkawi Declaration on the Environment was a declaration issued by the assembled Heads of Government of the Commonwealth of Nations on the issue of environmental sustainability. ... The Harare Declaration is a re-statement of the principles of the Commonwealth of Nations, agreed on by the heads of government of its member countries at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in 1991. ...


The Commonwealth's current highest-priority aims are on the promotion of democracy and development, as outlined in the 2003 Aso Rock Declaration,[24] which built on those in Singapore and Harare and clarified their terms of reference, stating: "We are committed to democracy, good governance, human rights, gender equality, and a more equitable sharing of the benefits of globalisation."[25] The Commonwealth website lists its areas of work as: Democracy, Economics, Education, Gender, Governance, Human Rights, Law, Small States, Sport, Sustainability, and Youth.[26]


The Commonwealth has long been distinctive as an international forum where highly developed economies (such as the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Singapore, and New Zealand) and many of the world's poorer countries seek to reach agreement by consensus. This aim has sometimes been difficult to achieve, as when disagreements over Rhodesia in the late 1960s and 1970s and over apartheid in South Africa in the 1980s led to a cooling of relations between the United Kingdom and African members. For other uses, see Consensus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...


Through a separate voluntary fund, Commonwealth governments support the Commonwealth Youth Programme, a division of the Secretariat with offices in Gulu (Uganda), Lusaka (Zambia), Chandigarh (India), Georgetown (Guyana) and Honiara (Solomon Islands). The Commonwealth Youth Programme, also known as CYP, is an international development agency working with young people between the ages of 15 and 29. ... For other uses, see Gulu (disambiguation). ... Lusaka is the capital and largest city of Zambia. ... , Chandigarh,  (Punjabi: , Hindi: ) also called City Beautiful, is a city in India that serves as the capital of two states, Punjab and Haryana, and is a union territory of India. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Honiara, population 49,107 (1999), is the capital of the Solomon Islands and of Guadalcanal Province, although it is a separately administered town. ...


The organisation is celebrated each year on Commonwealth Day, the second Monday in March. Commonwealth Day is the annual celebration of the Commonwealth of Nations held on the second Monday in March, and which is marked by a multi-faith service in Westminster Abbey normally attended by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, Head of the Commonwealth, the Commonwealth Secretary-General and the Commonwealth High...


Structure

Head of the Commonwealth

Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II
Main article: Head of the Commonwealth

Queen Elizabeth II is the Head of the Commonwealth, a title which is de facto annexed to the sovereign of the United Kingdom[27]. Some members of the Commonwealth, known as Commonwealth realms, also recognise the Queen as their head of state. However, the majority of members are republics, and a handful of others are indigenous monarchies. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 433 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1488 × 2060 pixel, file size: 745 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 433 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1488 × 2060 pixel, file size: 745 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The present British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is the second to be recognised as Head of the Commonwealth in the 53 member states of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The present British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is the second to be recognised as Head of the Commonwealth in the 53 member states of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting

The main decision-making forum of the organisation is the biennial Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM), where Commonwealth presidents or prime ministers assemble for several days to discuss matters of mutual interest. CHOGM is the successor to the Prime Ministers' Conferences and earlier Imperial Conferences and Colonial Conferences dating back to 1887. There are also regular meetings of finance ministers, law ministers, health ministers, etc. The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) is a biennial summit meeting of the heads of government from all Commonwealth nations. ... The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) is a biennial summit meeting of the heads of government from all Commonwealth nations. ... Imperial Conferences were gatherings of British Empire government leaders in London in 1887, 1897, 1902, 1907, 1911, 1921, 1923, 1926, 1930 and 1937. ...


Commonwealth Secretariat

The Commonwealth Secretariat, established in 1965, is the main intergovernmental agency of the Commonwealth, facilitating consultation and cooperation among member governments and countries. It is responsible to member governments collectively. The Commonwealth Secretariat is the central body of the Commonwealth of Nations, which implements the decisions taken by the associations 54 member governments and organises meetings of Commonwealth ministers. ... The Commonwealth Secretariat is the central body of the Commonwealth of Nations, which implements the decisions taken by the associations 54 member governments and organises meetings of Commonwealth ministers. ...


Based in London, the Secretariat organises Commonwealth summits, meetings of ministers, consultative meetings and technical discussions; it assists policy development and provides policy advice, and facilitates multilateral communication among the member governments. It also provides technical assistance to help governments in the social and economic development of their countries and in support of the Commonwealth’s fundamental political values. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


The Secretariat is headed by the Commonwealth Secretary-General who is elected by Commonwealth Heads of Government for no more than two four-year terms. The Secretary-General and two Deputy Secretaries-General direct the divisions of the Secretariat. The present Secretary-General is Kamalesh Sharma, from India, who took office on 1 April 2008, succeeding Don McKinnon of New Zealand (2000–2008). The first Secretary-General was Arnold Smith of Canada (1965–75), followed by Sir Shridath Ramphal of Guyana (1975–90). The new Secretary-General will be Kamalesh Sharma, from India, who was appointed on 24 November 2007 and will take office on 1 April 2008 The Commonwealth Secretary-General is the head of the Commonwealth Secretariat, the central body which has served the Commonwealth of Nations since its establishment in 1965. ... The leaders of the nations with membership in the Commonwealth of Nations (or British Commonwealth) are collectively known as the Commonwealth Heads of Government. ... Kamalesh Sharma is the High Commissioner of India in London, and has been elected to the office of Secretary General of the Commonwealth of Nations from 2008[1]. Kamalesh Sharma in an alumnus of the St. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Donald Charles McKinnon, PC, (born February 27, 1939) is a former Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs of New Zealand. ... Arnold Smith was the first Commonwealth Secretary-General. ... Sir Shridath Sonny Ramphal, OE, OM (Jamaica), GCMG, ONZ, AC, QC, FRSA, (born October 3, 1928, New Amsterdam, British Guyana) was the second Commonwealth Secretary-General (1975–1990). ... Kamalesh Sharma is the High Commissioner of India in London, and has been elected to the office of Secretary General of the Commonwealth of Nations from 2008[1]. Kamalesh Sharma in an alumnus of the St. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


Commonwealth Family

Main article: Commonwealth Family

Commonwealth countries share many links outside government, with over a hundred Commonwealth-wide non-governmental organisations, notably for sport, culture, education and charity. The Association of Commonwealth Universities is an important vehicle for academic links, particularly through scholarships, principally the Commonwealth Scholarship, for students to study in universities in other Commonwealth countries. There are also many non-official associations that bring together individuals who work within the spheres of law and government, such as the Commonwealth Lawyers Association and the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association. The Commonwealth Family is a network of associations, organisations, and charities affiliated to the Commonwealth of Nations. ... NGO redirects here. ... The Association of Commonwealth Universities represents over 480 universities from Commonwealth countries. ... The Commonwealth Scholarship and Fellowship Plan, established in 1959, was designed by Commonwealth governments to enable students of high intellectual promise to pursue studies in Commonwealth countries other than their own, so that on their return they could make a distinctive contribution in their own countries while fostering mutual understanding... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... The Commonwealth Lawyers Association was founded in 1983 to group professional and academic lawyers from Commonwealth countries. ... The Commonwealth Parliamentary Association, previously known as the Empire Parliamentary Association, is an organization, of British origin, which works to support good governance, democracy and human rights. ...


Commonwealth Foundation

The Commonwealth Foundation is an intergovernmental organisation, resourced by and reporting to Commonwealth governments, and guided by Commonwealth values and priorities. Its mandate is to strengthen civil society in the achievement of Commonwealth priorities: democracy and good governance, respect for human rights and gender equality, poverty eradication and sustainable, people-centred development, and to promote arts and culture. The Commonwealth Foundation is an intergovernmental organisation that was established by the Commonwealth Heads of Government in 1965, the same year as its sister organisation, the Commonwealth Secretariat. ... The Commonwealth Foundation is an intergovernmental organisation that was established by the Commonwealth Heads of Government in 1965, the same year as its sister organisation, the Commonwealth Secretariat. ...


The Commonwealth Foundation was established by the Heads of Government in 1965. Membership of the Foundation is open to all members of the Commonwealth and (as of June 2007) stands at 46 governments out of the 53 member countries. Associate Membership, which is open to associated states or overseas territories of member governments, has been granted to Gibraltar. 2005 saw celebrations for the Foundation's 40th Anniversary. The Foundation is headquartered in Marlborough House, Pall Mall, London, and has no other offices. Regular liaison and cooperation between the Secretariat and the Foundation is in place. The leaders of the nations with membership in the Commonwealth of Nations (or British Commonwealth) are collectively known as the Commonwealth Heads of Government. ... Marlborough House, London Marlborough House is a mansion in Westminster, London. ... This article is about the London street. ...


The Foundation continues to serve the broad purposes for which it was established as written in the Memorandum of Understanding:[28]

The purposes and areas of interest of the Foundation will be the administration of funds for increasing interchanges between Commonwealth organisations of the skilled or learned professions or skilled auxiliary occupations in order to maintain and improve standards of knowledge, attainment and conduct; and between non-governmental organisations of a voluntary rather than a strictly professional character throughout the Commonwealth. The Foundation's areas of interest will also extend to include culture, information and the media, rural development, social welfare and the handicapped, and the role of women.

Commonwealth Games

Main article: Commonwealth Games

A multi-sports championship called the Commonwealth Games is held every four years, in the same year as the Winter Olympic Games. As well as the usual athletic disciplines, the games include sports popular in the Commonwealth such as bowls and netball. Current flag of the Commonwealth Games Federation Locations of the games, and participating countries Commonwealth Games Federation seal, adopted in 2001 The Commonwealth Games is a multinational, multi-sport event. ... Current flag of the Commonwealth Games Federation Locations of the games, and participating countries Commonwealth Games Federation seal, adopted in 2001 The Commonwealth Games is a multinational, multi-sport event. ... An athlete carries the Olympic torch during the 2002 torch relay The Winter Olympic Games are a winter multi-sport event held every four years. ... For other uses, see Bowl (disambiguation). ... A netball game in Australia Netball is a non-contact generally indoor sport similar to, and derived from, basketball. ...


Commonwealth of Learning

The Commonwealth of Learning (COL) is an intergovernmental organisation created by the Heads of Government to encourage the development and sharing of open learning/distance education knowledge, resources and technologies. COL is helping developing nations improve access to quality education and training. The Commonwealth of Learning (COL) [1] is an intergovernmental agency of the Commonwealth of Nations headquartered in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... The leaders of the nations with membership in the Commonwealth of Nations (or British Commonwealth) are collectively known as the Commonwealth Heads of Government. ...


Commonwealth Business Council

The Commonwealth Business Council (CBC) was formed at the Edinburgh CHOGM in 1997. The aim was to utilise the global network of the Commonwealth more effectively for the promotion of global trade and investment for shared prosperity. The Commonwealth Business Council (CBC) was formed at the Edinburgh CHOGM in 1997. ... The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) is a biennial meeting of the heads of government from all Commonwealth nations. ...


The CBC acts as a bridge for co-operation between business and government, concentrating efforts on these specific areas:

The CBC has a dedicated team, CBC Technologies, based in London and focused on the international technology and global services industry throughout the Commonwealth. Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D) is the general term related to the application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in development programmes in countries facing problems like poverty, illiteracy and a general lack of development. ... Public-private partnership (PPP) is a variation of privatization in which elements of a service previously run solely by the public sector are provided through a partnership between the government and one or more private sector companies. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Commonwealth War Graves Commission

The Azmak Cemetery, near Suvla Bay, Turkey, contains the graves of some of the soldiers who died during the Gallipoli Campaign. ...

Cultural links

The Commonwealth is also useful as an international organisation that represents significant cultural and historical links between wealthy first-world countries and poorer nations with diverse social and religious backgrounds. The common inheritance of the English language and literature, the common law, and British systems of administration all underpin the club-like atmosphere of the Commonwealth. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Mostly due to their history of British rule, many Commonwealth nations share certain identifiable traditions and customs that are elements of a shared Commonwealth culture. Examples include common sports such as cricket and rugby, driving on the left, parliamentary and legal traditions, and the use of British rather than American spelling conventions (see English in the Commonwealth of Nations). None of these are universal within the Commonwealth countries, nor exclusive to them, but all of them are more common in the Commonwealth than elsewhere. This article is about the sport. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... This article concerns rules of the road regarding land vehicles; for sea-going vehicles, see International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea. ... The use of English in the Commonwealth of Nations was inherited from British colonisation. ...


In recent years the Commonwealth model has inspired similar initiatives on the part of France, Spain and Portugal and their respective ex-colonies, and in the former case, other sympathetic governments: the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (International Organisation of Francophone Countries), the Comunidad Iberoamericana de Naciones (Organization of Ibero-American States) and the Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa (Community of Portuguese Language Countries). The Arab League, an association similar to the Commonwealth, was founded in 1945 and whose members and observers (except India) use Arabic as an official language. La Francophonie (formally lOrganisation internationale de la Francophonie), a French language term coined in 1880 by French geographer Onésime Reclus, brother of Elisée Reclus, to designate the community of people and countries using French, is an international organisation of and governments. ... The Organization of Ibero-American States is an international organisation, comprising Latin America, Spain and Portugal. ... Headquarters Lisbon, Portugal Official language Portuguese Membership 8 (plus 2 observers) Leaders  -  Executive Secretariat Luís de Matos Monteiro da Fonseca Establishment 1996 Website http://www. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...


Literature

The shared history of British rule has also produced a substantial body of writing in many languages: Commonwealth literature. There is an Association for Commonwealth Literature and Language Studies (ACLALS) with nine chapters worldwide. ACLALS holds an international conference every three years.


In 1987, the Commonwealth Foundation established the Commonwealth Writers Prize "to encourage and reward the upsurge of new Commonwealth fiction and ensure that works of merit reach a wider audience outside their country of origin." Caryl Phillips won the Commonwealth Writers Prize 2004 for A Distant Shore. Mark Haddon won the Commonwealth Writers' Prize 2004 Best First Book prize worth £3,000 for The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time. Caryl Phillips (born 13 March 1958) is a British writer with a Caribbean background, best known as a novelist. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Mark Haddon is a novelist and poet, best known for The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time. ... The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time is a novel by Mark Haddon that won the 2003 Whitbread Book of the Year, the West Australian Young Readers Book award in 2005 and the 2004 Commonwealth Writers Prize for Best First Book. ...


Although not affiliated with the Commonwealth in an official manner, the prestigious Man Booker Prize is awarded annually to an author from a Commonwealth country or the Republic of Ireland. This honour is one of the highest in literature. The Man Booker Prize for Fiction, also known in short as the Booker Prize, is a literary prize awarded each year for the best original full-length novel, written in the English language, by a citizen of either the Commonwealth of Nations or the Republic of Ireland. ...


Commonwealth Union

There is a small movement which promotes the formation of a Commonwealth union[29]. The proposed union is similar to the European Union but is only open to member nations of the present Commonwealth of Nations with a high HDI.


Minor Britih political party UKIP (United Kingdom Indendence Party) has also proposed a Commonwealth Free Trade Area. This would be open to all Commonwealth Nations[30].


See also

The Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group on the Harare Declaration, abbreviated to CMAG, is a group of representatives of members of the Commonwealth of Nations that is responsible for upholding the Harare Declaration. ... Definitions of the Anglosphere vary: Countries in which English is the first language of a large fraction of the population are shown in blue. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... The British Empire and Commonwealth Museum is a museum in Bristol, United Kingdom which explores the history of the British empire and the impact that British colonial rule had on the rest of the world. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (almost exclusively Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... A Commonwealth citizen, formerly known as a British subject, is generally a person who is a national of any country within the Commonwealth of Nations. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment. ... Fifties February 1952 Kenya 24-25 November 1953 Bermuda 25-27 November 1953 Jamaica 17-19 December 1953 Fiji 19-20 December 1953 Tonga 23 December 1953 - 30 January 1954 New Zealand 3 February - 1 April 1954 Australia 5 April 1954 Cocos Islands 10-21 April 1954 Ceylon 27 April... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... The Commonwealth republics, shown in pink A Commonwealth republic is any one of the 31 sovereign states of the Commonwealth of Nations that have a republican form of government. ... Old Commonwealth and White Commonwealth are informal terms used to describe the predominantly white members of the Commonwealth of Nations located in the developed world, specifically the United Kingdom and the realms of Canada, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand. ...

Other organisations

Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... Headquarters Lisbon, Portugal Official language Portuguese Membership 8 (plus 2 observers) Leaders  -  Executive Secretariat Luís de Matos Monteiro da Fonseca Establishment 1996 Website http://www. ... La Francophonie (formally lOrganisation internationale de la Francophonie), a French language term coined in 1880 by French geographer Onésime Reclus, brother of Elisée Reclus, to designate the community of people and countries using French, is an international organisation of and governments. ... The Organization of Ibero-American States is an international organisation, comprising Latin America, Spain and Portugal. ... Established by the French constitution of October 27, 1946, the French Union (French: Union Française) was a political entity created to replace the old French colonial system, the French Empire (Empire français). ... The French Community was the political entity which replaced the French Union, which in turn was the descendant of the French Empire following the Second World War. ...

Lists of Commonwealth members

This is a list of members of the Commonwealth Members by continent. ... This is a list of members of the Commonwealth of Nations by date joined. ... This is a list of Commonwealth Members by name. ... This is a list of Commonwealth of Nations countries by population. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ FAQs. Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved on 2007-07-25.
  2. ^ a b c Singapore Declaration of Commonwealth Principles 1971. Commonwealth Secretariat (22 January 1971). Retrieved on 2007-07-25.
  3. ^ History of the Commonwealth.
  4. ^ Commonwealth history timelines.
  5. ^ de Smith, S.A. (July 1949). "The London Declaration of the Commonwealth Prime Ministers, April 28, 1949". The Modern Law Review 12 (3): pp. 351-4. Retrieved on 2007-07-22. 
  6. ^ Williams, Paul D. (July 2005). "Blair's Britain and the Commonwealth". The Round Table 94 (380): pp. 381–391. 
  7. ^ Harare Commonwealth Declaration. Commonwealth Secretariat (20 October 1991). Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
  8. ^ Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group. Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
  9. ^ a b te Velde-Ashworth, Victoria (10 October 2005). The future of the modern Commonwealth: Widening vs. deepening? (PDF). Commonwealth Policy Studies Unit. Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
  10. ^ Commonwealth membership in focus at London meeting. Commonwealth Secretariat (6 December 2006). Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
  11. ^ Rwanda’s bid to join Club to be considered at 2009 meet. The EastAfrican (20 November 2007). Retrieved on 2007-11-20.
  12. ^ Special Member status
  13. ^ http://www.nationmedia.com/eastafrican/current/News/news1911200714.htm
  14. ^ Eligible Areas
  15. ^ Baldacchino, Godfrey; Milne, David (September 2006). "Exploring sub-national island jurisdictions: An editorial introduction". The Round Table 95 (386): pp. 487–502. 
  16. ^ BBC News: Fiji suspended from Commonwealth (8th Dec 2006)
  17. ^ Commonwealth threatens to suspend Pakistan unless emergency rule lifted
  18. ^ "Pakistan barred from Commonwealth", BBC News website, BBC, 22 November 2007. Retrieved on 2007-11-23. 
  19. ^ "Pakistan Commonwealth suspension lifted", Commonwealth website, Commonwealth, 12 May 2008. Retrieved on 2008-05-19. (English) 
  20. ^ France and UK considered 1950s 'merger' | World news | guardian.co.uk
  21. ^ News release from The National Archives
  22. ^ Lusaka Declaration on Racism and Racial Prejudice. Commonwealth Secretariat (7 August 1979). Retrieved on 2008-04-03.
  23. ^ Langkawi Declaration on the Environment. USM Regional Center of Expertise in Education for Sustainable Development (21 October 1989). Retrieved on 2008-04-03.
  24. ^ Our Work. Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved on 2008-04-03.
  25. ^ Aso Rock Commonwealth Declaration. Commonwealth Secretariat (8 December 2003). Retrieved on 2008-04-03.
  26. ^ Commonwealth Secretariat. Commonwealth Secretariat (7 August 1979). Retrieved on 2008-04-03.
  27. ^ The position of Head of the Commonwealth was discussed at the 1997 Edinburgh Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting. The consensus was that the title should remain annexed to the Sovereign.
  28. ^ Commonwealth Foundation - About Us, ¶4–5
  29. ^ [1]
  30. ^ [2].

The Commonwealth Secretariat is the central body of the Commonwealth of Nations, which implements the decisions taken by the associations 54 member governments and organises meetings of Commonwealth ministers. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Commonwealth Secretariat is the central body of the Commonwealth of Nations, which implements the decisions taken by the associations 54 member governments and organises meetings of Commonwealth ministers. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Round Table: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs is a policy matters journal relating to the British Commonwealth. ... The Commonwealth Secretariat is the central body of the Commonwealth of Nations, which implements the decisions taken by the associations 54 member governments and organises meetings of Commonwealth ministers. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Commonwealth Secretariat is the central body of the Commonwealth of Nations, which implements the decisions taken by the associations 54 member governments and organises meetings of Commonwealth ministers. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Commonwealth Secretariat is the central body of the Commonwealth of Nations, which implements the decisions taken by the associations 54 member governments and organises meetings of Commonwealth ministers. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The EastAfrican is a weekly newspaper published in Kenya by the Nation Group, which also publishes Kenyas national Daily Nation. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Round Table: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs is a policy matters journal relating to the British Commonwealth. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Archives building at Kew. ... The Commonwealth Secretariat is the central body of the Commonwealth of Nations, which implements the decisions taken by the associations 54 member governments and organises meetings of Commonwealth ministers. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Commonwealth Secretariat is the central body of the Commonwealth of Nations, which implements the decisions taken by the associations 54 member governments and organises meetings of Commonwealth ministers. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Commonwealth Secretariat is the central body of the Commonwealth of Nations, which implements the decisions taken by the associations 54 member governments and organises meetings of Commonwealth ministers. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Commonwealth Secretariat is the central body of the Commonwealth of Nations, which implements the decisions taken by the associations 54 member governments and organises meetings of Commonwealth ministers. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • The Constitutional Structure of the Commonwealth, by K C Wheare. Clarendon Press, 1960. ISBN 0-313-23624-0
  • A Guide to the Contemporary Commonwealth, by W D McIntyre. Palgrave, 2001. ISBN 0-333-96310-3

Further reading

  • What does Commonwealth membership mean?, by Commonwealth Secretary-General, Don McKinnon - Barbados Advocate Newspaper, March 12th, 2007.
  • The Commonwealth in the World, by J D B , by N Mansergh. University of Toronto Press, 1982. ISBN 0-8020-2492-0
  • Making the New Commonwealth, by R J Moore. Clarendon Press, 1988. ISBN 0-19-820112-5
  • Les ONG du Commonwealth contemporain: rôles, bilans et perspectives, by C A Auplat. L'Harmattan, Paris, 2003. ISBN 2-7475-5513-5
  • Commonwealth: inter- and non-state contributions to global governanace, by Timothy M Shaw. Routledge, 2008. ISBN 978-0-415-35120-1 (hbk); 978-0-415-35121-8 (pbk)

External links

  • The Commonwealth Secretariat
  • The Commonwealth of Learning
  • Commonwealth Foundation
  • The Commonwealth of Nations website
  • The Commonwealth - UK government site
  • The Commonwealth - British Monarchy site
  • Commonwealth of Learning
  • The Royal Commonwealth Society
  • The Royal Commonwealth Society (of Canada)
  • British Empire & Commonwealth Museum, Bristol, England
  • Association of Commonwealth Universities
  • University of London Institute of Commonwealth Studies
  • Association for Commonwealth Literature and Language Studies
  • The Commonwealth as a popular club
  • What is the CommonwealthPDF (82.7 KiB)
  • The Commonwealth Parliamentary Association
  • The Commonwealth Meeting in Malta, 2005
  • The Commonwealth Union website

 
 

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