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Encyclopedia > Commonwealth Realm
The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink
The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink

A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 37 KB) Summary Map of the various kingdoms of the world that share Elizabeth II as their sovereign. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 37 KB) Summary Map of the various kingdoms of the world that share Elizabeth II as their sovereign. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1999)  -  Ransford Smith Establishment  -  as British Commonwealth 1926   -  as the Commonwealth 1949  Membership 53 sovereign states Website thecommonwealth. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... A monarch (see sovereignty) is a type of ruler or head of state. ...


These countries are independent kingdoms, and the sovereign is separately monarch of each state; thus, the Commonwealth Realms are in personal union with one another, much as, for instance, the United Kingdom and Hanover were before a split in the royal lineage in 1837. This concept was expressed in the proclamation of Elizabeth II's new titles in 1952. In each realm she is known by the title appropriate for that realm. For example, in Barbados she is known as "Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Barbados," or, simply, the Queen of Barbados. A personal union is a relationship of two or more entities that are considered separate, sovereign states, which, through established law, share the same person as their respective head of state. ... Hanover (German: , IPA: ), on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


While the term "Dominion", as a title, can still be used to refer to any of the Commonwealth Realms other than the United Kingdom, it has been increasingly replaced by the term "Realm" since the 1950s. Both terms are unambiguous when used in a Commonwealth context, but, on those occasions it is necessary to refer to these realms collectively in a different context, they may be distinguished from other realms as "Commonwealth Realms". A dominion, often Dominion, is the territory or the authority of a dominus (a lord or master). ...

Contents

System of government

Outside the United Kingdom, the Queen appoints a Governor-General to act as her vice-regal representative. In almost all Realms, the Governor-General is appointed by the Queen on the advice of each nation's Prime Minister; in the Solomon Islands and Tuvalu, the Prime Minister is required to consult the legislature in confidence. In Papua New Guinea, the Governor-General is nominated to the Queen by parliamentary vote. Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... A viceroy is somebody who governs a country or province as a substitute for the monarch. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


Within the United Kingdom, the Queen appoints Counsellors of State to perform her duties in her absence. She is also represented by a Governor in each state of Australia, by a Lieutenant-Governor in each province of Canada and by a Queen's Representative in the Cook Islands. In these cases, she is represented in her role as Queen in right of Australia, Canada, and New Zealand respectively. In the United Kingdom, Counsellors of State are senior members of the British royal family to whom the Monarch, presently Queen Elizabeth II, delegates certain state functions and powers when she is abroad or unavailable for other reasons (such as short-term incapacity or sickness). ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Australia, having a federal system of government, is divided into states and territories. ... A Lieutenant Governor or Lieutenant-Governor is a government official who is the subordinate or deputy of a Governor or Governor-General. ... Canada consists of ten provinces and three territories. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ...


These officials exercise almost all the powers of the constitutional monarch with mostly symbolic, figurehead duties, but they also have reserve powers, called the Royal Prerogative. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In politics, a figurehead, by metaphor with the carved figurehead at the prow of a sailing ship, is a person who holds an important title or office yet executes little actual power. ... The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognised in common law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy as belonging to the Crown alone. ...


The Commonwealth Realms are each members of, but should be distinguished from, the Commonwealth of Nations, which is an organisation of mostly former British colonies. Within the Commonwealth, there is no difference in status between the Commonwealth Realms and other Commonwealth members, which are either Commonwealth Republics or realms with their own monarchs (Brunei, Lesotho, Malaysia, Swaziland, and Tonga). The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1999)  -  Ransford Smith Establishment  -  as British Commonwealth 1926   -  as the Commonwealth 1949  Membership 53 sovereign states Website thecommonwealth. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... The Commonwealth republics, shown in pink A Commonwealth republic is any one of the 31 sovereign states of the Commonwealth of Nations that have a republican form of government. ...


Current Commonwealth Realms

The Commonwealth Realms are, in alphabetical order:

Flag Country Dates Queen's Title Royal Standard
Antigua and Barbuda since independence in 1981 Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Antigua and Barbuda and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth. None
Australia since adoption of the Statute of Westminster in 1942 (retroactive to 1939) Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Australia and Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth.
The Bahamas since independence in 1973 Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth. None
Barbados since independence in 1966 Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Barbados and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth
Belize since independence in 1981 Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Belize and of Her Other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth None
Canada since the Statute of Westminster in 1931 In English: Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom, Canada and Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith.

In French: Elizabeth Deux, par la grâce de Dieu, Reine du Royaume-Uni, du Canada et de ses autres royaumes et territoires, Chef du Commonwealth, Défenseuse de la Foi. For other Heads of States’s standards, see Gallery of head of state standards. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Antigua_and_Barbuda. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Bahamas. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Barbados. ... Image File history File links The Royal Standard of Barbados. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belize. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada. ... ...

Grenada since independence in 1974 Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Grenada and Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth None
Jamaica since independence in 1962 Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Jamaica and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth
New Zealand since adoption of the Statute of Westminster in 1947 Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of New Zealand and Her Other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith
Papua New Guinea since independence in 1975 Elizabeth the Second, Queen of Papua New Guinea and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth None
Saint Kitts and Nevis since independence in 1983 Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Saint Christopher and Nevis and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth None
Saint Lucia since independence in 1979 Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Saint Lucia and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth None
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines since independence in 1979 Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth None
Solomon Islands since independence in 1978 Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of the Solomon Islands and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth None
Tuvalu since independence in 1978 Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Tuvalu and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth None
United Kingdom n/a Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith

For historical and practical reasons, the United Kingdom is often distinguished from the other Realms. For example, because it is the Queen's country of residence, there is no Governor-General for the United Kingdom, and her relationship with the British government is direct and personal to an extent that is not possible for the other Realms. From the British perspective, the other Realms are sometimes considered to be "overseas realms". Image File history File links Royal_Standard_of_Canada. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Grenada. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jamaica. ... Image File history File links Jamaican Royal Standard File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Papua_New_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Kitts_and_Nevis. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Lucia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Vincent_and_the_Grenadines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Solomon_Islands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tuvalu. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Royal_Standard_of_England. ... Image File history File links Royal_Standard_of_Scotland. ...


Additionally, under the 1981 Cook Islands Constitution, the Queen in Right of New Zealand is head of state, but any change in the succession made by New Zealand would have no effect in the Cook Islands unless separately ratified there. This effectively makes the relationship of the monarchy in the Cook Islands to the Realm of New Zealand the same as the relationship of the monarchy in New Zealand to that of the United Kingdom after ratification of the Statute of Westminster in 1947. New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch, since February 6, 1952. ... The Realm of New Zealand is the territory in which the Queen in right of New Zealand is head of state. ... ...

Further information: Monarchy in the Cook Islands

Elizabeth II is neither the monarch nor the Head of State of Fiji, as it is not a Commonwealth Realm (although it is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations). However, the Great Council of Chiefs of Fiji recognises Queen Elizabeth II as 'Paramount Chief'. The Cook Islands are a constitutional monarchy within the Realm of New Zealand with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch, since 4 August 1965. ... The Great Council of Chiefs (Bose Levu Vakaturaga in Fijian) is a constitutional body in the Republic of the Fiji Islands. ... The Paramount Chief of Fiji (Fijian:Ilisapeci-Na Radi ni Viti kei Peritania or Ilisapeci-Na Tui Viti) is the official name given to Queen Elizabeth II in Fiji. ...


Flags of the Queen in Commonwealth Realms

See Royal Standard for the different standards used by the Queen
The personal standard of Queen Elizabeth II
The personal standard of Queen Elizabeth II

The Queen flies the British Royal Standards only in the United Kingdom; she has separate flags for Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Jamaica and Barbados. Each is a banner of the country's coat of arms with the Royal Cypher in the centre, and a crowned 'E' for 'Elizabeth'. She also has a personal flag as Head of the Commonwealth, which is used for general Commonwealth purposes, or when visiting Commonwealth countries which do not recognise her as Head of State. The Queen formerly had flags for Sierra Leone, Mauritius, Malta, and Trinidad and Tobago, but when these countries became republics they became obsolete. For other Heads of States’s standards, see Gallery of head of state standards. ... Image File history File links Personal_flag_of_Queen_Elizabeth_II.svg Personal flag used by Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom when outside the Commonwealth Realms. ... Image File history File links Personal_flag_of_Queen_Elizabeth_II.svg Personal flag used by Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom when outside the Commonwealth Realms. ... For other Heads of States’s standards, see Gallery of head of state standards. ... The Royal Cypher of Queen Elizabeth II, surmounted with a crown. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1999)  -  Ransford Smith Establishment  -  as British Commonwealth 1926   -  as the Commonwealth 1949  Membership 53 sovereign states Website thecommonwealth. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose governance is based on popular representation and control. ...


Flags of Governors-General

Similarly, the Governor-General has his or her own flag, featuring a lion passant (from the crest which sits atop the Royal Arms for England) and a royal crown, with the name of the country written in capitals on a scroll underneath. The Governor General of Canada has a distinctive design, in which the lion is bearing a maple leaf. Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... In heraldry, a crest is a component of a coat of arms. ... The Governor General of Canada (French: Gouverneure générale du Canada or Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian Monarch, who is Canadas Head of State; Canada is one of sixteen Commonwealth realms, all of which share a single...


Historical development

Fourteen of the current Commonwealth Realms, and all of the former Realms, are former British colonies that have evolved into independent countries. The exceptions are the United Kingdom itself and Papua New Guinea, which was formed in 1975 as a union of the former German New Guinea, which had been administered by Australia as an international trusteeship before independence, and the former British New Guinea, which had legally been a British possession, though administered on the United Kingdom's behalf by Australia (as "Papua") since 1905. This article refers to a colony in politics and history. ... Independence is the self-government of a nation, country, or state by its residents and population, generally exercising sovereignty. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... United Nations Trust Territories were the successors of the League of Nations mandates and came into being when the League of Nations ceased to exist in 1946. ...


The possibility that a British colony might become a new kingdom was first mooted in the 1860s, when it was proposed that the Canadian Confederation might become known as the Kingdom of Canada. In the face of opposition from the Colonial Office and the United States, however, the self-governing confederation created in 1867 became officially known as the Dominion of Canada. We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... Canada is the second largest and the northern-most country in the world, occupying most of the North American land mass. ...


During the latter part of the 19th century, various other colonies became self-governing. At the Imperial Conference of 1907, the Canadian Prime Minister, Wilfrid Laurier, insisted on the need for a formula to differentiate between the crown colonies and the self-governing colonies. The term Dominion, which till this time had applied uniquely to Canada, was extended to cover all self-governing colonies, which at that time included Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland, the Cape Colony, Natal and Transvaal. Shortly afterwards, in 1910, the three South African colonies merged with the Orange River Colony to form the Union of South Africa. In 1921, they were joined by the Irish Free State which had unwillingly accepted Dominion status as a condition of concluding peace with the United Kingdom. Imperial Conferences were gatherings of British Empire government leaders in London in 1887, 1897, 1902, 1907, 1911, 1921, 1923, 1926, 1930 and 1937. ... Sir Wilfrid Laurier, PC, GCMG, KC, BCL, DCL, LLD, DLitt, baptized Henri-Charles-Wilfrid Laurier (November 20, 1841 – February 17, 1919) was the seventh Prime Minister of Canada from July 11, 1896, to October 5, 1911. ... A dominion, often Dominion, is the territory or the authority of a dominus (a lord or master). ... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... Natal is a former British colony, and a South African province. ... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ... Flag of Orange River Colony The Orange River Colony was a British colony created by the annexation of the Orange Free State in 1900, after the Boer War. ... National motto: Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Official languages Afrikaans, Dutch and English. ... Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann...


Although the Dominions were self-governing, their ability to legislate remained theoretically subject to the British Parliament, and the Monarch of the United Kingdom nominally reigned over them as a single imperial domain, with a governor-general representing the British government in each Dominion. The United Kingdom retained responsibility for their foreign policy and defence. In practice, this unitary model continued to erode. The international role of the Dominions increased as a result of their participation and sacrifices in the First World War, which prompted Robert Borden, Prime Minister of Canada, and Jan Smuts, the South African minister of defence, to demand that the Dominions be given full recognition at the Versailles conference as "autonomous nations of an Imperial commonwealth". As a result, the Dominions were separate signatories to the Treaty of Versailles, and obtained seats in the League of Nations, together with India. In 1920, Canada exchanged envoys with the United States, and in 1923 it concluded a treaty in its own right - the Halibut Fisheries Treaty. In 1925 the Dominions refused to be bound by the British signature to the Treaty of Locarno. The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... Sir Robert Laird Borden, PC, GCMG, KC, DCL, LL.D (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911, to July 10, 1920, and the third Nova Scotian to hold this office. ... Jan Smuts Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts, OM, CH, ED, KC, FRS (May 24, 1870 – September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African and Commonwealth statesman, military leader, and philosopher. ... The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 was a conference organized by the victors of World War I to negotiate the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and the defeated Central Powers. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919-1920. ... The Locarno Treaties were seven agreements negotiated at Locarno, Switzerland on 5–16 October 1925 and formally signed in London on December 1, in which the World War I western European Allied powers and the new states of central and eastern Europe sought to secure the post-war territorial...


The Balfour Declaration of 1926, embodying agreements reached at the 1926 Imperial Conference formally recognised that in practice the Dominions had in recent years evolved into full sovereignty, by declaring that they were autonomous and equal in status to the UK. As a result, each of the governments of the Dominions established a separate and direct relationship with the Monarchy, with the governor-general now acting as a personal representative of the Sovereign. The first result of the new convention was the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927, which implicitly recognised the Irish Free State as separate from the United Kingdom, and the King as king of each Dominion rather than the British king in each Dominion.[verification needed] The Balfour Declaration of 1926 is a statement of the October-November 1926 Imperial Conference of British Empire leaders in London. ... Imperial Conferences were gatherings of British Empire government leaders in London in 1887, 1897, 1902, 1907, 1911, 1921, 1923, 1926, 1930 and 1937. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... The Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act, 1927 (17 Geo 5, c. ...


The Balfour declaration was implemented in 1931 by the Statute of Westminster, which granted formal legislative independence to the Dominions, with some minor reservations that were in practice never enforced. Canada, the Union of South Africa, and the Irish Free State all immediately obtained legislative independence from the United Kingdom through the statute. In some Dominions, adoption of the Statute was subject to ratification by the Dominion parliament. Australia and New Zealand achieved the same status after their parliaments ratified the Statute, in 1942 and 1947 respectively (Australia's ratification being back-dated to 1939). The statute also covered Newfoundland, but it was never ratified there, and the dominion reverted to colonial status in 1934, eventually joining Canada in 1949. 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... This article is about the Statute of Westminster relating to the British Empire and its dominions. ... National motto: Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Official languages Afrikaans, Dutch and English. ... Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full year calendar). ... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ...


The Statute of Westminster retained some residual constitutional functions for the Westminster Parliament, such as the right to legislate for a Dominion by request, and reserving the right to alter certain aspects of the constitutions of some Dominions. The Irish Free State gradually eroded these rights after 1936, and they finally lapsed there when it formally became a republic in 1949. South Africa became a republic in 1961, which also severed its remaining constitutional links to the United Kingdom. Canada completed this process in 1982 in cooperation with the United Kingdom, and Australia and New Zealand did the same in 1986. 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Although the Dominions were now effectively independent kingdoms under a common monarch, and acted increasingly independently of the United Kingdom, their citizens retained a common citizenship, which was defined in terms of allegiance to the Sovereign, without regard to the Dominion of residence. Although Canada (in 1921) and the Irish Free State (in 1935) had passed their own nationality legislation, this concept did not come into question until the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946. This resulted in an agreement in 1947 that each Commonwealth member was free to pass their own citizenship legislation, so that their citizens only owed allegiance to the Crown in right of his or her own country.


The next stage in the creation of the Commonwealth Realms took place with the dissolution of the Indian Empire. The possibility that a colony might be granted independence without even remaining in the Commonwealth was recognised for the first time in the Cripps Declaration of 1942, and the decision by Burma to become an independent republic outside the Commonwealth in 1948 met with no opposition. India and Pakistan became independent as Dominions in order to accelerate the process while keeping them in the Commonwealth, so that they could complete their constitutions as independent nations. Ceylon, which, as a crown colony, was originally promised "fully responsible status within the British Commonwealth of Nations", was formally granted independence as a Dominion to assure it of equal status with India and Pakistan. Ceylon became the last newly independent colony to be entitled a Dominion. Finally, the London Declaration of 1949 established the formula by which republics could remain within the Commonwealth if they so chose. This process finally established the principle that former colonies, once granted independence, whether as republics or under the Crown, were fully equal in status to each other and to the United Kingdom. The British Raj is an informal term for the period of British rule of most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka (previously known as Ceylon). ...


As these constitutional developments were taking place, the British government was concerned with how to represent them. At the 1948 Prime Ministers Conference, the term Dominion was avoided in favour of Commonwealth country; at the same time, the term "British Commonwealth" was replaced by "Commonwealth of Nations"; in both cases to avoid the subordination implied by the older terms. The final step was the recognition of each Dominion under the Crown as a Commonwealth Realm. This was initiated by the UK's proclamation of the accession of Elizabeth II in 1952, issued at St. James Palace, which declared her to be Queen "of this Realm, and of her other Realms and Territories". It also marked the first inclusion of the title Head of the Commonwealth, and the first reference to "representatives of other Members of the Commonwealth" as among those proclaiming. Following this, the phrase "British Dominions beyond the Seas" was replaced with "her other Realms and Territories" within each of Elizabeth's titles, the latter using the medieval French word "realm" (from royaume) to replace the previous use of Dominion. Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Main entrance of St Jamess Palace, London St Jamess Palace is one of Londons oldest and most historic palaces. ... The present British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is the second to be recognised as Head of the Commonwealth in the 53 member states of the Commonwealth of Nations. ...


In 1953, a Royal Style and Titles Act was passed separately in each of the seven Realms then existing except Pakistan, which gave formal recognition to the separateness and the equality of the Realms by entitling the Queen as "Queen of [Realm] and her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth" (thus overturning the convention laid out on this point in the Statute of Westminster). South Africa and Ceylon (now called Sri Lanka) adopted this formula immediately, while Australia, Canada and New Zealand recognised the monarch as also being queen of the United Kingdom in her title. At her Coronation she took a separate oath for each Realm. At the time, it was argued that the whole point was to reflect the established fact that the Crown was now legally divisible and all the Realms were legally equal in status. In the Commons debate, Patrick Gordon Walker stated: "We in this country have to abandon... any sense of property in the Crown. The Queen, now, clearly, explicitly and according to title, belongs equally to all her realms and to the Commonwealth as a whole". Of the many Royal Style and Titles Acts, the most constitutionally important was actually called the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act. ... Patrick Chrestien Gordon Walker, Baron Gordon-Walker (7 April 1907–2 December 1980) was a British politician. ...


The principle of fully separate and equal Realms was followed in all future grants of independence. Other Realms achieved independence through the "winds of change" that swept through Africa in the 1960s, the collapse of the Federation of the West Indies in 1961, or at later dates. The latest country to become a Commonwealth Realm was Saint Kitts and Nevis, upon independence in 1983. All these Realms had previously been British colonies. When Papua New Guinea became independent of Australia in 1975, this was the first (and so far the last) time a Commonwealth Realm was created that had never been made up of British colonies in its entirety. Most of these Realms became independent with full constitutional autonomy, although in some cases certain links to the United Kingdom were voluntarily retained, such as the right of appeal to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom. The Wind of Change speech was a historically-important address made by British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan to the Parliament of South Africa, on 3 February 1960 in Cape Town. ... National motto: Official language English Capital Chaguaramas Capitals coordinates Largest city {{{largestcity}}} {{{head_of_state}}} {{{current_head_of_state}}} {{{head_of_government}}} {{{current_head_of_government}}} Political system Constitutional monarchy Area  - Total   - % water Ranked % Population   - Total (1960)   - Density Ranked approx. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ...


Constitutional implications

Monarch's role in the Realms

The Queen reads the Throne Speech in a joint session of the Canadian Parliament, 1977, accompanied by her husband, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
The Queen reads the Throne Speech in a joint session of the Canadian Parliament, 1977, accompanied by her husband, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh

Though the Queen's constitutional powers are virtually identical in each Realm, she does not usually act personally as political Head of State except in the UK, nor does she commonly perform ceremonial duties, except on occasions of significant historical or political importance. This results from the fact that she resides primarily in the UK; however, she usually visits the other major Commonwealth Realms at least once every five or six years, meaning she is present in a number of her realms outside the UK every other year. Day-to-day political and ceremonial duties are instead performed in each Realm by a Governor-General who serves as the Queen's representative. Image File history File links EIIR-Canadian_Parliament. ... Image File history File links EIIR-Canadian_Parliament. ... Queen Beatrix of The Netherlands reads her countrys Speech from the Throne Queen Elizabeth II reads Canadas Speech from the Throne in 1977 The Speech from the Throne, sometimes referred to by the shorter term Throne Speech, is an event in certain monarchies in which the monarch (or... The Parliament of Canada (in French: le Parlement du Canada) is Canadas legislative branch, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario. ... The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, (Philip Mountbatten; born Prince Philippos of Greece and Denmark, 10 June 1921) is the husband and consort of Queen Elizabeth II. Originally a Prince of Greece and Denmark, Prince Philip abandoned those titles to serve in the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom, but... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ...

Further information: List of Commonwealth visits made by Queen Elizabeth II

This shared nature of one person as head of multiple states has led to situations where the monarch has a potential or actual conflict of interest. For example, the Queen, in 1984, while on a state visit to Jordan representing the United Kingdom, made a speech expressing opinions of the British government that did not reflect the view of her Australian government. This raised questions in Australia about the propriety of such an action.[1] Fifties February 1952 Kenya 24-25 November 1953 Bermuda 25-27 November 1953 Jamaica 17-19 December 1953 Fiji 19-20 December 1953 Tonga 23 December 1953 - 30 January 1954 New Zealand 3 February - 1 April 1954 Australia 5 April 1954 Cocos Islands 10-21 April 1954 Ceylon 27 April...


More serious potential conflicts of interest have arisen in connection with matters of war and peace. In 1939, South Africa and Canada declared war a few days after the UK did, so that George VI, as king of all three countries, was, for a few days, simultaneously at war and at peace with Germany. In South Africa the declaration of war had followed an initial declaration of neutrality which had precipitated a political crisis resulting in the replacement of the prime minister. Ireland (as the Irish Free State had renamed itself in 1937), which was arguably a Dominion until 1949, remained neutral throughout the war and the King had to validate the German consul's credentials. (No possibility of such a conflict of interest arose with Australia or New Zealand. The Australian Prime Minister, Robert Menzies stated that Australia was at war with Germany as a result of the British declaration of war; New Zealand made a separate declaration of war which was timed to coincide with the British declaration). George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann... During the period of 1936 to 1949 it was unclear whether or not the Irish state was a republic or a form of constitutional monarchy, and whether its head of state was the President of Ireland or the King of Ireland, George VI. The exact constitutional status of the state... Rt Hon Robert Menzies Sir Robert Gordon Menzies (20 December 1894 – 14 May 1978), Australian politician, was the twelfth and longest-serving Prime Minister of Australia. ...


A more extreme example is the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. George VI, as head of state of both warring nations, was, in a legal sense, at war with himself. Combatants India Pakistan Commanders General K M Cariappa, Lt Gen S M Shrinagesh, Maj Gen K S Thimayya, Maj Gen Kalwant Singh Maj Gen Akbar Khan Casualties 1,104 killed[1](Indian army) 684 KIA(State Forces)[2] [3] 3,152 wounded [1] 1,500 - 5,000 killed[4] (Pakistan... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ...


In 1983, during Operation Urgent Fury, Queen Elizabeth was the Queen of Grenada while it was being invaded by many other Caribbean countries of which she was also Queen. Additionally, the invasion was also opposed by several other countries in which she was Queen, notably the United Kingdom, Canada and Belize. The Invasion of Grenada, known to US forces as Operation Urgent Fury, was an invasion of the island nation of Grenada by the military forces of the United States of America and several Caribbean nations. ...


An important role of a Governor-General is to act in such situations in a way that avoids placing the Sovereign in such a conflict of interest. In practice, this may require a Governor-General to take a controversial action entirely on his or her own initiative through the exercise of reserve powers. The Grenada invasion was formally initiated by an invitation for American forces to invade issued by the Governor-General, Sir Paul Scoon; this action was deliberately undertaken without informing the Queen. Similarly, when Sir John Kerr dismissed the Australian government in 1975, he did not inform the Queen of his intent to do so. This was possible because the Australian constitution invested this power in the Governor-General, not the Sovereign. A reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state of a country in certain exceptional circumstances. ... Sir Paul Scoon (b. ... Sir John Kerr Alternative meanings: John Kerr (disambiguation). ... The secretary of the Governor-General, David Smith, announcing the dissolution of Parliament on November 11th, 1975. ...


Sovereignty of the Realms

Any alteration by the United Kingdom Parliament in the law touching the succession to the throne would, except perhaps in the case of Papua New Guinea, be ineffective to alter the succession to the throne in respect of, and in accordance with the law of, any other independent member of the Commonwealth which was within the Queen’s realms at the time of such alteration. Therefore it is more than mere constitutional convention that requires that the assent of the Parliament of each member of the Commonwealth within the Queen’s realms be obtained in respect of any such alteration in the law.

Monarchist League of New Zealand Chairman, Professor Noel Cox The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1999)  -  Ransford Smith Establishment  -  as British Commonwealth 1926   -  as the Commonwealth 1949  Membership 53 sovereign states Website thecommonwealth. ... Queen Elizabeth IIs personal flag for New Zealand The Monarchist League of New Zealand, Inc. ...

The Commonwealth Realms are sovereign states, the United Kingdom no longer holding any legislative power over any besides itself, although some countries continue to use the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council as part of their judiciary. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom. ...


Because they share the same head of state, the Commonwealth Realms are in a personal union relationship. This relationship is voluntary and symmetric. In each Realm the Queen has a distinct legal personality and acts on the advice only of the government of that country. The Monarchy is thus no longer an exclusively British institution, although it may often be called British for historical reasons, for convenience, or for political (usually republican) purposes. Each Realm determines its own titles and styles of the monarch and any consort. A personal union is a relationship of two or more entities that are considered separate, sovereign states, which, through established law, share the same person as their respective head of state. ...


As a consequence of this relationship, any alterations to the line of succession to the throne must be approved by the parliaments of all the Realms in order to guarantee continuity of a single monarch. For example, there have been suggestions of removing the religious requirements from the Act of Settlement, which currently defines the succession. In practice, since each Realm is a sovereign state, this requires the voluntary cooperation of all 16 of the Realms. Alternatively, a Realm could choose to end its participation in the shared monarchy. An order of succession is a formula or algorithm that determines who inherits an office upon the death, resignation, or removal of its current occupant. ... The Electress Sophia The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ...


Nature of the Crown

The Crown has become an institution that operates separately in each Commonwealth Realm, with the Queen in right of each Realm being a distinct legal person; thus, it is commonly held that there is now a separate Crown in each of the Realms, united only in the sharing of the institution of the monarchy, the succession, and obviously the Queen herself, in a symmetrical fashion. Thus, the Crown has both a separate and a shared character, and, in different contexts, "Crown" may mean the Crown as shared or the Crown in each realm considered separately. One Canadian constitutional scholar, Dr. Richard Toporoski, stated on this: "I am perfectly prepared to concede, even happily affirm, that the British Crown no longer exists in Canada, but that is because legal reality indicates to me that in one sense, the British Crown no longer exists in Britain: the Crown transcends Britain just as much as it does Canada. One can therefore speak of "the British Crown" or "the Canadian Crown" or indeed the "Barbadian" or "Tuvaluan" Crown, but what one will mean by the term is the Crown acting or expressing itself within the context of that particular jurisdiction".[2] Throughout the Commonwealth Realms The Crown is an abstract concept which represents the legal authority for the existence of any government. ...


In Realms other than the United Kingdom, the Queen normally exercises only those powers related to her appointment of a Governor-General, usually on the advice of the prime minister of the Realm concerned. In some Realms certain other powers are reserved exclusively for her, such as the appointment of extra senators to the Canadian Senate. In all Realms, her name and image continue to play a prominent role in political institutions and symbols. For example, her image usually appears on coins and banknotes, and an oath of allegiance to the Queen is usually required from politicians, judges, and new citizens. Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ...


From a cultural standpoint, the shared nature of the Crown is less clear. Some argue that the Crown within their particular country remains essentially British and primarily of the United Kingdom, whereas others emphasise the Crown as a shared link between the Commonwealth Realms, with the Crown in right of their own nation as having specific domestic characteristics.


Former Commonwealth Realms

Royal Standard of Malta from 1964 to 1974 while that country was a Commonwealth Realm
Royal Standard of Malta from 1964 to 1974 while that country was a Commonwealth Realm

Following their independence from the United Kingdom, most Commonwealth countries retained the Queen as head of state, although some became independent as republics and others under resident monarchs. With time, some Commonwealth Realms moved to become republics, adopting new constitutions or passing constitutional amendments removing the monarch as their head of state, and replacing the Governor-General with an elected or appointed president. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose governance is based on popular representation and control. ... A constitution is a system, often codified as a written document, that establishes the rules and principles that govern an organization or political entity. ... An amendment is a change to the constitution of a nation or a state. ...


This was especially true in post-colonial Africa, whose leaders, during a time of strong anti-imperialist attitudes, preferred not to continue in a personal union relationship with other nations, opting instead to establish a resident Head of State. Most African Realms became republics within a few years of independence. However, they remained within the Commonwealth, following the 1949 London Declaration, which had allowed India to recognise the British Monarch as 'Head of the Commonwealth', but not as Head of State. India became a full-fledged Republic within the Commonwealth in 1950. In Pakistan the Monarch continued to reign until 1956, when Pakistan became the first "Islamic Republic", and the last governor-general became the country's first President. A personal union is a relationship of two or more entities that are considered separate, sovereign states, which, through established law, share the same person as their respective head of state. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the head of state of the United Kingdom and in the British overseas territories. ... The present British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is the second to be recognised as Head of the Commonwealth in the 53 member states of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ...


In some former Commonwealth Realms, including Malta, Trinidad and Tobago, and Mauritius, the new office of President was (and remains) a ceremonial post, but in others, such as Ghana, Malawi, and Gambia, the Presidency was an executive post, usually first held by the last Prime Minister. In the latter cases not only was the monarchy abolished, but so was the entire Westminster system of parliamentary government as well. In those republics where the presidency is ceremonial, the President performs functions identical to that of the British monarch- including an address to Parliament analogous to a Speech from the Throne. The Houses of Parliament in London The Westminster system is a democratic, parliamentary system of government modeled after that of the United Kingdom system, as used in the Palace of Westminster, the location of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ...


When the white minority government of Rhodesia issued its Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965, it affirmed its loyalty to the Queen as 'Queen of Rhodesia', a title to which she had not consented, which she did not accept, and which was not recognised internationally. Her representative in the colony, Governor Sir Humphrey Gibbs, immediately dismissed Prime Minister Ian Smith from office, but this was ignored and an 'Officer Administering the Government' was appointed to perform the Governor's constitutional duties. In 1970, Smith's government declared Rhodesia a republic. Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) was signed on November 11, 1965 by the white minority government of Ian Smith, whose Rhodesian Front party opposed rushed moves by the United Kingdom towards black majority rule in the then British colony. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Sir Humphrey Gibbs, c1965. ... The Rt Hon Ian Smith, Prime Minister of Rhodesia, 1964 (official portrait) Ian Douglas Smith GCLM ID (born 8 April 1919) was the Premier of the British Crown Colony of Southern Rhodesia from 13 April 1964 to 11 November 1965, and Prime Minister of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) from 11 November... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...


When mention of the United Kingdom was removed from the Queen's titles in Australia in 1973, the government of the state of Queensland, concerned that this action was a first step towards declaring Australia to be a republic, sought to declare her "Queen of Australia, Queensland and her Other Realms and Territories", in order to ensure that the Monarchy would at least be entrenched in Queensland. The action was blocked by the High Court of Australia in the so-called Queen of Queensland case in 1974. However, it highlighted the fact that the relation of the Australian states to the Crown was then independent of the relation of the Commonwealth to the Crown, and was one of the actions which eventually led to the Australia Act of 1986. While no other state has attempted to achieve status as a Realm, the possibility was raised by both sides during the debate on the Republican Referendum of 1999 that a decision to make the country a republic might lead to the creation of separate monarchies in one or more of the individual states. Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Peter Beattie (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd)  - Product per capita  $40,170/person (6th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  4,070,400 (3rd)  - Density  2. ... The Australia Act of 1986 (No. ...


The Queen's position as Queen of Grenada remained unaffected by the overthrow of Prime Minister Eric Gairy by the left-wing Maurice Bishop in 1979, and the Governor-General remained in office. Following the United States-led Operation Urgent Fury in Grenada in October 1983, in the wake of Bishop's violent overthrow, the Governor-General oversaw the holding of new elections and the restoration of parliamentary democracy. This is a list of Chief Ministers and Prime Ministers of Grenada Chief Minister Eric Gairy (1954-1956, 1958-1960) Herbert A. Blaize (1960-1961) George E. D. Clyne (1961) Eric Gairy (1961-1962) Herbert A. Blaize (1962-1967) Prime Minister Eric Gairy (1967-1979) Maurice Bishop (1979-1983) Hudson... Sir Eric Matthew Gairy (February 18, 1920 - August 23, 1997) was a Grenadian politician. ... Maurice Bishop Maurice Rupert Bishop (May 29, 1944 – October 19, 1983) was a Grenadian revolutionary leader. ... For the song by the Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... The Invasion of Grenada, known to US forces as Operation Urgent Fury, was an invasion of the island nation of Grenada by the military forces of the United States of America and several Caribbean nations. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In Fiji, the change to a republic in 1987 came as a result of a military coup, rather than out of any republican sentiment, as Fiji's indigenous chiefs had voluntarily ceded their country to the Crown. Even when Fiji was not a member of the Commonwealth, symbols of the monarchy remained, including the Queen's portrait on banknotes and coins, and, unlike in the United Kingdom, the Queen's Official Birthday is a public holiday. When Fiji was readmitted to the Commonwealth, the issue of reinstating the Queen as Head of State was raised, but not pursued, although the country's Great Council of Chiefs reaffirmed that the Queen was still the country's 'Paramount Chief'. 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Great Council of Chiefs (Bose Levu Vakaturaga in Fijian) is a constitutional body in the Republic of the Fiji Islands. ...


Other former British colonies, protectorates, mandates and trust territories followed different paths. Burma, Sudan, Cyprus, Zambia, Botswana, South Yemen, Somaliland, Nauru, the Seychelles, Dominica, Kiribati, Zimbabwe, Namibia, and Vanuatu became republics on independence from Britain, and were thus never Commonwealth Realms. Nor were Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, Malaya, Zanzibar, the Maldives, Sikkim, Brunei, Tonga, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, the Trucial States, Swaziland, or Lesotho, all of which had their own monarchies, many of them having been British protectorates. Hyderabad, which unsuccessfully attempted to establish its independence in 1947 separately from India, and Kalat, which similarly tried to remain independent from Pakistan, also had their own monarchies. National motto: ??? Official language Arabic Capital Aden Area 287,680 km² Population  - Total (1973)  - Density 1,590,275 5. ... Motto لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله  (Arabic) Lā ilāhā illā-llāhu; muhammadun rasÅ«lu-llāhi  (transliteration) There is no God but Allah; Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah And also : Justice, Peace, Freedom, Democracy and Success for All Anthem Saamo ku waar Capital Hargeisa (1941-1960) (1991 - present) Official languages Somali and... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is situated off mainland Tanzania Coordinates: Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2002)  - Both Islands 981... Sikkim (also Sikhim) (DevanāgarÄ«: सिक्किम  ) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... Flag of the State of Hyderabad. ... State of Kalat or State of Qalat (Urdu: ریاست قلات) was a princely state located in the centre of the modern province of Balochistan. ...


Other former colonies did not become Commonwealth Realms because they became part of larger entities rather than achieving independence. The mandate of Palestine was divided between Israel, Jordan, and Egypt in 1948. Newfoundland, although a dominion covered by the Statute of Westminster, never became a Commonwealth Realm because it never ratified the Statute. Instead, it reverted to colonial status in 1934 and became a province of Canada in 1949. The British-administered, former Italian territories of Cyrenaica and Tripolitania merged with the French-administered Fezzan to form the kingdom of Libya in 1951. Eritrea, a former Italian colony administered by the United Kingdom after World War II under the authority of the United Nations, was federated with Ethiopia in 1952. In 1961, Northern Cameroons was absorbed into Nigeria, and Southern Cameroons into Cameroon. In 1963, the crown colonies of Singapore, Sarawak and North Borneo joined Malaya (independent in 1957) to form Malaysia which has its own monarchy. Hong Kong became a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China in 1997. Finally, some former colonies that are now independent countries were never Commonwealth Realms because they were formed from a successor state, rather than achieving independence from Britain directly. Singapore, which was part of Malaysia until 1965, and Bangladesh, which was East Pakistan until 1971, fall into this category. Flag Britain unilaterally closed the territory east of the Jordan River (Transjordan) to Jewish settlement and organized Transjordan as an autonomous state in 1923. ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Capital St. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Tripolitania is a historic region of western Libya, centered around the coastal city of Tripoli. ... Fezzan is a desert region in south-western Libya. ... Flag Anthem Libya, Libya, Libya Capital Tripoli and Benghazi¹ Language(s) Arabic Religion Islam Government Constitutional Monarchy King  - 1951-1969 Idris I Prime Minister  - 1951-1954 Mahmud al-Muntasir  - 1968-1969 Wanis al-Qaddafi History  - Independence 24 December, 1951  - Disestablished 1 September, 1969 Area  - 1954 1,759,530 km2 679... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... State motto: United, Industrious, Dedicated (Malay: Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti ) Capital Kuching Governor T.Y.T Tun Datuk Patinggi Abang Muhammad Salahuddin Chief Minister Y.A.B. Datuk Patinggi Tan Sri Haji Abdul Taib Bin Mahmud / Pehin Sri Dr. Hj. ... Motto: Pergo et Perago (Latin: I undertake and I achieve”) British North Borneo Capital Jesselton Language(s) Malay, English Government Monarchy Monarch  - 1882 - 1901 Victoria  - 1952 - 1963 Elizabeth II Governor  - 1896 - 1901 Robert Scott Historical era New Imperialism  - North Borneo Company May, 1882  - British protectorate 1888  - Japanese invasion January 1... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... A Special administrative region (SAR) is an administrative division of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ...


The former Commonwealth realms, the intervals in which they were realms, and the constitutional reasons why they ceased to be realms, are as follows:

1. Presidency is executive post.
2. Presidency originally ceremonial, now executive.
3. Presidency is ceremonial post.
4. Monarch removed from constitution and office of Governor-General abolished in 1936, Presidency created in 1937 by constitution adopted by plebiscite, but monarch retained external role until republic declared in 1949 by ordinary legislation. See Irish head of state from 1936-1949. 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... Flag of Tanganyika Tanganyika was an East African republic within the Commonwealth of Nations, named after Lake Tanganyika, which formed its western border. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Official Seal of the President of Ireland Mary McAleese, the current President of Ireland. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... During the period of 1936 to 1949 it was unclear whether or not the Irish state was a republic or a form of constitutional monarchy, and whether its head of state was the President of Ireland or the King of Ireland, George VI. The exact constitutional status of the state...


Public perceptions

The evolving crown

Historically, proponents of the monarchy were generally supportive of the monarchy as a symbolic link to the United Kingdom. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries most politicians in the Dominions, which were then self-governing colonies, supported their economic and military ties with the UK, tended to view British culture and attitudes as favourable, and encouraged their prominence in the newly developing societies, although there were difficulties when the United Kingdom's broader imperial policies were enforced at the expense of the interests of various dominions: for example, the Alaska Boundary Dispute. Maintaining allegiance to the British monarch was thus seen as a natural thing for many residents, and membership in the British Empire, even with a secondary constitutional status, was considered more desirable than independence. The Alaska Boundary Dispute was a territorial dispute between the United States of America and Canada (then a British Dominion with its foreign affairs controlled from London), and at a subnational level between the territory of Alaska on the U.S. side and British Columbia and the Yukon on the...


The decline in the imperial mentality led to a gradual process of removing residual legislative and judicial ties and establishing a separate citizenship. Since the 1980s, none of the 15 other Commonwealth Realms has retained any strong constitutional links to the United Kingdom. The perceived role of the Crown has evolved to reflect these changes. Modern proponents of the monarchy outside the United Kingdom downplay the historical "British" aspect of the monarchy, and instead focus on the Queen as Head of State of an independent nation. There has thus been a fundamental shift between the "family" aspect of the days of the British Empire, in which all dominions rallied around a common monarch, and today, in which each Commonwealth realm is encouraged to think of the Queen as "their own", and serving a role independent of any other obligations in other countries.


Debate on the Monarchy

In recent years, there has been some debate about the continuing practice of sharing a monarch. Although many seem to view the Queen's current role as Head of State with passive indifference, some see the Monarch as an apolitical unifying body, whether within their own nation, throughout the Commonwealth Realms, or both, while others still view the Queen as an obstacle to true "independence" from the United Kingdom, or to their country's status as a sovereign state. Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ...


Proponents argue that their respective Realm is already an independent kingdom where the Sovereign, depicted on the currency, and to whom oaths are given, is Monarch constitutionally, and specifically of said nation, asserting that any confusion about this can be eliminated with education, and argue that monarchy, with its history and traditions, is the basis for the national identity of their Realm. That the Sovereign obtains and maintains their position through constitutional law, supported by the elected representatives of the people, illustrates to monarchists that constitutional monarchy is a democratic institution. It is also argued that problems with outdated legislation that does not conform to modern views and beliefs can be solved by repealing or altering the laws (as has been done in other monarchies like the Netherlands), not by removing the entire institution of the Monarchy itself.


Opponents to the Monarchy argue that the symbolism of the institution makes an independent nation look "subsidiary" to the United Kingdom, and can be confusing and anachronistic. Others, including republicans in the United Kingdom itself, argue that having a hereditary head of state does not advance the principles of liberal democracy. Some also argue that the Queen's role as Supreme Governor of the Church of England conflicts with the secular principles commonly espoused in their constitutions and human rights legislation, though strictly this has no relevance outside England. Henry VIII was the founder of the Church of England yet did not hold the title of Supreme Governor. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area...


Today several Realms have both a Republican Movement and a Monarchist League, which serve as self-proclaimed outlets of debate in the media. In a broad definition a republic is a state whose political organization rests on the principle that the citizens or electorate constitute the ultimate root of legitimacy and sovereignty. ... The Monarchist League is the name of a number of groups in Commonwealth Realms that are dedicated to the preservation not only of their countrys existing constitutional monarchy system of government, but that of the principle of monarchy worldwide. ...


Monarchism

Though loyalist societies existed before the beginning of republican movements in various Commonwealth Realms, the start of republican rumblings in the 1960s caused these groups to either shift their focus from a purely societal, celebratory organisation to one which also defended the Crown against abolition.

1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... See Monarchist League for similar organisations The International Monarchist League (or Monarchist League) is an organization dedicated to the preservation of the constitutional monarchy system of government and the principle of monarchy worldwide. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the head of state of the United Kingdom and in the British overseas territories. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC (born October 13, 1925), former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, in office from 1979 to 1990. ... Michael Bruce Forsyth, Baron Forsyth of Drumlean, PC, (born 16 October 1954) is a Conservative & Unionist Party politician in the United Kingdom. ... Libby Purves (born February 2, 1950 in London, England) is a radio presenter, journalist and author. ... The Australian Monarchist League was founded in 1943 to support the role of the Crown in the Australias constitutional system. ... Australians for Constitutional Monarchy (ACM) was founded in June 1992 to defend the Australian Constitution, the role of the Crown in it, and to preserve the role of the Queen of Australia, represented by the Governor-General, as Australias constitutional head of state. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939), Australian politician, is the Prime Minister of Australia. ... Hon Tony Abbott Anthony John Tony Abbott (born 4 November 1957), Australian politician, is the Minister for Health and Ageing and Leader of the House in the Australian federal government. ... Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, in 1952 and 2002 The title Queen of Australia has existed since 1973, when the Parliament of Australia passed the Royal Style and Titles Act (1973). ... Queen Elizabeth IIs personal flag for New Zealand The Monarchist League of New Zealand, Inc. ... The Right Honourable Jennifer Mary Shipley née Robson (born February 4, 1952), Prime Minister of New Zealand from December 1997 to December 1999, was New Zealands first female Prime Minister. ... There are two significant people named Peter Tapsell. ... In New Zealand the Speaker of the House of Representatives is the individual who chairs the countrys legislative body, the New Zealand House of Representatives (often also referred to as Parliament). The Speaker fulfils a number of important functions in relation to the operation the House, which is based... The Coat of Arms of the Monarchist League of Canada, granted with permission of Her Majesty The Queen in 2000. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Lester Bowles Pearson, often referred to as Mike, PC, OM, CC, OBE, MA, LL.D. (April 23, 1897 – December 27, 1972) was a Canadian statesman, diplomat and politician who was made a Nobel Laureate in 1957. ... For other uses, see Pierre Elliott Trudeau (disambiguation). ... The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada, proclaimed by King George V, November 21, 1921. ... Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, BCL, LLD (h. ... The Honourable Anne Clare Cools, BA (born 1943) is a member of the Canadian Senate. ... Sheila Maureen Copps, PC, HBA, LL.D (hc), (born November 27, 1952, in Hamilton, Ontario) is a Canadian journalist and former politician. ... A premier is an executive official of government. ... Ralph Phillip Klein MLA (born November 1, 1942), leader of the Alberta Progressive Conservatives, is the current premier of the Canadian province of Alberta. ... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: From many peoples strength) Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart - Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (Split from NWT) (9th (province)) Area Ranked 7th... Roy John Romanow, PC , OC , SOM , QC , LL.B , DU, (born August 12, 1939 in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan) is a Canadian politician and former Premier of Saskatchewan (1991–2001). ...

Republicanism

Contemporary Commonwealth Realm republican sentiment tends to be quite different in nature from the sentiment in countries that abolished the monarchy at or shortly after independence. The remaining realms have shared the Crown for much longer, in some cases over a hundred years. The debate in such countries is thus more complicated, in terms of both the political and cultural ramifications that a change to the status quo could bring. There are varying arguments by republicans in each modern Realm for the abolition of their monarchy.

  • In Australia, Labor Prime Minister Paul Keating made clear his intention to make the country a republic by 2001. A referendum held in 1999 proposing, inter alia, the election of a president by Parliament, was defeated. Republicans attribute this defeat to lack of support for the proposed model, not to strength of support for the monarchy. Recent Leader of the Opposition Kim Beazley has called for another referendum, but the current Prime Minister, John Howard, who favours the monarchy, has made no plans for a new referendum.
  • In neighbouring New Zealand, Prime Minister Helen Clark and Jim Bolger, a previous prime minister, have also voiced their support for republicanism, and a Republican Movement has been established.
  • There have also been doubts expressed about the future role of the monarchy in Canada with some members of the Liberal Party showing support for a republic, but there has been little sign of change in the immediate future. An organised republican movement, Citizens for a Canadian Republic, was established in 2002.
  • In the Caribbean, P.J. Patterson, the Prime Minister of Jamaica, and Owen Arthur, the Prime Minister of Barbados, had tentative plans to make their countries republics, but have met resistance from opposition parties over the role and selection of a new head of state.
  • Tuvalu's prime minister announced his government's intention to hold a referendum by June 2005 on whether or not that country should become a republic[1], but one was not held.

In April 2005, four republican organisations within the Commonwealth launched Common Cause, an alliance of Commonwealth republican movements. The four member organisations include the Australian Republican Movement, Citizens for a Canadian Republic, the Republican Movement of Aotearoa New Zealand and Republic in the United Kingdom. Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... Paul John Keating (born January 18, 1944), was an Australian politician and the 24th Prime Minister of Australia, serving as Prime Minister from 1991 to 1996. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... The Leader of the Opposition is a title traditionally held by the leader of the largest party not in government in a Westminster System of parliamentary government. ... For Kim Beazleys father, Kim Beazley senior, see Kim Edward Beazley. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939), Australian politician, is the Prime Minister of Australia. ... For other persons named Helen Clark, see Helen Clark (disambiguation). ... The Right Honourable James Brendan Jim Bolger, ONZ, (born 31 May 1935) was Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1990 to 1997. ... Logo of the Republican Movement The Republican Movement of Aotearoa New Zealand is a non-partisan organization formed in 1994 whose object is to support the creation of a republic in New Zealand. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... Logo of the Citizens for a Canadian Republic Citizens for a Canadian Republic (CCR) is a non-partisan, not-for-profit Canadian organization founded in 2002 that advocates the abolition of the monarchy in Canada and its replacement with a president who would either be chosen through a general election... The Right Honourable Percival Noel James Patterson (born April 10, 1935) is the current Prime Minister of Jamaica (since 1992) and is the leader of the Jamaican Peoples National Party. ... Owen Seymour Arthur, MP, BA, MSc. ... Parliamentary Opposition is a form of political opposition to a designated government, particularly in a Westminster-based parliamentary system. ... Ballots of the Argentine plebiscite of 1984 on the border treaty with Chile A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Australian Republican Movement was founded in July 1991. ... Logo of the Citizens for a Canadian Republic Citizens for a Canadian Republic (CCR) is a non-partisan, not-for-profit Canadian organization founded in 2002 that advocates the abolition of the monarchy in Canada and its replacement with a president who would either be chosen through a general election... Logo of the Republican Movement The Republican Movement of Aotearoa New Zealand is a non-partisan organization formed in 1994 whose object is to support the creation of a republic in New Zealand. ...


See also

The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1999)  -  Ransford Smith Establishment  -  as British Commonwealth 1926   -  as the Commonwealth 1949  Membership 53 sovereign states Website thecommonwealth. ... A dominion, often Dominion, is the territory or the authority of a dominus (a lord or master). ... A self-governing colony is a colony with an elected legislature, in which politicians are able to make most decisions without reference to the colonial power with formal or nominal control of the colony. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch and head of state. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A monarchy, from the Greek μονος, one, and αρχειν, to rule, is a form of government that has a monarch as head of state. ... Republicanism in Australia is the movement to change Australias status as a constitutional monarchy (a Commonwealth Realm) to a republican form of government (a Commonwealth republic). ... Canadian republicanism is the advocacy of constitutional change in Canada leading to the abolition of constitutional monarchy and the creation of a republic. ... Republicanism in New Zealand is a movement to replace the countrys current status as a Commonwealth realm and constitutional monarchy with that of a Commonwealth republic. ... A personal union is a relationship of two or more entities that are considered separate, sovereign states, which, through established law, share the same person as their respective head of state. ...

External links

  • The Commonwealth - UK government site

Commonwealth

  • Common Cause A Commonwealth Alliance of Republican Movements

Australia

Canada

New Zealand

References

  • V. Bogdanor, The Monarchy and the Constitution (Oxford, 1995)
  • P. McIntyre, "The Strange Death of Dominion Status", Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 27:2 (1999) 193-212

Footnotes


  Results from FactBites:
 
Commonwealth Realm - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3988 words)
A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states of the Commonwealth of Nations that separately recognise Queen Elizabeth II as their monarch.
The Commonwealth Realms are each members of, but should be distinguished from, the Commonwealth of Nations, which is an organisation of mostly former British colonies, the majority of which do not have the Queen as their Head of State.
The Commonwealth Realms are sovereign states, the United Kingdom no longer holding any legislative power over any besides itself, although some countries continue to use the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council as part of their judiciary.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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