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Encyclopedia > Commonwealth of Both Nations
Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów

Coat of Arms of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, combining Coat of Arms of Poland (white eagle) and Coat of Arms of Lithuania (charging knight)
image:Location-Pol-Lith-Commonwealth.png
The Commonwealth around 1619

National mottos:
Si Deus Nobiscum quis contra nos
(Latin: If God is with us, then who is against us)
Pro Fide, Lege et Rege
(Latin: For Faith, Law and King - since 18th century) Image File history File links Download high resolution version (364x601, 250 KB) Summary Herb Obojga Narodów Coat of arms of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth see also Image:PB PLC CoA.png Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects... Coat of Arms of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth The Coat of Arms of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was the symbol of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, representing the union of the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania. ... Flag of Poland with the coat of arms The coat of arms of Poland consists of a white eagle on a red shield. ... Vytis The coat of arms of the Republic of Lithuania is the Vytis (the Chaser). ... Image:Location-Pol-Lith-Commonwealth. ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... Here is a list of state mottos for countries and their subdivisions around the world. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... A cartridge-belt of Polish 18th century infantry, bearing the motto of Pro Fide, Lege and Rege Pro Fide, Lege et Rege (Latin: ) was an 18th century motto of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and then of Poland. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...

Official languages Latin[7], Polish[8], Lithuanian(dubious assertion) and Ruthenian (the latter two in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania only)[1]
Established church Roman Catholic
Capitals Kraków (until 1596), later Warsaw (until 1673), later Warsaw and Grodno
Largest City Gdańsk, later Warsaw
Head of state King of Poland,
Grand Duke of Lithuania
Area about 1 million km²
Population about 11 million
Existed 15691795

The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, also known as the "Republic of the Two Nations" or "Commonwealth of Both Nations" (Polish: Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów; Lithuanian: Abiejų tautų respublika), also referred to as the "First Republic" was one of the largest and most populous[2] countries in Europe. Its political structure - semi federal and semi confederal aristocratic republic - was formed in 1569, as a result of the Union of Lublin, which united the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and lasted in this form until the 1791 - the year of May Constitution of Poland. The Commonwealth covered not only the territories of what is now Poland and Lithuania, but also the entire territory of Belarus and Latvia, large parts of the Ukraine and Estonia, and the Western part of today's Russia (oblast of Smolensk). Originally, the official languages of the Commonwealth were Polish, and Latin (in the Kingdom of Poland) and Ruthenian, Latin, and Lithuanian [3] (in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania). An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Ruthenian was a historic East Slavic language, spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and after 1569 in the East Slavic territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... In English history, the Established Church is the Church of England, the church which is established by the Government, supported by it, and of which the monarch is the titular head; until 1920 it also held the same position in Wales. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This article concerns places that serve as centers of government and politics. ... Tomb of Kazimierz the Great St. ... Events February 5 - 26 catholics crucified in Nagasaki, Japan. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Events January 22 - Impostor Mary Carleton is hanged in Newgate prison in England for multiple thefts and returning from penal transportation March 18 - John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton sells his part of New Jersey to the Quakers. ... Hrodna (or Grodno; Belarusian: Го́радня, Гро́дна; Grodno in Polish, Гродно in Russian, Gardinas in Lithuanian) is a city in Belarus on the Nemunas river, close to the borders of Poland and Lithuania... GdaÅ„sk (IPA: ; German: , Kashubian: , Latin: ; older English Dantzig also other languages) is the sixth-largest city in Poland, and also its principal seaport and the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... Until 1795, Poland or at least its nucleus was ruled at various times either by ksiaze, dukes (ca. ... The following is a list of Lithuanian rulers - kings, grand dukes, governors and presidents of Lithuania or administrative units, that encompassed the territory of Lithuania during the periods of occupations. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different surface areas  here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Rzeczpospolita (pronounced: , zhech-poss-POH-lee-tah) is a Polish calque translation of the Latin expression res publica (public affair). It has been used in Poland since at least 16th century, originally to denote any democratic state. ... Around the world there have been a number of First Republics: French First Republic - 1792 First Spanish Republic First Philippine Republic In Italy the term First Republic is used informally to refer to the period up to 1991, when a series of scandals (mainly bribery) hit many politicians. ... World map showing Europe Political map (neighboring countries in Asia and Africa also shown) Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... -1... In a broad definition, a republic is a state or country that is led by people whose political power is based on principles that are not beyond the control of the people of that state or country. ... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Lithuanian: Liublino unija; Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed on July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the... The Jagiellon Era 1385-1572, was dominated by the union of Poland with Lithuania under the Jagiellon Dynasty, founded by the Lithuanian grand duke Jagiello. ... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and PogoÅ„ in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji KunigaikÅ¡tystÄ—, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie KsiÄ™stwo Litewskie) was an... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... May 3rd Constitution (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). ... A view of Smolensk in 1912 Smolensk (Russian: ) is a city in western Russia, located on the Dnieper River at 54. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Ruthenian was a historic East Slavic language, spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and after 1569 in the East Slavic territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...

Commonwealth on the map of Europe:

The Commonwealth was an extension of the Polish-Lithuanian Union, a personal union between those two states that had existed from 1386 (see Union of Krewo). The Commonwealth's political system, often called the Noble's democracy or Golden Freedom, was characterized by the sovereign's power being reduced by laws and the legislature (Sejm) controlled by the nobility (szlachta). This system was a precursor of the modern concepts of broader democracy[4], and constitutional monarchy[5] [6] [7], as well as federation[8]. The two comprising states of the Commonwealth's were formally equal, although in reality Poland was a dominant partner in the union. [9] The Commonwealth was also notable for the world's second-oldest codified national constitution in modern history[10]; and, despite the massive influence of the Catholic Church in the Commonwealth affairs, for the state's relative religious tolerance[11], although the degree to which that varied with time[12]. Its economy was mainly based on agriculture. While the Commonwealth's first decades were a golden age [9] [10] for both Poland and Lithuania, the second century was marked by military defeats, a return to serfdom for the peasants (the second serfdom phenomena[13]), and growing anarchy[7] [14]in political life. The term Polish-Lithuanian Union refers to a series of acts and alliances between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania that lead to the creation of the Republic of Both Nations in 1569 and eventually to creation of a unified state in 1791. ... A personal union is a political union of two or more entities that, internationally, are considered separate states, but through established law, share the same head of state —hence also whatever political actions are vested in the head of state, but no (or very few) others. ... Events Battle of Sempach: Swiss safeguard independence from Habsburg rule End of reign of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... The Union of Krewo (or Union of Krevo) was a a political and dynastic agreement between Queen Jadwiga of Poland and Grand Prince Jagiello of Lithuania and the begining of the Polish-Lithuanian Union. ... A political system is a social system of politics and government. ... Main article: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth The Nihil novi act adopted by the Polish Diet in 1505 transferred all legislative power from the king to the Diet. ... Golden Liberty (latin: Aurea Libertas, Polish: Złota Wolność, sometimes used in plural form; this phenomena can be also reffered to as Golden Freedoms, Nobles Democracy or Nobles Commonwealth, Polish: Rzeczpospolita Szlachecka) refers to a unique democratic political system in the Kingdom of Poland and later, after... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... Polish szlachcic. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... first page of the Codex Argenteus A codex (Latin for block of wood, book; plural codices) is a handwritten book, in general, one produced from Late Antiquity through the Middle Ages. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into modernity. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Freedom of religion is the individuals right or freedom to hold whatever religious beliefs he or she wishes, or none at all. ... The Golden Age by Pietro da Cortona. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... In the realist theory of International Relations, the anarchical system that all states find themselves in is the lack of clear organisation of states into a hieracical order that is found within states. ...


The Duchy of Warsaw, established in 1807, traced its origins to the Commonwealth. Other revival movements appeared during the January Uprising (18631864) and in the 1920s, in Józef Piłsudski's failed attempt to create a Polish-led federation called Międzymorze (translatable as "Between-the-Seas") with Lithuania and Ukraine. Today's Republic of Poland considers itself a successor to the Commonwealth[15], while pre-Second World War Republic of Lithuania has distanced itself from an association which it considers not to have been historically beneficial to its existence[16]. Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 155,000 km² Population about 4,3 million Existed 1806–1814 The Duchy of Warsaw (Polish: KsiÄ™stwo Warszawskie, Latin: Ducatus Varsoviae, French: Duche de Varsovie) was a Polish... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The 1920s was a decade sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Polish Leader Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Aleksandra PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania... A map displaying todays federations. ... MiÄ™dzymorze (Myen-dzih-MOH-zheh): name for Józef PiÅ‚sudskis proposed federation of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Poland (1569-1795)
Polish Statehood

The creation of the Commonwealth by the Union of Lublin in 1569 was one of the signal achievements of Sigismund II Augustus, last king of the Jagiellon dynasty. His death in 1572 was followed by a three-year interregnum during which adjustments were made to the constitutional system that effectively increased the power of the nobility (the szlachta) and established a truly elective monarchy. Main article: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth The Nihil novi act adopted by the Polish Diet in 1505 transferred all legislative power from the king to the Diet. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (730x810, 414 KB) Coat of Arms of Piast dynasty The eagle was cropped from some {{Polishsymbol}} coat of arms made by Halibutt in Blender and GIMP Based on the excellent French Wikipédia:Projet/Blasons and help from w:User:Snargle... The Kingdom of Poland of the first Piasts was the Polish state in the years between the coronation of BolesÅ‚aw I the Brave in 1025 and the death of BolesÅ‚aw III the Wrymouth in 1138. ... The Kingdom of Poland during period of fragmentation was the Polish state in the years between the death of BolesÅ‚aw III the Wrymouth in 1138 and the coronation of WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw I the Elbow-high in 1320. ... The Kingdom of Poland of the later Piasts was the Polish state in the years between the coronation of WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw I the Elbow-high in 1320 and the death of Kazimierz III the Great in 1370. ... The Kingdom of Poland of the Jagiellons was the Polish state in the years between the death of Casimir III in 1370 and the Union of Lublin in 1569. ... Coat-of-arms of Galicia Galicia is a historical region currently split between Poland and Ukraine. ... Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 155,000 km² Population about 4,3 million Existed 1806–1814 The Duchy of Warsaw (Polish: KsiÄ™stwo Warszawskie, Latin: Ducatus Varsoviae, French: Duche de Varsovie) was a Polish... Kingdom of Poland 1815-31 The Congress Poland is an unofficial term for the Kingdom of Poland (1815-1831), a political entity that was created out of the Duchy of Warsaw at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, when European powers reorganised Europe following the Napoleonic wars. ... The Free City of Kraków (Polish: Wolne Miasto Kraków), also known as Republic of Kraków (Rzeczpospolita Krakowska), was a city-state created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 and controlled by its three neighbors, Russia, Prussia and Austria until 1846. ... Grand Duchy of PoznaÅ„ (Polish: Wielkie KsiÄ™stwo PoznaÅ„skie, German: Großherzogtum Posen) was an autonomous province of the Kingdom of Prussia in the Polish lands commonly known as Great Poland between the years 1815-1848. ... The Kingdom of Poland, also informally called Regency Kingdom of Poland (Polish: ), was the state proclaimed by the Act of November 5 issued by Imperial Germany and Austria-Hungary. ... Second Polish Republic 1921-1939 The Second Polish Republic is an unofficial name applied to the Republic of Poland between World War I and World War II. When the borders of the state were fixed in 1921, it had an area of 388. ... Polish Secret State (also known as Polish Underground State; Polish Polskie Państwo Podziemne) is a term coined by Jan Karski in his book Story of a Secret State; it is used to refer to all underground resistance organizations in Poland during World War II, both military and civilian. ... The Peoples Republic of Poland or Polish Peoples Republic (Polish: Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) was the official name of Poland from 1952 to 1989, during its period of rule by the Communist party, officially called the Polish United Workers Party (Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, or PZPR). ... Motto: none (see Unofficial mottos of Poland) Anthem(s): Polish: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego (Translation: DÄ…browskis Mazurek) Capital Warsaw Largest city Warsaw Official language(s) Polish[1] Government Republic  - President Lech KaczyÅ„ski  - Prime minister JarosÅ‚aw KaczyÅ„ski Formation    - Unification 10th century   - Christianisation Date[2] 966   - Redeclared November... The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Lithuanian: Liublino unija; Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed on July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the... Sigismund II Augustus (Polish: , Lithuanian: ; 1 August 1520 — 7 July 1572) was the only son of Sigismund I the Old, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, whom Sigismund II succeeded in 1548. ... The Jagiellons were a royal dynasty originating in Lithuania, which reigned in some Central European countries between the 14th and 16th century. ... Events January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... An interregnum is a period between monarchs, between popes of the Roman Catholic Church, emperors of Holy Roman Empire, polish kings (elective monarchy) or between consuls of the Roman Republic. ... The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the door of the Lodge of the Heralds. ... Polish szlachcic. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Commonwealth reached its Golden Age in the first half of the 17th century. Its powerful parliament (the Sejm) was dominated by nobles who were reluctant to get involved in the Thirty Years' War, sparing the country from the ravages of this largely religious conflict devastating most of contemporary Europe. The Commonwealth was able to hold its own against Sweden, Russia, and vassals of the Ottoman Empire, and at times launched successful expansionist offensives against its neighbors. During several invasions of Russia, which was weakened in early-17th century by the Time of Troubles, Commonwealth troops managed to take Moscow and hold on to it from 27 September 1610 to 4 November 1612, until driven out by the Russian patriotic rising of the nation. The Golden Age by Pietro da Cortona. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in orange and red—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... Combatants Protestantism: Sweden,Denmark, France, Scotland and protestant German countries like Saxony Roman Catholic Church: Holy Roman Empire, Spain Commanders Gustav II Adolf Ferdinand II The Thirty Years War was fought between 1618 and 1648, principally on the territory of todays Germany, also involving most of the major European... now. ... Expansionism is the doctrine of expanding the territorial base (or economic influence) of a country, usually by means of military aggression. ... Combatants Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Muscovite Russia Commanders Strength Casualties {{{notes}}} The Polish-Muscovite War (1605–1618) is the name of the series of wars (1605–1618) between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Muscovite Russia (or Muscovy), in the background of the Russian dynastic crisis known as the Time of Troubles... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The Time of Troubles (Russian: Смутное время, Smutnoye Vremya) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last of Moscow Rurikids, Tsar Feodor Ivanovich, in 1598 and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... Combatants Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Muscovite Russia Commanders Strength Casualties {{{notes}}} The Polish-Muscovite War (1605–1618) is the name of the series of wars (1605–1618) between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Muscovite Russia (or Muscovy), in the background of the Russian dynastic crisis known as the Time of Troubles...


Commonwealth power waned after a double blow in 1648. The first blow was history's greatest Cossack rebellion (the Khmelnytskyi Uprising, supported by Crimean Khanate Tatars, in the eastern territories of Kresy), which resulted in Cossacks asking for the protection of the Russian Tzar[17] (1654) thus leading to Russian influence over Ukraine gradually supplanting the Polish. The other blow to the Commonwealth was the Swedish invasion in 1655 (supported by troops of Transylvanian duke George II Rakoczy and Friedrich Wilhelm I, Elector of Brandenburg), known as The Deluge, provoked by the policies of Commonwealth kings from the Swedish royal House of Vasa. // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ... Combatants Cossacks Poland-Lithuania Commanders Bohdan Khmelnytsky MikoÅ‚aj Potocki, Jeremi WiÅ›niowiecki Khmelnytskyi Uprising (also Chmielnicki Uprising or Chmielnicki Rebellion) is the name of a civil war in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the years 1648–1654. ... The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: Кримське ханство - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... The name Kresy (Polish for borderlands, or more correctly Kresy Wschodnie, Eastern Borderlands) is used by Poles, mostly in historical context, to refer to the eastern part of Poland before the II World War. ... Pereyaslav Rada The Treaty of Pereyaslav was concluded in 1654 in the Ukrainian city of Pereyaslav during the meeting known as Pereyaslavska Uhoda (Pereyaslav Treaty). ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or Transilvania; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: or Erdelj / Ердељ) is a historical region in the center of Romania. ... The Rákóczi were a noble family in the Kingdom of Hungary between the 13th century and 18th century. ... Friedrich Wilhelm I of Brandenburg. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... Brandenburg (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) and lies in the east of the country. ... Combatants Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and allies Sweden and allies Commanders Jan Kazimierz of Poland Charles X of Sweden Strength Casualties This article is about the history of Poland. ... The Vasa Coat of Arms The House of Vasa was the Royal House of Sweden (1523-1654) and of Poland (1587-1668). ...


In the late 17th century, the weakened Commonwealth under King John III Sobieski in alliance with the forces of Holy Roman emperor Leopold I dealt the crushing defeats to the Ottoman Empire: in 1683, the Battle of Vienna marked the final turning point in a 250-year struggle between the forces of Christian Europe and the Islamic Ottoman Empire. For its centuries long stance against the Muslim advances, the Commonwealth would gain the name of "Antemurale Christianitatis" (forefront of Christianity).[8] Over the next 16 years (in the "Great Turkish War") the Turks would be permanently driven south of the Danube River, never to threaten central Europe again. Reign From May 21, 1674, until June 17, 1696 Elected On May 21, 1674 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On February 2, 1676 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Nobel Family Sobieski Coat of Arms Janina Parents Jakub Sobieski Zofia Teofillia Daniłowicz Consorts Marie... Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I Habsburg (June 9, 1640 – May 5, 1705), Holy Roman emperor, was the second son of the emperor Ferdinand III and his first wife Maria Anna, daughter of Philip III of Spain. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... Combatants Holy League: Habsburgs, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Saxony, Bavaria, Other allies Ottoman Empire, Khanate of Crimea, Central Hungary, Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia Commanders John III Sobieski, Charles V of Lorraine Kara Mustafa Pasha Strength 70,000, (10,000 during siege) 138,000, (200,000 during siege) Casualties 4,000 killed 15... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... World map showing Europe Political map (neighboring countries in Asia and Africa also shown) Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... The Great Turkish War was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and European powers at the time (joined into a Holy League) during the second half of the 17th century. ... Length 2,888 km Elevation of the source 1,078 m Average discharge 30 km before Passau: 580 m³/s Vienna: 1,900 m³/s Budapest: 2,350 m³/s just before Delta: 6,500 m³/s Area watershed 817,000 km² Origin Black Forest (Schwarzwald-Baar, Baden- Württemberg... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ...


By the 18th century, the Commonwealth was facing many internal problems and was vulnerable to foreign influences. The destabilization of the political system brought it to the brink of anarchy. Attempts at reform, such as those made by the Four-Year Sejm of 17881792, which culminated in the May 3rd Constitution of 1791, came too late, and the country was partitioned in three stages by the neighboring Russian Empire, Kingdom of Prussia, and the Habsburg Monarchy. By 1795 the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth had been completely erased from the map of Europe. Poland and Lithuania re-established their independence, as separate countries, only in 1918. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... This article or section may contain inappropriate or misinterpreted citations. ... Sejm Czteroletni (Four-Year Sejm, also known as Sejm Wielki, the Great Sejm) was a Sejm of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth held in Warsaw, inaugurated in 1788. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... May 3rd Constitution (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Padalijimas, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1925) Area Approx. ... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


State organization and politics

See also: Offices in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

Offices in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth article presents the organizational structure and administrative system of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ...

Golden Liberty

Main article: Golden Liberty
Union of Lublin of 1569, by Jan Matejko, 1869, oil on canvas, 298 × 512 cm., National Museum, Warsaw.
Union of Lublin of 1569, by Jan Matejko, 1869, oil on canvas, 298 × 512 cm., National Museum, Warsaw.

The political doctrine of the Commonwealth of Both Nations was: our state is a republic under the presidency of the King. Chancellor Jan Zamoyski summed up this doctrine when he said that "Rex regnat et non gubernat" ("The King reigns but does not govern"). The Commonwealth had a parliament, the Sejm, as well as a Senat and an elected king. The king was obliged to respect citizens' rights specified in King Henry's Articles as well as in pacta conventa negotiated at the time of his election. Golden Liberty (latin: Aurea Libertas, Polish: Złota Wolność, sometimes used in plural form; this phenomena can be also reffered to as Golden Freedoms, Nobles Democracy or Nobles Commonwealth, Polish: Rzeczpospolita Szlachecka) refers to a unique democratic political system in the Kingdom of Poland and later, after... Jan Matejko (1838-1893) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Jan Matejko (1838-1893) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Lithuanian: Liublino unija; Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed on July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... Jan Matejko , self-portrait Jan Matejko (aka Jan Mateyko; Free City of Kraków, July 28, 1838 – November 1, 1893, Kraków, was a Polish artist famous for paintings of notable Polish political and military events. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... A centimetre (US: centimeter) is a factor of the SI unit of length: there are one hundred centimeters in the base unit of measure, the metre. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Kanclerz (Polish for Chancellor, from latin:castellanus) was one of the highest officials in the historic Poland. ... Noble Family Zamoyski Coat of Arms Jelita Parents Stanisław Zamoyski Anna Herburt Consorts Anna Ossolińska Krystyna Radziwiłł Gryzelda Batory Barbara Tarnowska Children with Barbara Tarnowska Tomasz Zamoyski Date of Birth March 19, 1542 Place of Birth Skokówka, Poland Date of Death June 3... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... King Henrys Articles - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The first pacta conventa, acceded to by Henryk Walezy (Henri de Valois), 1573. ...


The monarch's power was limited, in favor of a sizable noble class. Each new king had to subscribe to King Henry's Articles, which were the basis of Poland's political system (and included near-unprecedented guarantees of religious tolerance). Over time, King Henry's Articles were merged with the pacta conventa, specific pledges agreed to by the king-elect. From that point, the king was effectively a partner with the noble class and was constantly supervised by a group of senators. Freedom of religion is the individuals right or freedom to hold whatever religious beliefs he or she wishes, or none at all. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ...


The foundation of the Commonwealth's political system, the "Golden Liberty" (Polish Zlota Wolność, a term used from 1573), included: Golden Liberty (latin: Aurea Libertas, Polish: Złota Wolność, sometimes used in plural form; this phenomena can be also reffered to as Golden Freedoms, Nobles Democracy or Nobles Commonwealth, Polish: Rzeczpospolita Szlachecka) refers to a unique democratic political system in the Kingdom of Poland and later, after...

  • free election of the king by all nobles wishing to participate;
  • Sejm, the Commonwealth parliament which the king was required to hold every two years;
  • pacta conventa (Latin), "agreed-to agreements" negotiated with the king-elect, including a bill of rights, binding on the king, derived from the earlier King Henry's Articles;
  • rokosz (insurrection), the right of szlachta to form a legal rebellion against a king who violated their guaranteed freedoms;
  • liberum veto (Latin), the right of an individual Sejm deputy to oppose a decision by the majority in a Sejm session; the voicing of such a "free veto" nullified all the legislation that had been passed at that session; during the crisis of the second half of the 17th century, Polish nobles could also use the liberum veto in provincial sejmiks;
  • konfederacja (from the Latin confederatio), the right to form an organization to force through a common political aim.
The Republic at the Zenith of Its Power. Golden Liberty. The Royal Election of 1573, by Jan Matejko.
The Republic at the Zenith of Its Power. Golden Liberty. The Royal Election of 1573, by Jan Matejko.

The provinces of the Commonwealth enjoyed a degree of autonomy [18]. Each voivodship had its own parliament (sejmik), which exercised serious political power, including choice of poseł (deputy) to the national Sejm and charging of the deputy with specific voting instructions. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania had its own army, treasury and other institutions. Election of Michal Korybut Wisniowiecki as king of Poland at Wola, outside Warsaw ( 1669). ... The first pacta conventa, acceded to by Henryk Walezy (Henri de Valois), 1573. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... King Henrys Articles - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... A rokosz (ROH-kosh), originally, was a gathering of all the Polish szlachta (nobility), not merely of deputies, for a sejm. ... Insurrection could refer to: * in a general sense, it means Rebellion * it is also a title of a Star Trek film, see Star Trek: Insurrection ... Liberum veto (Latin: free veto) was a parliamentary device in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that allowed any deputy to a Sejm to force an immediate end to the current session and nullify all legislation already passed at it. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Liberum veto (Latin: free veto) was a parliamentary device in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that allowed any deputy to a Sejm to force an immediate end to the current session and nullify all legislation already passed at it. ... A sejmik (diminutive of the Polish sejm, or parliament) was a regional sejm in the pre-partition Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and earlier in the Kingdom of Poland. ... Konfederacja (Polish for confederation) was a temporary association formed by Polish nobility (szlachta), clergy or cities in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth for the attainment of stated aims. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Konfederacja (Polish for confederation) was a temporary association formed by Polish nobility (szlachta), clergy or cities in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth for the attainment of stated aims. ... The Republic at Zenith of Power. ... The Republic at Zenith of Power. ... Golden Liberty (latin: Aurea Libertas, Polish: Złota Wolność, sometimes used in plural form; this phenomena can be also reffered to as Golden Freedoms, Nobles Democracy or Nobles Commonwealth, Polish: Rzeczpospolita Szlachecka) refers to a unique democratic political system in the Kingdom of Poland and later, after... Election of Michal Korybut Wisniowiecki as king of Poland at Wola, outside Warsaw ( 1669). ... Events January - articles of Warsaw Confederation signed, sanctioning religious freedom in Poland. ... Jan Matejko , self-portrait Jan Matejko (aka Jan Mateyko; Free City of Kraków, July 28, 1838 – November 1, 1893, Kraków, was a Polish artist famous for paintings of notable Polish political and military events. ... An autonomous (subnational) entity is a subnational entity that has a certain amount of autonomy. ... A Voivodship (also voivodeship, Romanian: voievodat, Polish: województwo, Serbian: vojvodstvo or vojvodina) was a feudal state in medieval Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia and Serbia (see Vojvodina), ruled by a Voivod (voivode). ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... Chamber of Deputies is the name given to a legislative body, which may either be the lower house of a bicameral legislature, or the name of a unicameral one. ... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and PogoÅ„ in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji KunigaikÅ¡tystÄ—, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie KsiÄ™stwo Litewskie) was an...


Golden Liberty created a state that was unusual for its time, although somewhat similar political systems existed in the contemporary city-states like Republic of Venice [19](interestingly both states were styled the "Most Serene Republic."[20]) At a time when most European countries were headed toward centralization, absolute monarchy and religious and dynastic warfare, the Commonwealth experimented with decentralization,[8] confederation and federation, democracy, religious tolerance and even pacifism. Since the Sejm usually vetoed a monarch's plans for war, this constitutes a notable argument for the democratic peace theory[21]. A political system is a social system of politics and government. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... Map of the Venetian Republic, circa 1000 CE. The republic is in dark red, borders in light red. ... The term Most Serene Republic is a name used for three former countries: The Republic of Venice (the Most Serene Republic of Venice), city-state that existed in Italy from the 9th century until the 18th century. ... Centralization (or centralisation) is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding decision-making, become concentrated within a particular location and/or group. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Decentralisation (or decentralization) is any of various means of more widely distributing decision-making to bring it closer to the point of service or action. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... Freedom of religion is the individuals right or freedom to hold whatever religious beliefs he or she wishes, or none at all. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ...


This unusual for its time political system stemmed from the victories of the szlachta (noble class over other social classes and over the political system of monarchy. In time, the szlachta accumulated enough privileges (such as those established by the Nihil novi Act of 1505) that no monarch could hope to break the szlachta's grip on power. The Commonwealth's political system is difficult to fit into a simple category, but it can be tentatively described as a mixture of: The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the door of the Lodge of the Heralds. ... A political system is a social system of politics and government. ... Places where monarchies maintain rule appear in blue. ... A fragment of this article needs translation from Polish into English. ... 1505 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • confederation and federation, with regard to the broad autonomy of its regions;
  • oligarchy,[8] as only the szlachta—around 10% of the population—had political rights;
  • democracy, since all the szlachta were equal in rights and privileges, and the Sejm could veto the king on important matters, including legislation (the adoption of new laws), foreign affairs, declaration of war, and taxation (changes of existing taxes or the levying of new ones). Also, the 10% of Commonwealth population who enjoyed those political rights (the szlachta) was a substantially larger percentage than in any other European country; note that in 1831 in France only about 1% of the population had the right to vote, and in 1867 in the United Kingdom, only about 3%;
  • elective monarchy, since the monarch, elected by the szlachta, was Head of State;
  • constitutional monarchy, since the monarch was bound by pacta conventa and other laws, and szlachta could disobey any king's decrees they deemed illegal.

A confederation is an association of sovereign states, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... An autonomous (subnational) entity is a subnational entity that has a certain amount of autonomy. ... Oligarchy is a form of government where most or all political power effectively rests with a small segment of society (typically the most powerful, whether by wealth, family, military strength, ruthlessness, or political influence). ... Bold textJAMES CHECKLEY Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The first pacta conventa, acceded to by Henryk Walezy (Henri de Valois), 1573. ...

The political players

Kanclerzand GrandHetman Jan Zamoyski herbu Jelita, in crimson delia and blue silk żupan. Holds hetman's baton (buława hetmańska)
Kanclerzand GrandHetman Jan Zamoyski herbu Jelita, in crimson delia and blue silk żupan. Holds hetman's baton (buława hetmańska)
See also: list of szlachta

The major players in the politics of the Commonwealth were: Download high resolution version (476x619, 74 KB)Jan Zamoyski. ... Download high resolution version (476x619, 74 KB)Jan Zamoyski. ... Kanclerz (Polish for Chancellor, from latin:castellanus) was one of the highest officials in the historic Poland. ... Hetman`s coat of arms Hetman StanisÅ‚aw Koniecpolski of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Hetman was the title of the second highest military commander (after the monarch) used in 15th to 18th century Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, known from 1569 to 1795 as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Noble Family Zamoyski Coat of Arms Jelita Parents Stanisław Zamoyski Anna Herburt Consorts Anna Ossolińska Krystyna Radziwiłł Gryzelda Batory Barbara Tarnowska Children with Barbara Tarnowska Tomasz Zamoyski Date of Birth March 19, 1542 Place of Birth Skokówka, Poland Date of Death June 3... Jelita - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... Hetman Jan Zamoyski in a crimson delia and blue silk żupan. ... Silk weaver Silk is a natural protein fibre that can be woven into textiles. ... Jan Zamoyski in crimson kontusz and blue silk żupan tied with pas kontuszowy. ... Hetman`s coat of arms Hetman StanisÅ‚aw Koniecpolski of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Hetman was the title of the second highest military commander (after the monarch) used in 15th to 18th century Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, known from 1569 to 1795 as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Hetman Jan Zamoyski in crimson kontusz and blue silk żupan tied with pas kontuszowy. ... The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (properly, the Republic of the Two Nations: in Polish, Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów; in Belarusian, Рэч Паспалі́тая) was a federal monarchic republic comprising the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, 1569 – 1795. ...

  • monarchs, who struggled to expand their power and create an absolute monarchy.
  • magnates, the wealthiest of the szlachta, who wanted to rule the country as a privileged oligarchy, and to dominate both the monarch and the poorer nobles.
  • szlachta, who desired a strengthening of the Sejm and rule of the country as a democracy of the szlachta.

The magnates and the szlachta were far from united, with many factions supporting either the monarch or various of the magnates. Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For a wealthy or powerful business baron, executive, or tycoon, see business magnate Magnate is a title of nobility commonly used in Sweden, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and some other medieval empires. ... Oligarchy is a form of government where most or all political power effectively rests with a small segment of society (typically the most powerful, whether by wealth, family, military strength, ruthlessness, or political influence). ...


Shortcomings of the Commonwealth

"Rejtan - The Fall of Poland", oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1866, 282 x 487 cm, Royal Castle in Warsaw. Tadeusz Rejtan (lower right) in September 1773 tried to prevent the legalization of the first partition of Poland by preventing the members of Sejm from entering the chamber.
"Rejtan - The Fall of Poland", oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1866, 282 x 487 cm, Royal Castle in Warsaw. Tadeusz Rejtan (lower right) in September 1773 tried to prevent the legalization of the first partition of Poland by preventing the members of Sejm from entering the chamber.

Once the Jagiellons had disappeared from the scene in 1572, the fragile equilibrium of the Commonwealth's government began to shake. Power increasingly slipped away from the central government to the nobility. Rejtan - The Fall of Poland painted by Jan Matejko This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Rejtan - The Fall of Poland painted by Jan Matejko This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Tadeusz Rejtan (also in the Old Polish spelling: Tadeusz Reytan) (1742-1780) was a Polish nobleman, a member of confederation of Bar, Member of Sejm for the Nowogród constituency. ... Royal Castle in Warsaw Royal Castle after the Warsaw Uprising Royal Castle in Warsaw (Polish Zamek Królewski), is the royal palace and official residence of the Polish monarchs, in Warsaw. ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Padalijimas, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... The Jagiellons were a royal dynasty originating in Lithuania, which reigned in some Central European countries between the 14th and 16th century. ... Events January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ...


In their periodic opportunities to fill the throne, the szlachta exhibited a preference for foreign candidates who would not found another strong dynasty. This policy often produced monarchs who were either totally ineffective or in constant debilitating conflict with the nobility. Furthermore, aside from notable exceptions such as the able Transylvanian Stefan Batory (15761586), the kings of foreign origin were inclined to subordinate the interests of the Commonwealth to those of their own country and ruling house. This was especially visible in the policies and actions of the first two elected kings from the Swedish House of Vasa, whose politics brought the Commonwealth into conflict with Sweden, culminating in the war known as The Deluge (1648), one of the events that mark the end of the Commonwealth's Golden Age and the beginning of the Commonwealth's decline. // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or Transilvania; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: or Erdelj / Ердељ) is a historical region in the center of Romania. ... Stefan Batory (1533-1586) was Prince of Transylvania (1571-1575), then King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1575-1586). ... Events May 5 - Peace of Beaulieu or Peace of Monsieur (after Monsieur, the Duc dAnjou, brother of the King, who negotiated it). ... 1586 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... The Vasa Coat of Arms The House of Vasa was the Royal House of Sweden (1523-1654) and of Poland (1587-1668). ... Combatants Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and allies Sweden and allies Commanders Jan Kazimierz of Poland Charles X of Sweden Strength Casualties This article is about the history of Poland. ... // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ...


Zebrzydowski's rokosz (16067) marked a substantial increase in the power of the magnates, and the transformation of szlachta democracy into magnate oligarchy. The Commonwealth's political system was vulnerable to outside interference, as Sejm deputies bribed[22] [23]by foreign powers might use their liberum veto to block attempted reforms. This sapped the Commonwealth and plunged it into political paralysis and anarchy for over a century, from the mid-17th century to the end of the 18th, while her neighbors stabilized their internal affairs and increased their military might. Rokosz of Zebrzydowski (also known as Zebrzydowski Rebellion, Polish: rokosz Zebrzydowskiego) was a rokosz (semi-legal rebellion) in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against its king Zygmunt III Waza. ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... Events January 20 - Tidal wave swept along the Bristol Channel, killing 2000 people. ... For a wealthy or powerful business baron, executive, or tycoon, see business magnate Magnate is a title of nobility commonly used in Sweden, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and some other medieval empires. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ... Bribery is the practice of offering a professional money or other favours in order to circumvent ethics in a variety of professions. ... Liberum veto (Latin: free veto) was a parliamentary device in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that allowed any deputy to a Sejm to force an immediate end to the current session and nullify all legislation already passed at it. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Late reforms

Eventually the Commonwealth did make a serious effort to reform its political system, adopting in 1791 the May 3rd Constitution, Europe's first[10] codified national constitution in the Modern Times, and the world's second, after the United States Constitution that came into being about two years earlier. The revolutionary Constitution recast the erstwhile Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as a Polish–Lithuanian federal state with a hereditary monarchy and abolished many of the deleterious features of the old system. The new constitution: Source: from Polish wiki: http://pl. ... Source: from Polish wiki: http://pl. ... May 3rd Constitution (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). ... Jan Matejko , self-portrait Jan Matejko (aka Jan Mateyko; Free City of Kraków, July 28, 1838 – November 1, 1893, Kraków, was a Polish artist famous for paintings of notable Polish political and military events. ... 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... A centimetre (US: centimeter) is a factor of the SI unit of length: there are one hundred centimeters in the base unit of measure, the metre. ... Categories: Stub | Buildings in Poland | Castles in Poland | Warsaw ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... May 3rd Constitution (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into modernity. ... The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... A hereditary monarchy is the most common style of monarchy and is the form that is used by almost all of the worlds existing monarchies. ...

These reforms came too late, however, as the Commonwealth was immediately invaded from all sides by its neighbors who content to leave the weak Commonwealth alone as a buffer, reacted strongly to the king Stanisław August Poniatowski's and other reformers attempts to strengthen the country[18]. Russia feared the revolutionary implications of the May 3rd Constitution's political reforms and the prospect of the Commonwealth regaining its position as a European empire. Catherine the Great regarded the May constitution as fatal to her influence[24], declared Polish constitution Jacobinical [25], and Grigori Aleksandrovich Potemkin drafted the act for the Confederation of Targowica, referring to the constitution as the 'contaigon of democratic ideas'[26]. Meanwhile Prussia and Austria, also afraid of the strengthened Poland, used it as a pretext for further territorial expansion.[25] Prussian minister Ewald von Hertzberg called the constitution "a blow to the Prussian monarchy"[27], fearing that strengthened Poland would once again dominate Prussia[28].[24] In the end the May 3rd Constitution was never fully implemented, and the Commonwealth entirely ceased to exist only four years after the Constitution's adoption. Liberum veto (Latin: free veto) was a parliamentary device in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that allowed any deputy to a Sejm to force an immediate end to the current session and nullify all legislation already passed at it. ... The separation of powers (or trias politica, a term coined by French political, enlightenment thinker Montesquieu) is a model for the governance of democratic states. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... The judiciary, also referred to as the judicature, consists of justices, judges and magistrates among other types of adjudicators. ... Poplar sovereignty is the doctrine that the state is created by and subject to the will of the people, who are the source of all political power. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... For the direction right, see left and right or starboard. ... The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the door of the Lodge of the Heralds. ... bourgeoisie is basically a trem that meens middle class. ... Categories: 1911 Britannica | Historical stubs | Feudalism ... Freedom of religion is the individuals right or freedom to hold whatever religious beliefs he or she wishes, or none at all. ... Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, a defection or revolt from a military commander, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ... For other persons named StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski, see StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski. ... May 3rd Constitution (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from... The term Jacobin may refer to: Members of the Jacobin Club, a political group during the French Revolution. ... Prince Grigori Aleksandrovich Potemkin (Russian: Григорий Александрович Потемкин) (September 13, 1739 (NS: September 24) – October 5, 1791 (NS: October 16)) was a Russian... Categories: Stub | Polish confederations ... Ewald Friedrich, Count von Hertzberg (1725 – May 22, 1795), Prussian statesman, who came of a noble family which had been settled in Pomerania since the 13th century, was born at Lottin, in that province. ...


Commonwealth military

Commonwealth hussars, by Józef Brandt.
Commonwealth hussars, by Józef Brandt.

Commonwealth armies were commanded by two Grand Hetmans and two Field Hetmans The armies comprised: Image File history File links Husarz1. ... Image File history File links Husarz1. ... Polish Hussar Hussar (original Hungarian spelling: huszár, plural huszárok; via the French hussard) refers to a class of light cavalry, Hungarian in origin but subsequently imitated throughout Europe. ... Józef Brandt Signature of Józef Brandt Józef Brandt (b. ... Polish Army (Polish Wojsko Polskie) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland. ... Hetman`s coat of arms Hetman Stanisław Koniecpolski of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Hetman was the title of the second highest military commander (after the monarch) used in 15th to 18th century Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, known from 1569 to 1795 as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ...

  • Wojsko kwarciane: Regular units with wages paid from taxes (these units were later merged with the wojsko komputowe)
  • Wojsko komputowe: Semi-regular units created for times of war (in 1652 these units were merged with the wojsko kwarciane into a new permanent army)
  • Pospolite ruszenie: Szlachta levée en masse
  • Piechota łanowa and piechota wybraniecka: Units based on peasant recruits
  • Registered Cossacks: Troops made up of Cossacks, used mainly as infantry, less often as cavalry (with tabors) were recruited.
  • Royal guard: A small unit whose primary purpose was to escort the monarch and members of his family
  • Mercenaries: As with most other armies, hired to supplement regular units, such as Germans, Scotts, Wallachians, Serbs, Hungarians, Czechs and Moravians.
  • Private armies: In time of peace usually small regiments (few hundred men) were paid for and equipped by magnates or cities. However, in times of war, they were greatly augmented (to even a few thousand men) and paid by state

Some units of the Commonwealth included: Wojsko kwarciane (quarter army) was the term used for regular army units of Poland (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). ... Wojsko komputowe is a type of military units used in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 17th century and 18th century. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with levée en masse. ... Levée en masse (literally Mass uprising) is a French term for mass conscription. ... Registered Cossacks - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... This is an article on the military formation called tabor. ... A Royal Guard describes any group of military bodyguard or retainer responsible for the protection of a royal person, such as a King or Queen. ... A mercenary is a soldier who fights or engages in warfare primarily for private gain, usually with little regard for ideological, national, or political considerations, however, when the term mercenary is used to refer to a soldier of a national, regular army, it usually is an insult, epithet or pejorative. ... A paramilitary organization is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ... For a wealthy or powerful business baron, executive, or tycoon, see business magnate Magnate is a title of nobility commonly used in Sweden, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and some other medieval empires. ...

  • Hussars: heavy cavalry armed with lances; their charges were extremely effective until advances in firearms in the late 17th century substantially increased infantry firepower. Members were known as towarzysz husarski and were supported by pocztowy's.
  • Pancerni: medium cavalry, armed with sabers or axes, bows, later pistols. Second important cavalry branch of the Polish army.
  • Pocztowi: assistants of pancerni.
  • Cossack cavalry (or just Cossacks): general name for all Commonwealth units of light cavalry, even if they did not contain a single ethnic Cossack; fast and maneuverable like oriental cavalry units of Ottoman Empire vassals, but lacking the firepower of European cavalry such as the Swedish pistol-armed reiters.
  • Tabor: military horse-drawn wagons, usually carrying army supplies. Their use for defensive formations was perfected by the Cossacks, and to a smaller extent by other Commonwealth units.

The Commonwealth Navy was small and played a relatively minor role in the history of the Commonwealth. Polish Hussar Hussar (original Hungarian spelling: huszár, plural huszárok; via the French hussard) refers to a class of light cavalry, Hungarian in origin but subsequently imitated throughout Europe. ... The term lance has become a catchall for a variety of different pole weapons based on the spear. ... Charge at Wołodarka A charge is a maneuver in battle in which soldiers rush towards their enemy to engage in close combat. ... An assortment of modern handheld firearms using fixed ammunition, including military assault rifles, a sporting shotgun (fourth from bottom), and a tactical shotgun (third from bottom). ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Towarzysz (pancerny) in 1610-1630. ... Towarzysz husarski - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Poczet (fellowship or retinue) (plural Poczty) was the smallest organized unit of soldiers in Kingdom of Poland and Polish-Lithuanian Commownealth from the 15th until the 18th century. ... Towarzysz pancerny Towarzysz pancerny (companion of mail-coated cavalry), plural: Towarzysze pancerni or Pancerni the name of a class of medium cavalry in 17th and 18th century Poland, so called after their armour made of chainmail (Old Polish pancerz). ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... Reiters (German: Reiter, or horserider) were a type of cavalry, which appeared in the armies of Western Europe in the 16th century, in place of the outmoded lance-armed knights, along with the cuirassiers and dragoons. ... This is an article on the military formation called tabor. ... A wagon (in old British English waggon) is a wheeled vehicle, ordinarily with four wheels, usually pulled by an animal such as a horse, mule or ox, which was used for transport of heavy goods in the past. ... Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Navy - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...


Economy

Grain pays...
Grain pays...

The economy of the Commonwealth was dominated by feudal agriculture based on exploitation of agricultural workforce (serfs). Typically a nobleman's landholding comprised a folwark, a large farm worked by serfs to produce surpluses for internal and external trade. This economic arrangement worked well for the ruling classes in the early era of the Commonwealth, which was one of the most prosperous eras of the grain trade[11]. However the country's situation worsened from the late 17th century on, when the landed szlachta sought to compensate for falling grain prices by increasing the peasants' workload, thus leading to the creation of second serfdom, a phenomena common throughout contemporary Eastern Europe. Image File history File links Zboze_Placi. ... Image File history File links Zboze_Placi. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... Folwark was a giant agricultural farm functioning in Poland from 14th century till 20th century, whose goal was to produce surplus produce for export. ... Bales of hay on a farm near Ames, Iowa A farm is the basic unit in agriculture. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... Look up Cereal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In economics and business, the price is the assigned numerical monetary value of a good, service or asset. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ...

... and grain doesn't pay. The two pictures illustrate the notion that agriculture, once extremely profitable to the nobles (szlachta) in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, became much less profitable from the second half of 17th century onwards
... and grain doesn't pay. The two pictures illustrate the notion that agriculture, once extremely profitable to the nobles (szlachta) in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, became much less profitable from the second half of 17th century onwards

The Commonwealth's preoccupation with agriculture, coupled with the szlachta's dominance over the bourgeoisie, resulted in a fairly slow process of urbanization and thus a fairly slow development of industries. While similar conflicts among social classes may be found all over Europe, nowhere were the nobility as dominant at the time as in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. There is, however, much debate among historians as to which processes most affected those developments, since until the wars and crises of the mid-17th century the cities of the Commonwealth had not markedly lagged in size and wealth behind their western counterparts. The Commonwealth did have numerous towns and cities, commonly founded on Magdeburg rights. Some of the largest trade fairs in the Commonwealth were held at Lublin. See the geography section, below, for a list of major cities in the Commonwealth (commonly capitals of voivodships). Image File history File links Zboze_Nie_Placi. ... Image File history File links Zboze_Nie_Placi. ... bourgeoisie is basically a trem that meens middle class. ... Main street in Bastrop, Texas, a small town A town is a residential community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. ... Chicago from the air. ... The Magdeburg Rights (or Magdeburg law) were a set of city laws regulating the degree of internal autonomy within cities and villages granted with it by a local ruler. ... The 2006 LinuxWorld trade show at the Boston Convention and Exposition Center. ... For other uses, see Lublin (disambiguation). ... A Voivodship (also voivodeship, Romanian: voievodat, Polish: województwo, Serbian: vojvodstvo or vojvodina) was a feudal state in medieval Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia and Serbia (see Vojvodina), ruled by a Voivod (voivode). ...


Although the Commonwealth was Europe's largest grain producer, the bulk of her grain was consumed domestically. Estimated grain consumption in the Polish Crown (Poland proper) and Prussia in 156070 was some 113,000 tons of wheat (or 226,000 łaszt (a łaszt, or "last," being a large bulk measure; in the case of grain, about half a ton). Average yearly production of grain in the Commonwealth in the 16th century was 120,000 tons, 6% of which was exported, while cities consumed some 19% and the remainder was consumed by the villages. The exports probably satisfied about 2% of the demand for grain in Western Europe, feeding 750,000 people there. Commonwealth grain achieved far more importance in poor crop years, as in the early 1590s and the 1620s, when governments throughout southern Europe arranged for large grain imports to cover shortfalls in their jurisdictions. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Events January 23 - The assassination of regent James Stewart, Earl of Moray throws Scotland into civil war February 25 - Pope Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England with the bull Regnans in Excelsis May 20 - Abraham Ortelius issues the first modern atlas. ... The word ton or tonne is derived from the Old English tunne, and ultimately from the Old French tonne, and referred originally to a large cask with a capacity of 252 wine gallons, which holds approximately 2100 pounds of water. ... Species T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat (Triticum spp. ... In shoemaking, a last is a rounded oblong block used to approximate the form of the human foot used by a cobbler to help make or mend shoes. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... A common understanding of Western Europe in modern times. ... Events 1590 March 14 - Battle of Ivry - Henry IV of France again defeats the forces of the Catholic League under the Duc de Mayenne. ... Events and Trends Permanent Dutch settlement of New York Bay and the Hudson River. ...

"Rivermen's camp at the Wisła (Vistula)," 1858, by Wilhelm August Stryowski (1834–1917), 110×138 cm.
"Rivermen's camp at the Wisła (Vistula)," 1858, by Wilhelm August Stryowski (18341917), 110×138 cm.

Still, grain was the largest export commodity of the Commonwealth. The owner of a folwark usually signed a contract with merchants of Gdansk (German Danzig), who controlled 80% of this inland trade, to ship the grain north to that seaport on the Baltic Sea. Many rivers in the Commonwealth were used for shipping purposes: the Vistula, Pilica, Western Bug, San, Nida, Wieprz, Niemen. The rivers had relatively developed infrastructure, with river ports and granaries. Most of the river shipping moved north, southward transport being less profitable, and barges and rafts were often sold off in Gdańsk for lumber. Wilhelm August Stryowski (1834-1917), Obóz flisaków nad Wisłą, This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Wilhelm August Stryowski (1834-1917), Obóz flisaków nad Wisłą, This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Vistula (Polish: WisÅ‚a) is the longest river in Poland. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Folwark was a giant agricultural farm functioning in Poland from 14th century till 20th century, whose goal was to produce surplus produce for export. ... A contract is a promise or an agreement made of a set of promises. ... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (Neither rashly nor timidly) Voivodship Pomeranian Municipal government Rada miasta Gdańska Mayor Paweł Adamowicz Area 262 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 461 400 (2003) Ranked 6th 1... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port. ... Map of the Baltic Sea. ... The River Thames in London River running into Harrietville Trout Farm A river is a large natural waterway. ... The Vistula (Polish: WisÅ‚a) is the longest river in Poland. ... Pilica is a river in central Poland, a longest left tributary of the Vistula river, with a length of 319 kilometres (8th longest) and the basin area of 9,273 sq. ... Bug at Wlodawa One of the two rivers called Bug (pronounced Boog), the Western Bug, or Buh (Belarusian: Захо́дні Буг; Russian: За́падный Буг; Ukrainian: Західн&#1080... Length of 433 km Basin area of 16 861 km2 Origin Carpathian Tributary of the Vistula Country Poland-Ukraine The San (Ukrainian: Сян, Sian). ... Nida may have one of the following meanings. ... Wieprz is a river in central-eastern Poland, a tributary of the Vistula river, with a length of 303 kilometres (9th longest) and the basin area of 10,415 sq. ... External links Wikimedia Commons has multimedia related to: Neman Categories: Belarus-related stubs | Rivers of Belarus | Rivers of Lithuania | Russian rivers ... Categories: Stub | Commercial item transport and distribution | Transportation ... Granary at Thiruparaithurai, Kumbakonam (old temple town), built around 1600-1634 A granary is a storehouse for threshed grain or animal feed. ...


From Gdańsk, ships, mostly from the Netherlands and Flanders, carried the grain to ports such as Antwerp and Amsterdam. Gdańsk ships accounted for only 2–10% of this maritime trade. Besides grain, other seaborne exports included lumber and wood-related products such as tar and ash. Flanders (Dutch: Vlaanderen) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; some prefer to call this the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians... The Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal (Cathedral of our Lady) at the Handschoenmarkt, in the old quarter of Antwerp is the largest cathedral in the Low Countries and home to several triptychs by Baroque painter Rubens. ... Amsterdam Location Flag Country Netherlands Province North Holland Population 743,905 (1 April 2006) Demonym Amsterdammer Coordinates Website www. ... Lumber is the name used, generally in North America, for wood that has been cut into boards or other shapes for the purpose of woodworking or construction. ... Tar is a viscous black liquid derived from the destructive distillation of organic matter. ...


By land routes, the Commonwealth exported hides, furs, hemp, cotton (mostly from Wielkopolska) and linen to the German lands of the Holy Roman Empire, including cities like Leipzig and Nuremberg. Large herds (of around 50,000 head) of cattle were driven south through Silesia. Look up hide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A dogs fur usually consists of longer, stiffer, guard hairs—which can be straight, wiry, or wavy, and of various lengths, hiding a soft, short-haired undercoat. ... This is one of several related articles about cannabis. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: Wielkopolska, German: Grosspolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is one of the historical regions of Poland. ... Linum usitatissimum L. - Flax Torn linen cloth, recovered from the Dead Sea Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. ... The Holy Roman Empire and from the 16th century on also The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was a political conglomeration of lands in Central Europe in the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... [] (Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the Federal State (Bundesland) of Saxony in Germany. ... Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. ... A herd of Wildebeest A gaggle of Canada geese For other uses, see Herd (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (called cows in vernacular and contemporary usage, kine or kyne in pre-modern English, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Prussian Silesia, 1871, outlined in yellow; Silesia at the close of the Seven Years War in 1763, outlined in cyan (areas now in the Czech Republic were Austrian-ruled at that time) Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Ślonsk / Ślónsk) is a historical region in central Europe. ...


The Commonwealth imported spices, luxury goods, clothing, fish, beer and industrial products like steel and tools. A few riverboats carried south imports from Gdańsk like wine, fruit, spices and herring. Somewhere between the 16th and 17th centuries, the Commonwealth's trade balance shifted from positive to negative. External links Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Spice Food Bacteria-Spice Survey Shows Why Some Cultures Like It Hot Citat: ...Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything). ... In economics a luxury good is a good for which demand increases more than proportionally as income rises, contrast with inferior good and normal good. ... It has been suggested that folding clothes be merged into this article or section. ... The Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) is one of the most popular freshwater aquarium fish species in the world. ... A selection of bottled beers A selection of cask beers Beer is one of the worlds oldest alcoholic beverages, possibly brewed for the first time over 10,000 years ago, according to renowned beer writer Michael Jackson. ... The old steel cable of a colliery winding tower Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon content between 0. ... A modern hammer is directly descended from ancient hand tools A tool is a piece of equipment that (most commonly) provides a mechanical advantage in accomplishing a physical task. ... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of the juice of fruits, usually grapes. ... Fruit stall in Barcelona, Spain. ... Screen shot of Spice OPUS, a fork of Berkeley SPICE SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuits Emphasis) is a general purpose analog circuit simulator. ... Species Clupea alba Clupea bentincki Clupea caspiopontica Clupea chrysotaenia Clupea elongata Clupea halec Clupea harengus Clupea inermis Clupea leachii Clupea lineolata Clupea minima Clupea mirabilis Clupea pallasii Clupea sardinacaroli Clupea sulcata Herrings are small oily fish of the genus Clupea found in the temperate, shallow waters of the North Atlantic... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Balance of trade figures are the sum of the money gained by a given economy by selling exports, minus the cost of buying imports. ...

Commonwealth coin minted during the reign of King Stefan Batory
Commonwealth coin minted during the reign of King Stefan Batory
Royal City of Danzig coin of 1589 (Sigismund III Vasa period)
Royal City of Danzig coin of 1589 (Sigismund III Vasa period)

With the advent of the Age of Exploration, many old trading routes such as the Amber Road lost importance as new ones were created. Poland's importance as a caravan route between Asia and Europe diminished, while new local trading routes were created between the Commonwealth and Russia. But even with improvements in shipping technology the Commonwealth remained an important link between Occident and Orient, as many goods and cultural artifacts passed from one region to another via the Commonwealth. For example, Persian carpets imported across the Commonwealth were actually known in the West as "Polish carpets". Also, the price of eastern spices in Poland was several times lower than in western ports, which led[citation needed] to the creation of a distinct Polish cuisine, owing much both to the eastern and western influence. Stephen Bathory File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A coin is usually a piece of hard material, generally metal and usually in the shape of a disc, which is issued by a government to be used as a form of money. ... Stefan Batory (1533-1586) was Prince of Transylvania (1571-1575), then King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1575-1586). ... Regia Civitatis Gedanensis - Gdansk coin of 1589 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Regia Civitatis Gedanensis - Gdansk coin of 1589 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... GdaÅ„sk (IPA: ; German: , Kashubian: , Latin: ; older English Dantzig also other languages) is the sixth-largest city in Poland, and also its principal seaport and the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. ... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ... Reign in Poland From September 18, 1587 until April 19, 1632 Reign in Sweden From November 17, 1592 until July 24, 1599 Elected in Poland On September 18, 1587 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation in Poland On December 27, 1587 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland... The so-called Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century, during which European ships were traveled around the world to search for new trading routes and partners to feed burgeoning capitalism in Europe. ... A trade route is the sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo. ... The Amber Road (in Lithuanian: Gintaro kelias; Polish: Szlak Bursztynowy, Jantarowy Szlak; in German: Bernsteinstraße; in Hungarian: Borostyán út, in Russian: Янтарный путь) was an ancient trade route for the transfer of amber. ... Occident has a number of meanings. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... A traditional craftsman mending a rug in Isfahan. ... Polish cuisine (Polish: kuchnia polska) is a mixture of Slavic and foreign culinary traditions. ...


Commonwealth currency included the złoty and the grosz. The City of Gdańsk had the privilege of minting its own coinage. ZÅ‚oty (literally meaning golden, plural: zÅ‚ote or zÅ‚otych, depending on the number) is the Polish currency unit. ... Grosz may refer to: Grosh [groÅ¡], a small silver coin issued by a number of countries. ... GdaÅ„sk (IPA: ; German: , Kashubian: , Latin: ; older English Dantzig also other languages) is the sixth-largest city in Poland, and also its principal seaport and the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. ...


Culture

Further information: Renaissance in Poland, Baroque in Poland and Enlightenment in Poland
Multi-stage rocket, from Kazimierz Siemienowicz's Artis Magnæ Artilleriæ pars prima
Multi-stage rocket, from Kazimierz Siemienowicz's Artis Magnæ Artilleriæ pars prima
Branicki Palace, Białystok, built 1726
Branicki Palace, Białystok, built 1726
"The Alchemist Michał Sędziwój", oil on board by Jan Matejko, 73×130 cm, Museum of Arts (Łódź)
"The Alchemist Michał Sędziwój", oil on board by Jan Matejko, 73×130 cm, Museum of Arts (Łódź)
Presidential Palace (Warsaw), built 1643–1645 and frequently remodeled. Foreground: equestrian statue of Prince Jozef Poniatowski by Bertel Thorvaldsen  It should be possible to replace this fair use image with a freely licensed one. If you can, please do so as soon as is practical.
Presidential Palace (Warsaw), built 16431645 and frequently remodeled. Foreground: equestrian statue of Prince Jozef Poniatowski by Bertel Thorvaldsen  It should be possible to replace this fair use image with a freely licensed one. If you can, please do so as soon as is practical.
Church and Monastery of Pažaislis
Church and Monastery of Pažaislis

The Commonwealth was one of the important European sites for the development of modern social and political ideas. It was famous for its rare quasi-democratic political system praised by philosophers such as Erasmus, was known for a near-unparallelled religious tolerance during the Counter-Reformation, hence the numerosity of peacefuly coexisting Catholic, Jewish, Eastern Orthodox, Protestant, and even Muslim communities. It gave rise to the famous Christian sect of Polish Brethren, antecedents of the British and American Unitarians. Jan Kochanowski, a leading poet and writer of Polish Renaissance, and one of the most eminent Slavic poets. ... Polish baroque started in the late 16th century. ... The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment in Poland were developed later then in the Western Europe, as Polish bourgeoisie was weaker, and szlachta (nobility) culture (Sarmatism) together with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth political system (Golden Freedoms) were in deep crisis. ... Image File history File links Siemenowicz_rocket. ... Image File history File links Siemenowicz_rocket. ... 20th century artistic vision of Kazimierz Siemenowicz Kazimierz Siemienowicz (Belarusian: Казімер Семяновіч, Kazimir Siemianovič, Lithuanian: Kazimieras Simonavičius) (born c. ... With permission, Author: Marek and Ewa Wojciechowscy, http://www. ... With permission, Author: Marek and Ewa Wojciechowscy, http://www. ... Front side of Branicki Palace Branicki Coat of Arms Pałac Branickich (Branicki Palace) in Białystok, northeast Poland, the Versailles of Podlasie, was built for Count Jan Klemens Branicki, Great Crown Hetman and patron of art and science, raised in the French milieu of the Polish aristocracy... BiaÅ‚ystok (pronounced: , Belarusian: , Lithuanian: , Yiddish ביאַליסטאָק) is the largest city (pop. ... Events George Friderich Handel becomes a British subject. ... Alchemist Sędziwój by Jan Matejko This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Alchemist Sędziwój by Jan Matejko This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Jan Matejko , self-portrait Jan Matejko (aka Jan Mateyko; Free City of Kraków, July 28, 1838 – November 1, 1893, Kraków, was a Polish artist famous for paintings of notable Polish political and military events. ... A centimetre (US: centimeter) is a factor of the SI unit of length: there are one hundred centimeters in the base unit of measure, the metre. ... Łódź ((?)) is Polands second largest city (population 776,297 in 2004). ... (With permission, Author: Marek i Ewa Wojciechowscy, http://www. ... (With permission, Author: Marek i Ewa Wojciechowscy, http://www. ... Presidential Palace in Warsaw. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ... Noble Family Poniatowski Coat of Arms Ciołek Parents Andrzej Poniatowski Maria Teresa Kinsky Consorts Zelia Sitańska Zofia Potocka Children with Zelia Sitańska Józef Szczęsny Poniatowski with Zofia Potocka Karol Józef Poniatowski Date of Birth May 7, 1763 Place of Birth... Bertel Thorvaldsen, portrait by Karl Begas, c. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1917 KB) Church and Monastery of Pažaislis, Kaunas, Lithuania Author: Wojsyl File links The following pages link to this file: Kaunas Talk:Baroque architecture Pažaislis monastery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1917 KB) Church and Monastery of Pažaislis, Kaunas, Lithuania Author: Wojsyl File links The following pages link to this file: Kaunas Talk:Baroque architecture Pažaislis monastery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Church and Monastery of Pažaislis, Kaunas Pažaislis monastery and church (Polish: ) form the largest monastery complex in Lithuania, and one of the most magnificent examples of Italian baroque architecture in Eastern Europe. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... Freedom of religion is the individuals right or freedom to hold whatever religious beliefs he or she wishes, or none at all. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... A sect is generally a small religious or political group that has branched off from a larger established group. ... Polish Brethren (also called Antitrinitians, Arians, or Socinians) was the name of a Christian Polish sect from the 16th century. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Unitarian Christianity Historic Unitarianism believed in the oneness of God as opposed to Christian doctrine of the Trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit) established at the Council of Nicaea in 325 CE. Historic Unitarians believed in the moral authority, but not the...


With its political system, the Commonwealth gave birth to political philosophers such as Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski (15031572), Wawrzyniec Grzymała Goślicki (15301607) and Piotr Skarga (15361612). Later, works by Stanisław Staszic (17551826) and Hugo Kołłątaj (17501812) helped pave the way for the Commonwealth's Constitution of May 3rd, 1791, the modern history first written national constitution in Europe,[10] which enacted revolutionary principles of political science for the first time in Europe. Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it... Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski (Andreus Fricius Modrevius) (ca. ... 1503 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... Wawrzyniec GrzymaÅ‚a GoÅ›licki, (Latin: Laurentius Grimaldius Gosliscius), 1530-1607, was Polish bishop, political thinker and philosopher most known from the book De optimo senatore, 1568 (The Accomplished senator, English translation 1598). ... Events June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... Events January 20 - Tidal wave swept along the Bristol Channel, killing 2000 people. ... Skargas Sermon, by Jan Matejko, 1862, oil on canvas, 224 x 397 cm. ... Events February 2 - Spaniard Pedro de Mendoza founds Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... StanisÅ‚aw Staszic StanisÅ‚aw Staszic (November 6, 1755 - January 20, 1826) was a Polish priest, philosopher, statesman, geologist, scholar, poet and writer, a leader of the Polish Enlightenment, famous for works related to the Great or Four-Year Sejm (1788-1792) and the May Constitution of Poland adopted by... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Noble Family KoÅ‚Å‚Ä…taj Coat of Arms Kotwica Parents Antoni KoÅ‚Å‚Ä…taj Marianna MierzeÅ„ska Consorts None Children None Date of Birth April 1, 1750 Place of Birth NiecisÅ‚owice Date of Death February 28, 1812 Place of Death Warsaw Hugo KoÅ‚Å‚Ä…taj (1750-1812) was a Polish Roman Catholic... Events March 2 - Small earthquake in London, England April 4 - Small earthquake in Warrington, England August 23 - Small earthquake in Spalding, England September 30 - Small earthquake in Northampton, England November 16 – Westminster Bridge officially opened Jonas Hanway is the first Englishman to use an umbrella James Gray reveals her sex... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... May 3rd Constitution (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into modernity. ... first page of the Codex Argenteus A codex (Latin for block of wood, book; plural codices) is a handwritten book, in general, one produced from Late Antiquity through the Middle Ages. ... Political science is an academic and research discipline that deals with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior. ...


The Jagiellonian University in Kraków is one of the oldest universities in the world. Vilnius University and Jagiellonian University were the major scientific centers in Commonwealth. The Commonwealth's Commission for National Education (Polish Komisja Edukacji Narodowej), formed in 1773, was the world's first national ministry of education. Commonwealth scientists included: Jagiellonian University (Polish: Uniwersytet JagielloÅ„ski) is a university in Krakow, Poland. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... Vilnius University (Lithuanian Vilniaus Universitetas, Polish Uniwersytet WileÅ„ski, formerly Stefan Batory University) is the oldest university in Eastern Europe and the biggest university in Lithuania. ... Komisja Edukacji Narodowej (KEN, Polish for Commission of National Education) was the central educational authority in Poland, created by the Sejm and king Stanisław August Poniatowski on October 14, 1773. ... Komisja Edukacji Narodowej (KEN, Polish for Commission of National Education) was the central educational authority in Poland, created by the Sejm and king Stanisław August Poniatowski on October 14, 1773. ... 1773 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Several countries have government departments named the Ministry of Education Komisja Edukacji Narodowej of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1773. ...

The many classics of Commonwealth literature include: Portrait Marcin Kromer (1512-1589) was a 16th century bishop of Warmia, cartographer, diplomat, and historian in Poland and later in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... 1512 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ... A historian is someone who writes history, and history is a written accounting of the past. ... Cartography is the study of map making and cartographers are map makers. ... Portrait of Michał Sędziwój. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... Events February 24 - King Christian of Denmark gives an order that all beggars that are able to work must be sent to Brinholmen Island to build ships or as galley rowers March 26 - Utrecht University founded in The Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... A chemist pours from a Florence flask. ... 20th century artistic vision of Kazimierz Siemenowicz Kazimierz Siemienowicz (Belarusian: Казімер Семяновіч, Kazimir Siemianovič, Lithuanian: Kazimieras Simonavičius) (born c. ... 1597 1598 1599 - 1600 - 1601 1602 1603 |- | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1570s 1580s 1590s - 1600s - 1610s 1620s 1630s |- | align=center | Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century |} // Events January January 1 - Scotland adopts January 1st as being New Years Day February February 17 - Giordano Bruno burned at the... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A 155 mm artillery shell fired by a United States 11th Marine regiment M-198 howitzer Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... A rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of fast moving exhaust from within a rocket engine. ... Johannes Hevelius Johannes Hevelius (Latin), also called (in German) Johann Hewelke or Johannes Hewel, or Jan Heweliusz (Polish), (born January 28, 1611 – died January 28, 1687), was a Polish [[1]], [[2]], [[3]], [[4]], councillor and mayor in Gdańsk. ... Events June 23 - Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ... An astronomer or astrophysicist is a person whose area of interest is astronomy or astrophysics. ... Bulk composition of the Moons mantle and crust estimated, weight percent Oxygen 42. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ...

Many szlachta wrote memoirs and diaries; perhaps the most famous of those are the Memoirs of Polish History by Albrycht Stanisław Radziwiłł (15951656) and the Memoirs of Jan Chryzostom Pasek (ca. 1636 – ca. 1701). Jan Kochanowski Jan Kochanowski (1530 - August 22, 1584) was a Polish Renaissance poet and writer. ... Events June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The term writer can apply to anyone who creates a written work, but the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... A dramatist is an author of dramatic compositions, usually plays. ... A poet is some one who writes poetry. ... image goes here Noble Family Potocki Coat of Arms Szreniwa Parents  ? Consorts unknown Children unknown Date of Birth 1621 Place of Birth Wola ŁużaÅ„ska Date of Death 9 August1 1696 Place of Death Łużna WacÅ‚aw Potocki (1621-1696) was a nobleman (szlachcic), moralist, poet and writer... Events February 9 - Gregory XV is elected pope. ... The year 1696 had the earliest equinoxes and solstices for 400 years in the Gregorian calendar, because this year is a leap year and the Gregorian calendar would have behaved like the Julian calendar since March 1500 had it have been in use that long. ... Ignacy Krasicki Ignacy Krasicki (February 3, 1735, in Galicia — March 14, 1801, in Berlin) was a Polish prince of the Roman Catholic Church, a social critic, a leading writer, and the outstanding poet of the Polish Enlightenment, hailed by contemporaries as the Prince of Poets. ... Events April 16 - The London premiere of Alcina by George Frideric Handel, his first the first Italian opera for the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Categories: 1758 births | 1841 deaths | Polish writers | Polish nobility | People stubs ... 1758 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... As a literary genre, a memoir (from the Latin memoria, meaning penial) forms a subclass of autobiography, although it is an older form of writing. ... == c programming[[a--203. ... Noble Family RadziwiÅ‚Å‚ Coat of Arms TrÄ…by Parents StanisÅ‚aw Pius RadziwiÅ‚Å‚ Marianna Myszka Consorts Regina von Eisenreich Anna Krystyna Lubomirska Children none Date of Birth July 1, 1595 Place of Birth OÅ‚yka Date of Death November 12, 1656 Place of Death lt: Gdanskas Albrycht StanisÅ‚aw Radziwi... Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ... // Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... image goes here Noble Family Pasek Coat of Arms Doliwa Parents  ? Consorts unknown Children  ? Date of Birth 1636 Place of Birth Węgrzynowice Date of Death 1 August 1701 Place of Death Niedzieliszki Jan Chryzostom Pasek (1636-1701) was a nobleman (szlachcic) and writer in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Events February 24 - King Christian of Denmark gives an order that all beggars that are able to work must be sent to Brinholmen Island to build ships or as galley rowers March 26 - Utrecht University founded in The Netherlands. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ...


Magnates often undertook construction projects as monuments to themselves: churches, cathedrals, and palaces like the present-day Presidential Palace in Warsaw built by Grand Hetman Stanisław Koniecpolski herbu Pobóg. The largest projects involved entire towns, although in time many of them would lapse into obscurity or be totally abandoned. Usually they were named after the sponsoring magnate. Among the most famous is the town of Zamość, founded by Jan Zamoyski and designed by the Italian architect Bernardo Morando. For a wealthy or powerful business baron, executive, or tycoon, see business magnate Magnate is a title of nobility commonly used in Sweden, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and some other medieval empires. ... A church building (or simply church) is a building used in Christian worship. ... A cathedral is a Christian church building, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Anglican, Catholic and some Lutheran churches, which serves as the central church of a diocese, and thus as a bishops seat. ... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... Presidential Palace in Warsaw. ... Noble Family Koniecpolski Coat of Arms Pobóg Parents Aleksander Koniecpolski Anna Sroczycka Consorts Katarzyna Żółkiewska (1615) Krystyna Lubomirska (1619) Zofia OpaliÅ„ska (1656) Children Aleksander Koniecpolski Date of Birth 1590/1594 Place of Birth Koniecpol Date of Death March 11, 1646 Place of Death Brody StanisÅ‚aw Koniecpolski, (1590... Pobóg - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... Zamość is a town in southeastern Poland with 66,633 inhabitants (2004), situated in the Lublin Voivodship (since 1999), previously capital of Zamość Voivodship (1975–1998). ... Noble Family Zamoyski Coat of Arms Jelita Parents Stanisław Zamoyski Anna Herburt Consorts Anna Ossolińska Krystyna Radziwiłł Gryzelda Batory Barbara Tarnowska Children with Barbara Tarnowska Tomasz Zamoyski Date of Birth March 19, 1542 Place of Birth Skokówka, Poland Date of Death June 3... Architect at his drawing board, 1893 An architect is a person involved in the planning, designing and oversight of a buildings construction. ... Polish-Italian renaissance architect, who built the town of Zamosc for Jan Zamojski. ...


Szlachta and Sarmatism

City hall, Zamość
City hall, Zamość

The prevalent ideology of the szlachta became "Sarmatism", named after the Sarmatians, alleged ancestors of the Poles. This belief system was an important part of the szlachta's culture, penetrating all aspects of its life. Sarmatism enshrined equality among szlachta, horseback riding, tradition, provincial rural life, peace and pacifism; championed oriental-inspired attire (żupan, kontusz, sukmana, pas kontuszowy, delia, szabla); and served to integrate the multi-ethnic nobility by creating an almost nationalistic sense of unity and of pride in the szlachta's Golden Freedoms. (With permission, Author: Marek i Ewa Wojciechowscy, http://www. ... (With permission, Author: Marek i Ewa Wojciechowscy, http://www. ... It has been suggested that Town Hall be merged into this article or section. ... Zamość is a town in southeastern Poland with 66,633 inhabitants (2004), situated in the Lublin Voivodship (since 1999), previously capital of Zamość Voivodship (1975–1998). ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Sarmatism was the prevalent mentality and ideology of szlachta in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 16th century to 19th century. ... Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Sarmatism was the prevalent mentality and ideology of szlachta in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 16th century to 19th century. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... Jan Zamoyski in crimson kontusz and blue silk żupan tied with pas kontuszowy. ... Stefan Czarniecki in crimson kontusz. ... WacÅ‚aw Rzewuski wearing a golden-finished kontusz belt Pas kontuszowy sÅ‚ucki. Pas kontuszowy (kontusz belt) was a cloth belt used for compassing a kontusz (a robe-like garment). ... Hetman Jan Zamoyski in a crimson delia and blue silk żupan. ... Late 17th century szabla Szabla was a sabre-like mêlée weapon used in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is an ideology [1] that holds that a nation is the fundamental unit for human social life, and takes precedence over any other social and political principles. ...


In its early, idealistic form, Sarmatism represented a positive cultural movement: it supported religious belief, honesty, national pride, courage, equality and freedom. In time, however, it became distorted. Late extreme Sarmatism turned belief into bigotry, honesty into political naïveté, pride into arrogance, courage into stubbornness and freedom into anarchy.[29] Sarmatism was the prevalent mentality and ideology of szlachta in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 16th century to 19th century. ...


Demographics and religion

For more details on this topic, see Historical demographics of Poland#Polish-Lithuanian_Commonwealth (1569-1795).
Cossack's wedding. Painting by Józef Brandt.
Cossack's wedding. Painting by Józef Brandt.

The population of the Commonwealth of Both Nations was never overwhelmingly either Roman Catholic or Polish. The Commonwealth comprised primarily four nations: Lithuanians, Poles, Ukrainians and Belarusians (the latter referred usually as the Ruthenians). In 1618, the Commonwealth population of 11,5 millions could be roughly divided into: Poles, 4,5m, Lithuanians, 1,5m, Belorusians (Ruthenians) 2,25m, Ukrainians (the so-called "Volhynians"), 2m, Prussians 0,75m, Livonians 0,5m. This circumstance resulted from Poland's possession of Ukraine and confederation with Lithuania, in both of which countries ethnic Poles were a distinct minority. To be Polish, in the non-Polish lands of the Commonwealth, was then much less an index of ethnicity than of religion and rank; it was a designation largely reserved for the landed noble class (szlachta), which included Poles but also many members of non-Polish origin who converted to Catholicism in increasing numbers with each following generation. For the non-Polish noble such conversion meant a final step of Polonization that followed the adoption of the Polish language and culture.[30] Poland, as the culturally most advanced part of the Commonwealth, with the royal court, the capital, the largest cities, the second-oldest university in Central Europe (after Prague), and the more liberal and democractic social institutions has proven an irrestable magnet for the non-Polish nobility in the Commonwealth.[8] Before World War II the now Polish lands were noted for the richness and variety of their ethnic communities. ... Kolumna Zygmunta (With permission, Author: Marek i Ewa Wojciechowscy, http://www. ... Kolumna Zygmunta (With permission, Author: Marek i Ewa Wojciechowscy, http://www. ... Kolumna Zygmunta - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... Categories: Stub | Buildings in Poland | Castles in Poland | Warsaw ... Download high resolution version (515x800, 120 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (515x800, 120 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... Józef Brandt Signature of Józef Brandt Józef Brandt (b. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Ruthenian may refer to: Ruthenia, a name applied to various parts of Eastern Europe Ruthenians, the peoples of Ruthenia Ruthenian language, a name applied to several Slavic languages This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... Livonia (Latvian: Livonija; Estonian: Liivimaa; German: Livland; Swedish: Livland; Polish: Inflanty; Russian: Лифляндия or Lifljandija) once was the land of the Finnic Livonians, but came in the Middle Ages to designate a much broader territory controlled by the Livonian Order on the eastern coasts of the Baltic Sea in present-day... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... For the various types of hierarchy, see hierarchy (disambiguation) A hierarchy (in Greek: , it is derived from -hieros, sacred, and -arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is subordinate to a single other element. ... Landed property or landed estates is a real estate term that usually refers to a property that generates income for the owner without himself having to do the actual work at the estate. ... Religious conversion is the adoption of new religious beliefs that differ from the converts previous beliefs; in some cultures (e. ... The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the door of the Lodge of the Heralds. ... Polonization (Polish: ) is the assumption (complete or partial), of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ... Polish (jÄ™zyk polski, polszczyzna) is the official language of Poland. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Prague (Czech: Praha (IPA: ), see also other names) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ... This article is about a sociological concept. ...


As a result, in the eastern territories a Polish (or Polonized) aristocracy dominated a peasantry whose great majority was neither Polish nor Roman Catholic. Moreover, the decades of peace brought huge colonization efforts to Ukraine, heightening the tensions among nobles, Jews, Cossacks (traditionally Orthodox), Polish and Ruthenian peasants. The latter, deprived of their native protectors among the Ruthenian nobility, turned for protection to cossacks that facilitated violence that in the end broke the Commonwealth. The tensions were aggravated by conflicts between Eastern Orthodoxy and the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church following the Union of Brest, overall discrimination of Orthodox religions by dominant Catholicism[31], and several Cossack uprisings. In the west and north, many cities had sizable German minorities, often belonging to Reformed churches. The Commonwealth had also one of the largest Jewish diasporas in the world. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the door of the Lodge of the Heralds. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... ... The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC), also known as the Ukrainian Catholic Church, is one of the successor Churches to the acceptance of Christianity by Grand Prince Vladimir the Great (Ukrainian Volodymyr) of Kiev (Kyiv), in 988. ... Union of Brest (Belarusian: Берасьце́йская ву́нія) refers to the 1595-1596 decision of the (Ruthenian) Church of Rus, the Metropolia of Kiev-Halych and all Rus, to break relations with the Patriarch of Constantinople and place themselves under the (patriarch) Pope of Rome. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... Uprising is another word for rebellion. ... The Reformed churches are a group of Christian Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Calvinist system of doctrine, which first arose especially in the Swiss Reformation led by Huldrych Zwingli, but soon afterward appeared in nations throughout Western Europe. ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut, exile) is the dispersion of the Jewish people throughout the world. ...


Until the Reformation, the szlachta were mostly Catholic or Eastern Orthodox. However, many families quickly adopted the Reformed religion. After the Counter-Reformation, when the Roman Catholic Church regained power in Poland, the szlachta became almost exclusively Roman Catholic, despite the fact that Roman Catholicism was not a majority religion (the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches counted approximately 40% of the population each, while the remaining 20% were Jews and members of various Protestant churches). It should be noted that the Counter-Reformation in Poland, influenced by the Commonwealth tradition of religious tolerance, was based mostly on Jesuit propaganda, and was very peaceful when compared to excesses such as the Thirty Years' War elsewhere in Europe. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... Freedom of religion is the individuals right or freedom to hold whatever religious beliefs he or she wishes, or none at all. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Protestantism: Sweden,Denmark, France, Scotland and protestant German countries like Saxony Roman Catholic Church: Holy Roman Empire, Spain Commanders Gustav II Adolf Ferdinand II The Thirty Years War was fought between 1618 and 1648, principally on the territory of todays Germany, also involving most of the major European... World map showing Europe Political map (neighboring countries in Asia and Africa also shown) Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ...


Provinces and geography

For more details on this topic, see Administrative division of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Outline of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth with its major subdivisions as of 1619 superimposed on present-day national borders
Enlarge
Outline of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth with its major subdivisions as of 1619 superimposed on present-day national borders

The lands that once belonged to the Commonwealth are now largely distributed among several Central and East European countries: Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, with smaller pieces in Estonia, Slovakia, Romania and Moldova. Outline of the Commonwealth with its major subdivisions as of 1619 superimposed on present-day national borders Administrative division of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was a result of the long and complicated history, including the impact of the framgentation of Polish Kingdom and union of Poland and Lithuania. ... Map: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1619). ... Map: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1619). ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... Historical lands and provinces in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. ... Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe variably defined. ...


While the term "Poland" was also commonly used to denote this whole polity, Poland was in fact only part of a greater whole — the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which comprised primarily two parts:

The Crown in turn comprised two great regions ("prowincjas"): Greater Poland and Lesser Poland. These and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, were the only three regions that were properly termed "provinces." The Commonwealth was further divided into smaller administrative units known as voivodships (województwa). Each voivodship was governed by a voivod (wojewoda, governor). Voivodships were further divided into starostwa, each starostwo being governed by a starosta. Cities were governed by castellans. There were frequent exceptions to these rules, often involving the ziemia subunit of administration: for details on the administrative structure of the Commonwealth, see the article on offices in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Crown of the Polish Kingdom, or just colloquially the Crown (Polish:Korona) is the archaic name for territories of Poland, distinguishing them from territories of Grand Duchy of Lithuania or vassal territories like Duchy of Prussia or Duchy of Courland, which had varying degrees of autonomy. ... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and PogoÅ„ in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji KunigaikÅ¡tystÄ—, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie KsiÄ™stwo Litewskie) was an... Prowincja (plural: prowincje), or province, was the largest unit of local subdivision in Poland and later the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Voivodship wielkopolskie since 1999 Coat of Arms for voivodship wielkopolskie Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: , German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is a historical region of west-central Poland. ... Lesser Poland voivodship since 1999 Lesser Poland (sometimes also referred to as Little Poland, Polish MaÅ‚opolska, Latin Polonia Minor) is one of the historical regions of Poland. ... A Voivodship (also voivodeship, Romanian: voievodat, Polish: województwo, Serbian: vojvodstvo or vojvodina) was a feudal state in medieval Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia and Serbia (see Vojvodina), ruled by a Voivod (voivode). ... Voivod or (more common) voivoda is a Slavic term initially denoting first in command of a military unit. ... Starost(a) is a title for an official or unofficial position of leadership that has been used in various contexts through most of the Slavic history. ... The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (or The Republic of the Two Nations, Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów in Polish; Belarusian: Рэч Паспалі́тая) was a federal monarchy-republic formed by the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, between 1569... A castellan was the governor or caretaker of a castle or keep. ... Ziemia (literally earth or land in Polish language, Latin: ) is a historical unit of administration in Poland. ... Offices in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth article presents the organizational structure and administrative system of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ...


Other notable regions of the Commonwealth often referred to, without respect to province or voivodship divisions, include:

Commonwealth borders shifted with wars and treaties, sometimes several times in a decade, especially in the eastern and southern regions. Lesser Poland voivodship since 1999 Lesser Poland (sometimes also referred to as Little Poland, Polish MaÅ‚opolska, Latin Polonia Minor) is one of the historical regions of Poland. ... Tomb of Kazimierz the Great St. ... Voivodship wielkopolskie since 1999 Coat of Arms for voivodship wielkopolskie Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: , German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is a historical region of west-central Poland. ... Warta (Latin: Varta, German: Warthe) is a river in western-central Poland, a tributary of the Oder river. ... Historical division of Masovia Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical and historical region situated in central Poland with its capital at Warsaw. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... This article is about the region in Europe. ... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud or fee, consisted of heritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a vassal knights service (usually fealty, military service, and security). ... // Events The Edict of Orleans suspends the persecution of the Huguenots. ... Events and Trends Permanent Dutch settlement of New York Bay and the Hudson River. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Courland, Kurland, Couronia, or Curonia, a former Baltic province of the Teutonic Order state in Livonia (ca. ... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud or fee, consisted of heritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a vassal knights service (usually fealty, military service, and security). ... It has been suggested that Colonisation be merged into this article or section. ... Castara village beach looking south, Tobago Tobago is the smaller of the two main islands that make up the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ... Events February 3 - Tulipmania collapses in Netherlands by government order February 15 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor December 17 - Shimabara Rebellion erupts in Japan Pierre de Fermat makes a marginal claim to have proof of what would become known as Fermats last theorem. ... James Island is an island in the Gambia River, 30 km from the river mouth and near Juffure, The Gambia. ... Gambia River from space The Gambia River is a major river in Africa, running 1,130 km (700 miles) from the Fouta Djallon plateau in north Guinea to the Atlantic Ocean at the city of Banjul. ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ... The small wealthy former duchy of Courland took part in European colonialism. ... Map of Royal Prussia Royal Prussia (Polish: Prusy Królewskie, German: Königliches Preussen) was the western part of two parts of Prussia, which previously were governed as one Lands of the Teutonic Order. ... Royal Prussia (Polish: Prusy Królewskie, German: Königliches Preussen) was a Polish province formed from the western part of the Lands of the Teutonic Order following the Thirteen Years War or War of the Cities. During the war, the Prussian Confederation, led by the cities of Gdansk (Danzig), Elblag... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... Historic Pomerania (outlined in yellow) on the background of modern country borders. ... Map of the Baltic Sea. ... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... It has been suggested that Eldership of Samogitia be merged into this article or section. ... Prussian Silesia, 1871, outlined in yellow; Silesia at the close of the Seven Years War in 1763, outlined in cyan (areas now in the Czech Republic were Austrian-ruled at that time) Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlonsk / Åšlónsk) is a historical region in central Europe. ... Vasa can mean either: The House of Vasa, a royal house of Sweden and Poland. ... Duke is a title of nobility which refers to the sovereign male ruler of a Continental European duchy, to a nobleman of the highest grade of the British peerage, or to the highest rank of nobility in various other European countries, including Portugal, Spain and France (in Italy, principe is... Motto: none Voivodship Opole Municipal government Rada Miasta Opola Mayor Ryszard ZembaczyÅ„ski Area 96,2 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 128 800 250 000 1338/km² Founded City rights - 1217 Latitude Longitude 50°40 N 17°56 E Area code +48 77 Car plates OP Twin towns Alytus, Agii... // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ...

Coat of Arms for a Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth
Coat of Arms for a Polish–
Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth

Thought was given at various times to the creation of a Duchy of Ruthenia, particularly during the 1648 Cossack insurrection against Polish rule in Ukraine. Such a Duchy, as proposed in the 1658 Treaty of Hadiach, would have been a full member of the Commonwealth, which would thereupon have become a tripartite Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth or Commonwealth of Three Nations, but due to szlachta demands, Muscovite invasion, and division among the Cossacks, the plan was never implemented. For similar reasons, plans for a Polish-Lithuanian-Muscovite Commonwealth also were never realized, although during the Polish-Muscovite War (1605-1618) the Polish Prince (later, King) Władysław IV Waza was briefly elected Tsar of Muscovy. Image:Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodow. ... Image:Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodow. ... map of europe from 16th century This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... map of europe from 16th century This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Gerardus Mercator (March 5, 1512 – December 2, 1594) was a Flemish cartographer of German descent, his parents being from Gangelt in the Duchy of Jülich. ... Ruthenia - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... This is a 19th century design for a COA of a proposed Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth which never came into being. ... 19th-century proposed coat of arms for a Polish–Lithuanian– Ruthenian Commonwealth. ... Polish-Lithuanian-Muscovite Commonwealth (also known in Polish as unia troista - trinity-union) was a never-formed state based on a personal union between Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Muscovite Russia. ... Combatants Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Muscovite Russia Commanders Strength Casualties The Polish-Muscovite War (1605–1618) is the name of the series of wars (1605–1618) between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Muscovite Russia (or Muscovy), in the background of the Russian dynastic crisis known as the Time of Troubles (1598... Reign in Poland From November 8, 1632 until May 20, 1648 Reign in Russia From 1610 until 16351 Coronation On February 6, 1633 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Vasa Parents Zygmunt III Waza Anna Austriaczka Consorts Cecylia Renata Ludwika Maria Gonzaga Children with Cecylia Renata Zygmunt...


The Crown had about double the population of Lithuania and five times the income of the latter's treasury. As with other countries, the borders, area and population of the Commonwealth varied over time. After the Peace of Jam Zapolski (1582), the Commonwealth had approximately 815,000 km² area and a population of 6.5 million. After the Truce of Deulino (1618), the Commonwealth had an area of some 1 million km² (990,000 km²) and a population of 10–11 million (including some 4 million Poles). In the 16th century, the Polish bishop and cartographer Martin Kromer published a Latin atlas, entitled Poland: about Its Location, People, Culture, Offices and the Polish Commonwealth, which was regarded as the most comprehensive guide to the country. The Peace of Jam Zapolski was a treaty of peace which, following the Siege of Pskov, concluded the lengthy Livonian war (1558-82). ... Events January 15 - Russia cedes Livonia and Estonia to Poland February 24 - Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian Calendar. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude and geographical regions, we list here areas between 100 km² and 1000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Truce of Deulino (also known as Peace or Treaty of Dywilino), was signed in December 1618 and concluded the Dymitriad wars (also known as Polish-Muscovy War of 1605-1618) between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Muscovy. ... Events March 8 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but on May 15 confirms the discovery). ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different surface areas  here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... It has been suggested that Valid Bishops be merged into this article or section. ... Cartography is the study of map making and cartographers are map makers. ... Portrait Marcin Kromer (1512-1589) was a 16th century bishop of Warmia, cartographer, diplomat, and historian in Poland and later in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... For other meanings of Atlas, see Atlas (disambiguation). ... Polonia sive de situ, populis, moribus, magistratibus et Republica regni Polonici libri duo is a book, first published in Cologne in 1577 in Latin. ...


Kromer's works and other contemporary maps, such as those of Gerardus Mercator, show the Commonwealth as mostly plains. The Commonwealth's southeastern part, the Kresy, was famous for its steppes. The Carpathian Mountains formed part of the southern border, with the Tatra Mountain chain the highest, and the Baltic Sea formed the Commonwealth's northern border. As with most European countries at the time, the Commonwealth had extensive forest cover, especially in the east. Today, what remains of the Białowieża Forest constitutes the last largely intact primeval forest in Europe. Gerardus Mercator (March 5, 1512 – December 2, 1594) was a Flemish cartographer of German descent, his parents being from Gangelt in the Duchy of Jülich. ... In geography, a plain is a large area of land with relatively low relief. ... The name Kresy (Polish for borderlands, or more correctly Kresy Wschodnie, Eastern Borderlands) is used by Poles, mostly in historical context, to refer to the eastern part of Poland before the II World War. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - step, Ukrainian: - step), pronounced in English as step, is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by... Satellite image of the Carpathians Souvenir from Carpathian region (Poland) The Carpathian Mountains are the eastern wing of the great Central Mountain System of Europe, curving 1500 km (~900 miles) along the borders of Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro and northern Hungary. ... Tatras The Tatra mountains, Tatras or Tatra (in Polish and Slovak Tatry), constitute a mountain range on the border of Poland and Slovakia, and are the highest section of the Carpathian Mountains. ... Map of the Baltic Sea. ... Eucalyptus Forest at Swifts Creek in East Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. ... BiaÅ‚owieża Primaeval Forest, known as Belaveskaya Pushcha (Белавеская пушча) or Belovezhskaya Pushcha in Belarus and Puszcza BiaÅ‚owieska in Poland, is an ancient virginal forest straddling the border between Belarus and Poland, located 70 km north of Brest. ... Primeval forest is a term often used interchangeably with old growth forest to refer to substantial wooded areas which have been untouched by the effect of humans. ...


Voivodships of the Commonwealth

Further information: Voivodeships of Poland#Polish voivodeships 1386–1795 and Voivodes of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

Note that some sources use the word palatinate instead of voivodship. The voivodeship (Polish: województwo) has been a second-level administrative unit in Poland since the 14th century. ... Palatinate or Pfalz (German) can refer to: the Palatinate or Electoral Palatinate (German: Kurpfalz), a historic state within the Holy Roman Empire. ... A Voivodship (also voivodeship, Romanian: voievodat, Polish: województwo, Serbian: vojvodstvo or vojvodina) was a feudal state in medieval Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia and Serbia (see Vojvodina), ruled by a Voivod (voivode). ...


Greater Poland

Map showing voivodships of the Commonwealth of the Two Nations
  • Brześć Kujawski Voivodship (województwo brzesko-kujawskie, Brześć Kujawski)
  • Gniezno Voivodship (województwo gnieźnieńskie, Gniezno) from 1768
  • Inowrocław Voivodship (województwo inowrocławskie, Inowrocław)
  • Kalisz Voivodship (województwo kaliskie, Kalisz)
  • Łęczyca Voivodship (województwo łęczyckie, Łęczyca)
  • Mazovian Voivodship (województwo mazowieckie, of Mazowsze, Warsaw) consisting of
    • County of Ciechanów (ziemia ciechanowska, Ciechanów)
    • County of Czersk (ziemia czerska, Czersk)
    • County of Liw (ziemia liwska, Liw)
    • County of Łomża (ziemia łomżyńska, Łomża)
    • County of Nur (ziemia nurska, Nur)
    • County of Różan (ziemia różańska, Różan)
    • County of Warszawa (ziemia warszawska, Warsaw)
    • County of Wisk (ziemia wiska, Wizna)
  • Poznań Voivodship (województwo poznańskie, Poznań)
  • Płock Voivodship (województwo płockie, Płock) consisting of
    • County of Wyszogród (ziemia wyszogrodzka, Wyszogród)
    • County of Zawkrzeń (ziemia zawkrzeńska, Zawkrzeń)
  • Podlasie Voivodship (województwo podlaskie, Drohiczyn) consisting of:
    • County of Bielsk (ziemia bielska, Bielsk)
    • Country of Drohiczyn (ziemia drohicka, Drohiczyn)
    • Country of Mielnik (ziemia mielnicka, Mielnik)
  • Rawa Voivodship (województwo rawskie, Rawa) consisting of
    • County of Rawa (ziemia rawska, Rawa)
    • County of Gostyń (ziemia gostyńska, Gostyń)
    • County of Sochaczew (ziema sochaczewska, Sochaczew)
  • Sieradz Voivodship (województwo sieradzkie, Sieradz)
  • County of Dobrzyń (ziemia dobrzyńska, Dobrzyń)
  • County of Michałów (ziemia michałkowicka, Michałów)
  • County of Wieluń (ziemia wieluńska, Wieluń)
  • County of Wschów (ziema wschowska, Wschów)

Voivodship wielkopolskie since 1999 Coat of Arms for voivodship wielkopolskie Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: , German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is a historical region of west-central Poland. ... Image:Rzeczpospolita voivodships. ... Image:Rzeczpospolita voivodships. ... Brześć Kujawski Voivodship (Polish: województwo brzesko-kujawskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland from 14th century to the partitions of Poland in 1772-1795. ... Brześć Kujawski is a town in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodship, Poland. ... Gniezno Voivodship (Polish: Województwo Gnieźnieńskie, Latin: Palatinatus Gnesnensis) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland for a short time from 1768 when it was cut from the Kalisz Voivodship to the partitions of Poland in 1772-1795. ... Motto: none Voivodship Greater Poland Municipal government Mayor Jaromir Dziel Area 40,9 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 71 040 none 1737/km² Founded City rights 8th century 1239 Latitude Longitude 52°32 N 17°36 E Area code +48 61 Car plates PGN Twin towns Anagni, Esztergom, Falkenberg, Saint... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... InowrocÅ‚aw Voivodship (Polish: województwo inowrocÅ‚awskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland from 14th century to the partitions of Poland in 1772-1795. ... Motto: brak Voivodship Kuyavian-Pomeranian (Kujawsko-Pomorskie) President Ryszard Brejza Area 34,02 km² Coordinates -Latitude -Longitude 52°40 E 18°16 N Population 1970 - 54 900 1980 - 66 100 1990 - 77 700 2000 - 79 400 2004 - 77 647 InowrocÅ‚aws Website InowrocÅ‚aw is a town in northern... Map as of 1975 Kalisz Voivodship (1) 1975-1998 ( Polish: województwo kaliskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975- 1998, superseded by Greater Poland Voivodship. ... Kalisz (pronounce: [kaliʃ]) is a city in central Poland with 109,800 inhabitants (1995). ... LÄ™czyca Voivodship was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland from 14th century to the partitions of Poland in 1772-1795. ... Łęczyca (in full The Royal Town of Łęczyca, Polish: Królewskie Miasto Łęczyca) is a town of 18000 inhabitants in central Poland. ... Masovian voivodship since 1999 The Masovian Voivodship (in Polish województwo mazowieckie) is the largest and most populous of the sixteen Polish administrative regions or voivodships created in 1999. ... Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical and historical region situated in central Poland with its capital in Warsaw. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Ciechanów coat of arms Ciechanów (pronounced (IPA): [tÉ•exanuv]) is a town in north-central Poland with 47,900 inhabitants (2002). ... Czersk (51° 57′0″N, 21° 13′60″E) is a village in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodship, Poland. ... Liw is a village in Masovian Voivodship, Poland. ... Łomża is a town in north-eastern Poland, located approx. ... The word Nur has several meanings: -nur is an indo-european root denoting water or river. ... Różan is a small town in Mazovian Voivodship, Poland. ... Wizna is a small town in Podlasie Voivodship, Poland. ... Map as of 1975 // PoznaÅ„ Voivodship (1) 1975-1998 PoznaÅ„ Voivodship 1975-1998 (Polish: województwo poznaÅ„skie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975-1998, superseded by Greater Poland Voivodship. ... PoznaÅ„ (?· i; full official name: The Capital City of PoznaÅ„, Latin: , German: , Yiddish: פּױזן Poyzn) is a city in west-central Poland with over 578,900 inhabitants (2002). ... Plock Voivodship (Polish: województwo pÅ‚ockie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975-1998, superseded by Lodz Voivodship and Masovian Voivodship. ... Motto: none Voivodship Masovian Municipal government Rada Miasta PÅ‚ock Mayor MirosÅ‚aw Milewski Area 88 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 128 210 - 1456/km² Founded City rights - - Latitude Longitude 52°33 N 19°42 E Area code +48 24 Car plates WP (city) WPL (rest) Twin towns Darmstadt in... Wyszogród is a town in Poland in Masovian Voivodship, located in the middle of PÅ‚oÅ„sk Upland, by the Vistula River. ... Podlachia Voivodship or Podlasie Voivodship (Polish: województwo podlaskie) is an administrative region, or voivodship, in northeastern Poland. ... Drohiczyn is a town in north-eastern Poland. ... Drohiczyn is a town in north-eastern Poland. ... For the town in Bulgaria see Melnik, Bulgaria. ... Rawa Voivodship (Polish: Województwo Rawskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland since 15th century till the partitions of Poland in 1795. ... Rawa Mazowiecka - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... GostyÅ„ is a town in Greater Poland Voivodship (from 1975 to 1998 in Leszno Voivodship), in GostyÅ„ County. ... Sochaczew - a town in central Poland (52. ... Sieradz Voivodship (Polish: województwo sieradzkie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975-1998, superseded by Lodz Voivodship. ... Coat of Arms of Sieradz Sieradz is a town on Warta river in central Poland with 44,700 inhabitants (1995). ... Golub-DobrzyÅ„ is a town in Poland. ... WieluÅ„ is a town in central Poland with 25,500 inhabitants (1995). ...

Lesser Poland

Lesser Poland voivodship since 1999 Lesser Poland (sometimes also referred to as Little Poland, Polish MaÅ‚opolska, Latin Polonia Minor) is one of the historical regions of Poland. ... BeÅ‚z Voivodship (Polish: Województwo BeÅ‚skie, Latin: Palatinatus Belzensis) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland from 14th century to the partitions of Poland in 1772-1795. ... Belz (Ukrainian Белз, Polish BeÅ‚z, Yiddish בעלז) is a small town in western Ukraine, near the border with Poland. ... The BracÅ‚aw Voivodship (Polish: Województwo BracÅ‚awskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania since 14th century till 1569 and of the Kingdom of Poland since 1569 till 1793/1795. ... Bratslav (Ukrainian: ; Polish: BracÅ‚aw; Yiddish: ברעסאָבֿ /Breslov/) is a town in the Nemyriv raion of the Vinnytsya Oblast of Ukraine, on the river Southern Bug. ... Voivodship Czernichów (Polish: Województwo Czernihowskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) since 1635 till the partitions of Poland in 1772/1795. ... ... Województwo Kijowskie coat of arms The Kijów (Kiev) Voivodship (Polish: Województwo Kijowskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania since 14th century till 1569 and of the Kingdom of Poland since 1569 till 1793/1795. ... Motto: Oblast Municipality Municipal government City council (Київська Міська рада) Mayor Oleksandr Omelchenko Area 800 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 2,642,486 100% 3,299/km² Founded City rights around 5th century 1487 Latitude Longitude 50°27′ N 30°30′ E Area code +380 44 Car plates  ? Twin towns Athenes, Brussels, Budapest... Kraków Voivodship (1) 1975-1998 (Polish: województwo krakowskie) also named (1975-84) Kraków Metropolitan Voivodship (województwo miejskie krakowskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975-1998, superseded by Lesser Poland Voivodship. ... Tomb of Kazimierz the Great St. ... Lublin Voivodship. ... For other uses, see Lublin (disambiguation). ... The Podole Voivodship (Polish: Województwo Podolskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland, since the 14th century till 1793/1795. ... ... The Ruthenian Voivodship (Polish: Województwo Ruskie) (1366-1772) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland. ... Motto: Semper fidelis Oblast Lviv Oblast Municipal government City council (Львівська міська рада) Mayor City chairman Lyubomyr Bunyak Area 171,01 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 808,900 ? 4786/km² Founded City rights 13th century 1353 Latitude Longitude 49°51′ N 24°01′ E Area code +0322 Car plates  ? Twin towns Corning, Freiburg... Sandomierz Voivodship (Polish: Województwo Sandomierskie, Latin: Palatinatus Sandomirensis) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland from 14th century to the partitions of Poland in 1772-1795. ... Flag of Sandomierz Sandomierz Coat of Arms Sandomierz(Sandomir) ( listen) is a city in south-eastern Poland with 25,714 inhabitants (2006). ... Volhynian Voivodship (województwo wołyńskie) was one of the 16 voivodships of Poland prior to 1939 in Second Polish Republic and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Other languages FAQs | Table free Welcome to Wikipedia, the free-content encyclopedia that anyone can edit. ... Halych (Галич in Ukrainian or Russian [pronounced Halych and Galich]; Halicz in Polish; העליטש [Helitsh or Heylitsh] in Yiddish) is a town in Ukraine. ... Motto: Semper fidelis Oblast Lviv Oblast Municipal government City council (Львівська міська рада) Mayor City chairman Lyubomyr Bunyak Area 171,01 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 808,900 ? 4786/km² Founded City rights 13th century 1353 Latitude Longitude 49°51′ N 24°01′ E Area code +0322 Car plates  ? Twin towns Corning, Freiburg... PrzemyÅ›l (pronounce: pʃεmiÉ•l, Ukrainian: Перемишль, Peremyshl) is a town in south-eastern Poland with 67,847 inhabitants (2005). ... Coat of arms legendary Czech soldier Josef Åœvejk Sanok , latin Sanocum, Saanig, yidish Sonik,(in full The Royal Free City of Sanok, Polish: Królewskie Wolne Miasto Sanok) Ziemia Sanocka is a town in south-eastern Poland with 41,400 inhabitants (1995). ... Siewierz is a city in Poland. ... CheÅ‚m ( ; Ukrainian: , Kholm) is a town in eastern Poland with 72,595 inhabitants (2005). ... View into part of the market square. ... Zator is a town in southern Poland. ...

Grand Duchy of Lithuania

The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and PogoÅ„ in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji KunigaikÅ¡tystÄ—, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie KsiÄ™stwo Litewskie) was an... The Duchy of Samogita (Polish: Księstwo Żmudzkie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) from the 15th century till the last Partition of Poland in 1795. ... Location Ethnographic region Samogitia County TelÅ¡iai County Municipality TelÅ¡iai district municipality Elderate Number of elderates Coordinates General information Capital of Varniai rural elderate Population (rank) 1,310 in 2005 (90th) First mentioned 1314 Granted city rights 1950 Varniai is a city in western Lithuania, TelÅ¡iai County. ... Brześć Litewski Voivodship (Polish: Województwo Brzesko-Litewskie , Lithuanian: Lietuvos Brastos vaivadija) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) since 15th century till the partitions of Poland in 1795. ... For a city in France, see Brest, France. ... Mscislaw Voivodship (Polish: Województwo MÅ›cisÅ‚awskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) since 15th century till the partitions of Poland in 1795. ... Mstsislav (Polish: Mścisław) is a town in Belarus. ... Minsk Voivodship (Polish: Województwo MiÅ„skie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) since 15th century till the partitions of Poland in 1795. ... Location Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Government Belarus District City Belarus Minsk Voblast Minsk City City 980 (Polatsk) Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 256 km² Population  - City (2006) 1,780,000 Coordinates Elevation 280. ... Nowogródek Voivodship (Polish województwo nowogródzkie) was an unit of administrative division of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Poland between 15th century and 1795 and then between 1919 and 1939, with the capital in the town of Nowogródek. ... Navahradak (Нава́градак in Belarusian; Russian: Novogrudok; Polish: Nowogródek; Lithuanian: Naugardukas) is a city in western Belarus. ... Polock Voivodship (Polish: Województwo PoÅ‚ockie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) since 15th century till the partitions of Poland in 1795. ... Polatsk (Belarusian: По́лацак, По́лацк, also spelt as Polacak; Polish: PoÅ‚ock; Russian: По́лоцк, also transliterated as Polotsk, Polotzk, Polock) is the most historic city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina river. ... SmoleÅ„sk Voivodship (Polish: Województwo SmoleÅ„skie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) since 15th century till the partitions of Poland in 1795. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912 Smolensk (Russian: ) is a city in western Russia, located on the Dnieper River at 54. ... Troki Voivodship (Polish: Województwo Trockie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) since 15th century till the partitions of Poland in 1795. ... Trakai (Polish Troki) - a town and lake resort in Lithuania, a part of Trakai national park territory and an administrative centre of the region. ... Wilno Voivodship The Wilno Voivodship (Polish: , Lithuanian: ) (or Vilnius Voivodship) was the the capital Voivodship of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later the capital Voidvodship of Lithuania’s part in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Vilnius Old Town Vilnius (sometimes Vilna; Polish Wilno, Belarusian Вільня, Russian Вильнюс, see also Cities alternative names) is the capital city of Lithuania. ... Witebsk Voivodship (Polish: Województwo Witebskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) since 15th century till the partitions of Poland in 1795. ... Vitsebsk (Belarusian: Ві́цебск (Viciebsk); Russian: Ви́тебск (Vitebsk); Polish: Witebsk) is a city in Belarus, near the border with Russia and Latvia. ...

Royal Prussia

  • Duchy of Warmia (Księstwo Warmińskie, episcopal principality of Warmia, Lidzbark Warmiński)
  • Chełmno Voivodship (województwo chełmińskie, Chełmno)
  • Malbork Voivodship (województwo malborskie, Malbork)
  • Pomeranian Voivodship (województwo pomorskie, Gdańsk)

Map of Royal Prussia Royal Prussia (Polish: Prusy Królewskie, German: Königliches Preussen) was the western part of two parts of Prussia, which previously were governed as one Lands of the Teutonic Order. ... Lidzbark WarmiÅ„ski (pronounce: [liÊ£barg varmiɲski], German Heilsberg) is a town in the Polish voivodship Warmia i Mazury. ... The CheÅ‚mno Voivodship (Polish: Województwo CheÅ‚miÅ„skie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland since 1454/1466 till the partitions in 1772/1795. ... CheÅ‚mno (-Polish, German: Kulm) is a town in northern Poland with 22,000 inhabitants (1995) and the historical capital of CheÅ‚mno Land. ... The Malbork Voivodship (Polish: Województwo Malborskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland since 1454/1466 till the partitions in 1772/1795. ... Malbork Castle 2003. ... Pomeranian Voivodship, also Pomorze Voivodship (Polish: województwo pomorskie) is an administrative region or voivodship in northern Poland within the historic region of Eastern Pomorze. ... GdaÅ„sk (IPA: ; German: , Kashubian: , Latin: ; older English Dantzig also other languages) is the sixth-largest city in Poland, and also its principal seaport and the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. ...

Duchy of Livonia (Inflanty)

This article is about the region in Europe. ... Courland, Kurland, Couronia, or Curonia, a former Baltic province of the Teutonic Order state in Livonia (ca. ... Jelgava (German: Mitau; Russian: Елгава / Митава; Polish: Mitawa) is a town in central Latvia about 41 km southwest of Riga with approximately 66,000 inhabitants. ... Dorpat Voivodship (Polish: Województwo Dorpackie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Duchy of Livonia part of the (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) since in was formed in 1598 till the Swedish conquest of Livonia in 1620s. ... Image of Tartu street Tartu (German, Polish Dorpat, Russian Юpьeв Yuryev) is the second largest city of Estonia, with its population of 101,246 (the Population Census data is from 2000) in an area of 38. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Events and Trends Permanent Dutch settlement of New York Bay and the Hudson River. ... Livonian Voivodship (Lithuanian: Livonijos vaivadija, Polish: Województwo Inflanckie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Duchy of Livonia part of the (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) since in was formed in 1620s out of the Wenden Voivodship till the partitions in 1772. ... Daugavpils (Russian Двинcк Dvinsk, Lithuanian Daugpilis, German Dünaburg, Polish Dyneburg or Dźwińsk, Yiddish דענענבורג Denenburg), population 115,265 in 2000 census) is the second largest city in Latvia. ... Events and Trends Permanent Dutch settlement of New York Bay and the Hudson River. ... Parnawa Voivodship (Polish: Województwo Parnawskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Duchy of Livonia part of the (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) since in was formed in 1598 till the Swedish conquest of Livonia in 1620s. ... The city of Pärnu is located within the county of Pärnu. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Events and Trends Permanent Dutch settlement of New York Bay and the Hudson River. ... Wenden Voivodship (Polish: Województwo Wendeńskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Duchy of Livonia part of the (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) since in was formed in 1598 till the Swedish conquest of Livonia in 1620s. ... CÄ“sis (German: Wenden) is a town in Latvia located in the northern part of the Vidzeme Central upland. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Events and Trends Permanent Dutch settlement of New York Bay and the Hudson River. ...

See also

This is a List of Polish Coats of Arms. ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (properly, the Republic of the Two Nations: in Polish, Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów; in Belarusian, Рэч Паспалі́тая) was a federal monarchic republic comprising the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, 1569 – 1795. ... // History The history of Polish heraldry is an integral part of the history of the Szlachta, the Polish nobility. ... Polonization (Polish: ) is the assumption (complete or partial), of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ... The first noticeable presence of Islam in Poland began in the 14th century. ... The history of philosophy in Poland parallels the evolution of philosophy in Europe generally. ...

References

Inline:
  1. ^ Timothy Shopen, Languages and Their Status, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1987, ISBN 0-8122-1249-5 Google Print, p.133: Apart for the period before the Union of Lublin when Ruthenian was used as the written language in the Lithuanian state, neither Belarussian nor Ukrainian had any official status before the Russian Revolution.
  2. ^ Heritage: Interactive Atlas: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, last accessed on 19 March 2006 At its apogee, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth comprised some 400,000 square miles and a multi-ethnic population of 11 million. For population comparisons, see also those maps: [1], [2].
  3. ^ Mes Wladislaus.... Retrieved on September 3, 2006.
  4. ^ Maciej Janowski, Polish Liberal Thought, Central European University Press, 2001, ISBN 963-9241-18-0, Google Print: p.3, p.12
  5. ^ Paul W. Schroeder, The Transformation of European Politics 1763-1848, Oxford University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-19-820654-2, Google print p.84
  6. ^ Rett R. Ludwikowski, Constitution-Making in the Region of Former Soviet Dominance, Duke University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-8223-1802-4, Google Print, p.34
  7. ^ a b George Sanford, Democratic Government in Poland: Constitutional Politics Since 1989, Palgrave, 2002, ISBN 0-333-77475-2, Google print p.11 - constitutional monarchy, p.3 - anarchy
  8. ^ a b c d e Aleksander Gella, Development of Class Structure in Eastern Europe: Poland and Her Southern Neighbors, SUNY Press, 1998, ISBN 0-88706-833-2, Google Print, p.13
  9. ^ "Formally, Poland and Lithuania were to be distinct, equal components of the confederation, but Poland had greater representation in the Diet and became the dominant partner." "Lublin, Union of". Encyclopædia Britannica. (2006).[3]
  10. ^ a b c John Markoff describes the advent of modern codified national constitutions and states that "The first European country to follow the U.S. example was Poland in 1791." John Markoff, Waves of Democracy, 1996, ISBN 0-8039-9019-7, Google Print, p.121.
  11. ^ Halina Stephan, Living in Translation: Polish Writers in America, Rodopi, 2003, ISBN 90-420-1016-9, Google Print p. 373. Quoting from Sarmatian Review academic journal mission statement: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was ... characterized by religious tolerance unusual in premodern Europe
  12. ^ Feliks Gross, Citizenship and Ethnicity: The Growth and Development of a Democratic Multiethnic Institution, Greenwood Press, 1999, ISBN 0-313-30932-9, Google Print, p.122 (notes)
  13. ^ The Causes of Slavery or Serfdom: A Hypothesis, discussion and full online text of Evsey Domar (1970) "The Causes of Slavery or Serfdom: A Hypothesis," Economic History Review 30:1 (March), pp. 18-32
  14. ^ Martin Van Gelderen, Quentin Skinner, Republicanism: A Shared European Heritage, Cambridge University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-521-80756-5 Google Print: p.54
  15. ^ As stated, for instance by the preamble of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 1997.
  16. ^ Alfonsas Eidintas, Vytautas Zalys, Lithuania in European Politics: The Years of the First Republic, 1918-1940, Palgrave, 1999, ISBN 0-312-22458-3. Google Print, p.78
  17. ^ . In 1651, in the face of a growing threat from Poland, and forsaken by his Tatar allies, Khmelnytsky asked the Tzar to incorporate Ukraine as an autonomous duchy under Russian protection. ency=Encyclopædia Britannica[4]
  18. ^ a b Pacy, James S., James T. McHugh [2001-08-30]. Diplomats Without a Country: Baltic Diplomacy, International Law, and the Cold War, 1st, Post Road West, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. DOI:10.1336/0313318786. ISBN 0313318786. Retrieved on 2006-09-03.
  19. ^ Joanna Olkiewicz, Najaśniejsza Republika Wenecka (Most Serene Republic of Venice), Książka i Wiedza, 1972, Warszawa
  20. ^ Joseph Conrad, Notes on Life and Letters: Notes on Life and Letters, Cambridge University Press, 2004, ISBN 0-521-56163-9, Google Print, p.422 (notes)
  21. ^ Frost, Robert I.. The northern wars : war, state and society in northeastern Europe, 1558-1721. Harlow, England; <space>New York: Longman's. 2000. Especially Pp. 9-11, 114, 181, 323.
  22. ^ William Bullitt, The Great Globe Itself: A Preface to World Affairs, Transaction Publishers, 2005, ISBN 1-4128-0490-6, Google Print, p.42-43
  23. ^ John Adams, The Political Writings of John Adams, Regnery Gateway, 2001, ISBN 0-89526-292-4, Google Print, p.242
  24. ^ a b Henry Eldridge Bourne, The Revolutionary Period in Europe 1763 to 1815, Kessinger Publishing, 2005, ISBN 1-4179-3418-2, Google Print p.161
  25. ^ a b Wolfgang Menzel, Germany from the Earliest Period Vol. 4, Kessinger Publishing, 2004, ISBN 1-4191-2171-5, Google Print, p.33
  26. ^ Isabel de Madariaga, Russia in the Age of Catherine the Great, Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., 2002, ISBN 1-84212-511-7, Google Print p.431
  27. ^ Carl L. Bucki, The Constitution of May 3, 1791, Text of a presentation made at the Polish Arts Club of Buffalo on the occasion of the celebrations of Poland's Constitution Day on May 3, 1996, last accessed on 20 March 2006
  28. ^ Piotr Stefan Wandycz, The Price of Freedom: A History of East Central Europe from the Middle Ages to the Presentm Routledge (UK), 2001, ISBN 0-415-25491-4, Google Print p.131
  29. ^ Andrzej Wasko, Sarmatism or the Enlightenment: <space>The Dilemma of Polish Culture, Sarmatian Review XVII.2, online
  30. ^ Linda Gordon, Cossack Rebellions: Social Turmoil in the Sixteenth Century Ukraine, SUNY Press, 1983, ISBN 0-87395-654-0, Google Print, p.51
  31. ^ "Poland, history of" Encyclopædia Britannica from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. [5] [Accessed February 10, 2006]. and "Ukraine" Encyclopædia Britannica from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. [6] [Accessed February 14, 2006].
General:
  • Norman Davies, God's Playground, ISBN 0-231-05353-3 and ISBN 0-231-05351-7 (two volumes).
  • Jan Chryzostom Pasek, Memoirs of the Polish Baroque: The Writings of Jan Chryzostom Pasek, a Squire of the Commonwealth of Poland and Lithuania, ISBN 0-520-02752-3.
  • Adam Zamoyski, The Polish Way: a Thousand-Year History of the Poles and Their Culture, ISBN 0-7818-0200-8.
  • Pawel Jasienica, Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów (Commonwealth of the Two Nations), ISBN 83-06-01093-0.
  • Zdzisław Kowalewski, Rzeczpospolita nie doceniona: Kultura naukowa i polityczna Polski przedrozbiorowej (Commonwealth not valued: Science and political culture of the pre-partition Poland), ISBN 83-211-0312-X.
  • Teresa Chynczewska-Hennel, Rzeczpospolita XVII wieku w oczach cudzoziemców (Commonwelath of the 17th century in the eyes of the foreigners), ISBN 83-04-04107-3.
  • Albrycht Stanisław Radziwiłł, Pamiętnik o dziejach w Polsce (Memoires on the Polish history). ISBN 83-06-00092-7

Ruthenian may refer to: Ruthenia, a name applied to various parts of Eastern Europe Ruthenians, the peoples of Ruthenia Ruthenian language, a name applied to several Slavic languages This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... For John Markoff, computing and technology writer, see John Markoff John Markoff is Professor of Sociology and History at the University of Pittsburgh. ... Sarmatian Review is an English language peer reviewed academic journal on the culture, history, and society of Central and Eastern Europe, published by Polish Institute of Houston at Rice University three times a year in January, April, and September. ... For the Figure of speech, see Ellipsis (figure of speech). ... Evsey Domar (1914-1997) was a Polish-American economist, famous as co-author of the Harrod-Domar model. ... Quentin Skinner is Regius Professor of Modern History at Cambridge University. ... The Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 2 April 1997 was Polands first post-communist constitution. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bohdan Zynovii Mykhailovych Khmelnytskyi (Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький in Ukrainian, commonly transliterated as Khmelnytsky; known in Polish as Bogdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; in Russian as Bohdan Khmelnitsky) ( 1595 – August 6, 1657) was a Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth noble of Polish or Ruthenian origin, leader of the Zaporozhian Cossack Hetmanate, hetman of Ukraine, noted for... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a permanent identifier (permalink) given to a World Wide Web file or other Internet document so that if its Internet address changes, users will be redirected to its new address. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph Conrad. ... William Christian Bullitt, Jr. ... John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) was a Founding Father of the United States and American politician who served as the first Vice President of the United States (1789–1797), and the second President of the United States (1797–1801). ... Wolfgang Menzel (June 21, 1798 - April 23, 1873), German poet, critic and literary historian, was born at Waldenburg in Silesia. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in Leap years). ... Piotr Stefan Wandycz is a Polish-American historian, President of the Polish Institute of Arts & Sciences of America, and profesor emeritus at Yale University, specializing in Eastern and Central European history. ... Sarmatian Review is an English language peer reviewed academic journal on the culture, history, and society of Central and Eastern Europe, published by Polish Institute of Houston at Rice University three times a year in January, April, and September. ... Prof. ... Gods Playground is a book about history of Poland written by Norman Davies. ... image goes here Noble Family Pasek Coat of Arms Doliwa Parents  ? Consorts unknown Children  ? Date of Birth 1636 Place of Birth W&#281;grzynowice Date of Death 1 August 1701 Place of Death Niedzieliszki Jan Chryzostom Pasek (1636-1701) was a nobleman (szlachcic) and writer in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Adam Zamoyski - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Noble Family RadziwiÅ‚Å‚ Coat of Arms TrÄ…by Parents StanisÅ‚aw Pius RadziwiÅ‚Å‚ Marianna Myszka Consorts Regina von Eisenreich Anna Krystyna Lubomirska Children none Date of Birth July 1, 1595 Place of Birth OÅ‚yka Date of Death November 12, 1656 Place of Death lt: Gdanskas Albrycht StanisÅ‚aw Radziwi...

Further reading

  • Lukowski, Jerzy Tadeusz, Liberty's Folly: The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Eighteenth Century, 1697–1795. Routledge, 1991 (ISBN 0-415-03228-8).Google Print
  • Snyder, Timothy. "The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569-1999", New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2003 (ISBN 0-300-10586-X).
  • Stone, Daniel Z. The Polish-Lithuanian State, 1386–1795 (A History of East Central Europe; 4). Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 2001 (hardcover, ISBN 0-295-98093-1).

Jerzy (George) Tadeusz Lukowski (or Łukowski) is a Polish-British historian at University of Birmingham. ... Timothy Snyder is an American historian from Yale University specializing in history of modern nationalism and history of East Europe. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Microsoft Word, or Microsoft Office Word, is Microsofts flagship word processing software. ... Ruthenian was a historic East Slavic language, spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and after 1569 in the East Slavic territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Image File history File links LinkFA-star. ...


 
 

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