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Encyclopedia > Common Cold
Acute nasopharyngitis
Classification & external resources
Rhinoviruses cause most common colds
ICD-10 J00.0
ICD-9 460
DiseasesDB 31088
MedlinePlus 000678
eMedicine aaem/118  med/2339
MeSH D003139

Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 602 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (870 × 866 pixel, file size: 696 KB, MIME type: image/png) Molecular surface of the capsid of human rhinovirus 16, one of the viruses which cause the common cold. ... Species Human rhinovirus A (HRV-A) Human rhinovirus B (HRV-B) Rhinovirus (from the Greek rhin-, which means nose) is a genus of the Picornaviridae family of viruses. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... A common alternate meaning of virus is computer virus. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... Genera Enterovirus Rhinovirus Hepatovirus Cardiovirus Apthovirus Parechovirus Erbovirus Kobuvirus Teschovirus Picornaviruses are viruses that belong to the family Picornaviridae. ... Coronavirus is a genus of animal virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. ...


Common symptoms are sore throat, runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing and cough; sometimes accompanied by 'pink eye', muscle aches, fatigue, malaise, headaches, muscle weakness, and/or loss of appetite. Fever and extreme exhaustion are more usual in influenza. The symptoms of a cold usually resolve after about one week, but can last up to 14 days. Symptoms may be more severe in infants and young children. Although the disease is generally mild and self-limiting, patients with common colds often seek professional medical help, use over-the-counter drugs, and may miss school or work days. The annual cumulative societal cost of the common cold in developed countries is considerable in terms of money spent on remedies, and hours of work lost. ώ:For the noisegrind band, see Sore Throat. ... Rhinitis is the medical term describing irritation and inflammation of the nose. ... Nasal congestion is the blockage of the nasal passages usually due to membranes lining the nose becoming swollen from inflamed blood vessels. ... For other uses, see Sneeze (disambiguation). ... Conjunctivitis (con·junc·ti·vi·tis) (commonly called pinkeye or bloodshot eyes in the USA and Madras Eye in India) is an inflammation of the conjunctiva (the outermost layer of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids), most commonly due to an allergic reaction or an infection (usually... Myalgia means muscle pain and is a symptom of many diseases and disorders. ... Exhaustion redirects here. ... Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort or uneasiness, an out of sorts feeling, often the first indication of an infection or other disease. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Muscle weakness (or lack of strength) is a direct term for the inability to exert force with ones muscles to the degree that would be expected given the individuals general physical fitness. ... This article is about the symptom of decreased appetite. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... Exhaustion redirects here. ... FLU redirects here. ... Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to prescription drugs. ...


The primary method to prevent infection is hand-washing to minimize person-to-person transmission of the virus. There are no antiviral drugs approved to treat or cure the infection. Most available medications are palliative and treat symptoms only. Megadoses of vitamin C, preparations from echinacea, and zinc gluconate have been studied as treatments for the common cold although none has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration or European Medicines Agency.[citation needed] Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... Palliative care (from Latin palliare, to cloak) is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of disease symptoms, rather than providing a cure. ... It has been suggested that Dynamic Flow be merged into this article or section. ... Species See text Echinacea commonly called the Purple coneflowers, is a genus of nine species of herbaceous plants in the Family Asteraceae. ... Zinc gluconate is the salt of gluconate and zinc II. It is an ionic compound consisting of two moles of gluconate for each mole of zinc. ... “FDA” redirects here. ... The European Medicines Agency (EMEA) is a European agency for the evaluation of medicinal products. ...

Contents

Pathology

Epidemiology

Upper respiratory tract infections are the most common infectious diseases among adults, who have two to four respiratory infections annually.[1] Children may have six to ten colds a year (and up to 12 colds a year for school children).[2][3] In the United States, the incidence of colds is higher in the fall and winter, with most infections occurring between September and April. The seasonality may be due to the start of the school year, or due to people spending more time indoors (thus in closer proximity with each other) increasing the chance of transmission of the virus.[2]


Virus

Common colds are most often caused by infection by one of the more than 100 serotypes of rhinovirus, a type of picornavirus. Other viruses causing colds are coronavirus, human parainfluenza viruses, human respiratory syncytial virus, adenoviruses, enteroviruses, or metapneumovirus.[4][5] Due to the many different types of viruses, it is not possible to gain complete immunity to the common cold.[6] A serovar or serotype is a grouping of microorganisms or viruses based on their cell surface antigens. ... Species Human rhinovirus A (HRV-A) Human rhinovirus B (HRV-B) Rhinovirus (from the Greek rhin-, which means nose) is a genus of the Picornaviridae family of viruses. ... Genera Enterovirus Rhinovirus Hepatovirus Cardiovirus Apthovirus Parechovirus Erbovirus Kobuvirus Teschovirus Picornaviruses are viruses that belong to the family Picornaviridae. ... Coronavirus is a genus of animal virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. ... Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of four distinct serotypes of single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family. ... Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae, which includes common respiratory viruses such as those causing measles and mumps. ... Genera Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Mastadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ... Species Bovine enterovirus Coxsackie virus Echovirus Human enterovirus A Human enterovirus B Human enterovirus C Human enterovirus D Human enterovirus E Poliovirus Porcine enterovirus A Porcine enterovirus B Swine vesicular disease virus The enteroviruses are a genus of (+)ssRNA viruses associated with several human and mammalian diseases. ... Species Turkey rhinotracheitis virus Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was isolated for the first time in 2001 in the Netherlands by using the RAP-PCR technique for identification of unknown viruses growing in cultured cells. ...


Transmission

Cold viruses are spread by aerosols created when a patient sneezes

The common cold virus is transmitted between people by one of two mechanisms:

  • in aerosol form generated by coughing, sneezing.
  • from contact with the saliva or nasal secretions of an infected person, either directly or from contaminated surfaces.

Symptoms are not necessary for viral shedding or transmission, as a percentage of asymptomatic subjects exhibit viruses in nasal swabs.[7] Aerosol, is a term derived from the fact that matter floating in air is a suspension (a mixture in which solid or liquid or combined solid-liquid particles are suspended in a fluid). ...


The virus enters the cells of the lining of the nasopharynx (the area between the nose and throat), and rapidly multiplies. The major entry point is normally the nose, but can also be the eyes (in this case drainage into the nasopharynx would occur through the nasolacrimal duct). Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... The nasopharynx (nasal part of the pharynx) lies behind the nose and above the level of the soft palate: it differs from the oral and laryngeal parts of the pharynx in that its cavity always remains patent (open). ... The nasolacrimal duct carries tears from the lacrimal sac into the nasal cavity. ...


Symptoms

The common cold is a disease of the upper respiratory tract
The common cold is a disease of the upper respiratory tract

After initial infection, the viral replication cycle begins within 8 to 12 hours.[8] Symptoms can occur shortly thereafter, and usually begin within 2 to 5 days after infection, although occasionally in as little as 10 hours after infection.[8] The first indication of a cold is often a sore or scratchy throat. Other common symptoms are runny nose, congestion, sneezing and cough. These are sometimes accompanied by muscle aches, fatigue, malaise, headache, weakness, or loss of appetite.[9] Colds occasionally cause fever and can sometimes lead to extreme exhaustion. (However, these symptoms are more usual in influenza, and can differentiate the two infections.) The symptoms of a cold usually resolve after about one week, but can last up to 14 days, with a cough lasting longer than other symptoms. Symptoms may be more severe in infants and young children, and may include fever and hives.[10][2][11][12] Image File history File links Illu_conducting_passages. ... Image File history File links Illu_conducting_passages. ... The Upper respiratory tract refers to the the following parts of the respiratory system: nose and nasal passages paranasal sinuses throat or pharynx Upper respiratory tract infections are among the most common infections in the world. ... ÏŽ:For the noisegrind band, see Sore Throat. ... Rhinorrhea, commonly known as a runny nose, is a symptom of the common cold and allergies (hay fever). ... Nasal congestion is the blockage of the nasal passages usually due to membranes lining the nose becoming swollen from inflamed blood vessels. ... For other uses, see Sneeze (disambiguation). ... Myalgia means muscle pain and is a symptom of many diseases and disorders. ... Exhaustion redirects here. ... Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort or uneasiness, an out of sorts feeling, often the first indication of an infection or other disease. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Muscle weakness (or lack of strength) is a direct term for the inability to exert force with ones muscles to the degree that would be expected given the individuals general physical fitness. ... Anorexia can refer to: Anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder in which people do not eat correctly due to the obsessive fear of weight gain Anorexia (symptom), the general symptom of decreased appetite Sexual anorexia, a term used to describe a lack of appetite for sex. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... FLU redirects here. ... Hives redirects here. ...


Complications

Poster encouraging citizens to "Consult your Physician" for treatment of the common cold
Poster encouraging citizens to "Consult your Physician" for treatment of the common cold

The common cold can lead to opportunistic coinfections or superinfections such as acute bronchitis, bronchiolitis, croup, pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media, or strep throat. People with chronic lung diseases such as asthma and COPD are especially vulnerable. Colds may cause acute exacerbations of asthma, emphysema or chronic bronchitis.[8][4][5] Opportunistic infections are infections caused by organisms and usually do not cause disease in a person with a healthy immune system, but can affect people with a poorly functioning or suppressed immune system. ... In virology, coinfection describes the simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more virus particles. ... In virology, superinfection describes the process by which a cell that has previously been infected by one virus gets coinfected with another virus at a later point in time. ... TAE is an inflammation of the bronchi of the lungs, that causes the cilia of the bronchial epithelial cells to stop functioning. ... Bronchiolitis is inflammation of the bronchioles, the smallest air passages of the lungs. ... This term also refers to the rump of a quadruped; see croup (Wiktionary). ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which may or may not be as a result of infection, from bacterial, fungal, viral, allergic or autoimmune issues. ... Otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear: the small space between the ear drum and the inner ear. ... Strep throat (or Streptococcal pharyngitis, or Streptococcal Sore Throat) is a form of Group A streptococcal infection that affects the pharynx. ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), is a group of diseases characterized by limitation of airflow in the airway that is not fully reversible. ... Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs. ...


Economic cost

Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ...

USA

An American poster from World War II describing the cost of the common cold
An American poster from World War II describing the cost of the common cold

In the USA alone, the common cold leads to 75 to 100 million physician visits annually at a conservative cost estimate of $7.7 billion per year. Americans spend $2.9 billion on over-the-counter drugs and another $400 million on prescription medicines for symptomatic relief.[1][13] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


More than one-third of patients who saw a doctor received an antibiotic prescription, which not only contributes to unnecessary costs ($1.1 billion annually on an estimated 41 million antibiotic prescriptions in the United States), but also has implications for antibiotic resistance from overuse of such drugs.[13]


An estimated 22 to 189 million school days are missed annually due to a cold. As a result, parents missed 126 million workdays to stay home to care for their children. When added to the 150 million workdays missed by employees suffering from a cold, the total economic impact of cold-related work loss exceeds $20 billion.[2][1][13]


Prevention

The best way to avoid a cold is to avoid close contact with existing sufferers; to wash hands thoroughly and regularly; and to avoid touching the mouth and face. Anti-bacterial soaps have no effect on the cold virus; it is the mechanical action of hand washing with the soap that removes the virus particles.[14]


In 2002, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended alcohol-based hand gels as an effective method for reducing infectious viruses on the hands of health care workers.[15] As with hand washing with soap and water, alcohol gels provide no residual protection from re-infection. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ...


The common cold is caused by a large variety of viruses, which mutate quite frequently during reproduction, resulting in constantly changing virus strains. Thus, successful immunization is highly improbable. A child being immunized against polio. ...


Exposure to cold weather

Exposure to cold weather has not been proven to increase the likelihood of "catching" a cold
Exposure to cold weather has not been proven to increase the likelihood of "catching" a cold

Although common colds are seasonal, with more occurring during winter, experiments so far have failed to produce evidence that short-term exposure to cold weather or direct chilling increases susceptibility to infection, implying that the seasonal variation is instead due to a change in behaviors such as increased time spent indoors at close proximity to others.[2][16][17][18] Image File history File links Snowstorm. ... Image File history File links Snowstorm. ...


With respect to the causation of cold-like symptoms, researchers at the Common Cold Centre at the Cardiff University[9] conducted a study to "test the hypothesis that acute cooling of the feet causes the onset of common cold symptoms."[19][20][21] The study measured the subjects' self-reported cold symptoms, and belief they had a cold, but not whether an actual respiratory infection developed. It found that a significantly greater number of those subjects chilled developed cold symptoms 4 or 5 days after the chilling. It concludes that the onset of common cold symptoms can be caused by acute chilling of the feet. Some possible explanations were suggested for the symptoms, such as placebo, or constriction of blood vessels, however "further studies are needed to determine the relationship of symptom generation to any respiratory infection." The main building of Cardiff University Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Cardiff University Cardiff University (Welsh: Prifysgol Caerdydd) is a leading university located in the civic centre of Cardiff, Wales. ...


Treatment

As there is no medically proven and accepted medication directly targeting the causative agent, there is no cure for the common cold. Treatment is limited to symptomatic supportive options, maximizing the comfort of the patient, and limiting complications and harmful sequelae. The most reliable treatment is a combination of fluids and plenty of rest. A sequela (plural sequelae) is a pathological condition resulting from a disease. ...


The common cold is self-limiting, and the host's immune system effectively deals with the infection. Within a few days, the body's humoral immune response begins producing specific antibodies that can prevent the virus from infecting cells. Additionally, as part of the cell-mediated immune response, leukocytes destroy the virus through phagocytosis and destroy infected cells to prevent further viral replication. In healthy, immunocompetent individuals, the common cold resolves in seven days on average.[8] A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Humoral immunity (HIR) is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by secreted antibodies, produced in the cells of the B lymphocyte lineage (B cell). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. ... Steps of a macrophage ingesting a pathogen: a. ...


Palliative care

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases suggests getting plenty of rest, drinking fluids to maintain hydration, gargling with warm salt water, using cough drops, throat sprays, or over-the-counter pain or cold medicines.[2] Saline nasal drops may help alleviate congestion.[22] National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) is a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... Gargling is a common method of cleansing the throat, especially if one has a sore throat or upper-respiratory virus or infection. ... Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to prescription drugs. ...


The American Lung Association recommends avoiding coffee, tea or cola drinks that contain caffeine and avoiding alcoholic beverages, saying that both caffeine and alcohol cause dehydration.[11] But a study reported in 2000, as well as the U.S. Institute of Medicine in 2004, say that caffeinated beverages and non-caffeinated beverages equally meet the need for fluids.[23] The American Lung Association is a non-profit organization which fights lung disease in all its forms, with special emphasis on asthma, tobacco control and environmental health. It was founded in 1904 to fight tuberculosis as the National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis. ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cola (disambiguation). ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of alcohol includes many other compounds. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ...


Antibiotics

Antibiotics, targeted primarily to microorganisms like bacteria and fungus, do not have any beneficial effect against the common cold. Their use in cases of common cold infection is ineffective as they have no effect on viruses. An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ...


Antivirals

There are no approved antiviral drugs for the common cold. Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ...


ViroPharma and Schering-Plough are developing an antiviral drug, pleconaril, that targets picornaviruses, the viruses that cause the majority of common colds. Pleconaril has been shown to be effective in an oral form.[24][25] Schering-Plough is developing an intra-nasal formulation that may have fewer adverse effects.[26] ViroPharma Incorporated, a pharmaceutical company, develops and sells drugs that address serious diseases treated by physician specialists and in hospital settings. ... Schering-Plough Corporation is a pharmaceutical company started in Germany by Ernst Schering in 1851. ... Pleconaril is an antiviral drug being developed by Schering-Plough for prevention of asthma exacerbations and common cold symptoms in asthmatic subjects exposed to picornavirus respiratory infections. ... Genera Enterovirus Rhinovirus Hepatovirus Cardiovirus Apthovirus Parechovirus Erbovirus Kobuvirus Teschovirus Picornaviruses are viruses that belong to the family Picornaviridae. ... Pleconaril is an antiviral drug being developed by Schering-Plough for prevention of asthma exacerbations and common cold symptoms in asthmatic subjects exposed to picornavirus respiratory infections. ... In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ... Schering-Plough Corporation is a pharmaceutical company started in Germany by Ernst Schering in 1851. ... In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ...


Over-the-counter symptom medicines

There are a number of effective treatments which, rather than treat the viral infection, focus on relieving the symptoms. For some people, colds are relatively minor inconveniences and they can go on with their daily activities with tolerable discomfort. This discomfort has to be weighed against the price and possible side effects of the remedies.

An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... This article is about the drug. ... Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN), is the active metabolite of phenacetin, a so-called coal tar analgesic. ... A lozenge (â—Š) is a form of rhombus. ... Pseudoephedrine (commonly abbreviated as PSE) is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant. ... Oxymetazoline is a topical decongestant used, in the form of Oxymetazoline hydrochloride, in products such as Nasivion, Vicks Sinex and Afrin. ... Cough medicine often contains cough suppressants and expectorants. ... Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is an antitussive (cough-suppressant) drug found in many over-the-counter cold and cough medicines. ... An antihistamine is a drug which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the histamine receptor. ... Categories: Stub | Antihistamines ... Chlorphenamine (INN) or chlorpheniramine (USAN, former BAN), commonly marketed as its salt chlorphenamine maleate (CPM), is first-generation antihistamine used in the prevention of the symptoms of allergic conditions such as rhinitis and urticaria. ... Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (trade name Benadryl, as produced by J&J, or Dimedrol outside the U.S. & Canada. ... Clemastine is an over-the-counter antihistamine sold in the United States under the name Tavist. ...

Herbal remedies

Herbs often used in homeopathic cold remedies
Chamomile Liquorice Garlic Ginger

Herbal teas, such as chamomile tea, or lemon or ginger root tisanes may soothe some symptoms and comfort the patient. Liquorice and garlic preparations have been suggested as treatments for the common cold, although their effectiveness is unproven.[11] Chamomile flowers The name Chamomile or Camomile is ambiguous and can refer to several distinct species. ... Binomial name L. Liquorice or licorice (see spelling differences) (IPA: , or ) is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, from which a sweet flavour can be extracted. ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... For other uses, see Ginger (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Koeh-091. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1469x2367, 838 KB) Name Glycyrrhiza glabra Family Fabaceae Original book source: Prof. ... Image File history File links Allium_sativum_Woodwill_1793. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Herbal tea An herbal tea, tisane, or ptisan is an herbal infusion not made from the leaves of the tea bush (Camellia sinensis). ... Binomial name Matricaria recutita L. German Chamomile (Matricaria recutita), also spelled Camomile, is an annual plant of the sunflower family Asteraceae. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Binomial name Zingiber officinale Rosc. ... Herbal tea A tisane, ptisan or herbal tea is any herbal infusion other than from the leaves of the tea bush (Camellia sinensis). ... Binomial name L. Liquorice or licorice (see spelling differences) (IPA: , or ) is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, from which a sweet flavour can be extracted. ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ...


Echinacea

Echinacea, commonly called coneflowers, is a plant commonly used in herbal preparations for the treatment of the common cold. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 783 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Echinacea Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 783 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Echinacea Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Species See text Echinacea commonly called the Purple coneflowers, is a genus of nine species of herbaceous plants in the Family Asteraceae. ... Species See text Echinacea commonly called the Purple coneflowers, is a genus of nine species of herbaceous plants in the Family Asteraceae. ...


Although there have been scientific studies evaluating echinacea, its effectiveness has not been convincingly demonstrated. For example, a peer-reviewed clinical study published in the New England Journal of Medicine concluded that "…extracts of E. angustifolia root, either alone or in combination, do not have clinically significant effects on rhinovirus infection or on the clinical illness that results from it."[27][28] Recent randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in adults have not shown a beneficial effect of echinacea on symptom severity or duration of the cold.[29][30] A structured review of 9 placebo controlled studies suggested that the effectiveness of echinacea in the treatment of colds has not been established.[31] Conversely, two recent meta-analyses of published medical articles concluded that there is some evidence that echinacea may reduce either the duration or severity of the common cold, but results are not fully consistent. However, there have been no large, randomized placebo-controlled clinical studies that definitively demonstrate either prophylaxis or therapeutic effects in adults.[32][33] A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 407 children of ages ranging from 2 to 11 years showed that echinacea did not reduce the duration of the cold, or reduce the severity of the symptoms.[34] Most authoritative sources consider the effect of echinacea on the cold unproven.[2][3][4][11][35][36] In medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a research study. ... The New England Journal of Medicine (New Engl J Med or NEJM) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society. ...


Other

Vitamin C

Blackcurrants are a good source of vitamin C
Blackcurrants are a good source of vitamin C

A well-known supporter of the theory that Vitamin C megadosage prevented infection was Nobel Prize winner Linus Pauling,[37] who wrote the bestseller Vitamin C and the Common Cold.[38] A meta-analysis published in 2005 found that "the lack of effect of prophylactic vitamin C supplementation on the incidence of common cold in normal populations throws doubt on the utility of this wide practice".[39] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... Binomial name L. The Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) is a species of Ribes berry native to central and northern Europe and northern Asia. ... It has been suggested that Dynamic Flow be merged into this article or section. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American quantum chemist and biochemist. ... A meta-analysis is a statistical practice of combining the results of a number of studies. ...


A follow-up meta-analysis supported these conclusions:

Prophylactic use "...of vitamin C has no effect on common cold incidence ... [but] reduces the duration and severity of common cold symptoms slightly, although the magnitude of the effect was so small its clinical usefulness is doubtful. Therapeutic trials of high doses of vitamin C ... starting after the onset of symptoms, showed no consistent effect on either duration or severity of symptoms. ... More therapeutic trials are necessary to settle the question, especially in children who have not entered these trials."[40][41] Prophylaxis refers to any medical or public health procedure whose purpose is to prevent, rather than treat or cure, disease. ...

Most of the studies showing little or no effect employ doses of ascorbate such as 100 mg to 500 mg per day, considered "small" by vitamin C advocates. Equally important, the plasma half life of high dose ascorbate above the baseline, controlled by renal resorption, is approximately 30 minutes,[42][43] which implies that most high dose studies have been methodologically defective and would be expected to show a minimum benefit. Clinical studies of divided dose supplementation, predicted on pharmacological grounds to be effective, have only rarely been reported in the literature.


Zinc preparations

Zinc acetate and zinc gluconate have been tested as potential treatments for the common cold, in various dosage form including nasal sprays, nasal gels, and lozenges.[44][45] Some studies have shown some effect of zinc preparations on the duration of the common cold, but conclusions are diverse.[46][47][48] About half of studies demonstrate efficacy.[citation needed] Even studies that show clinical effect have not demonstrated the mechanism of action.[49] The studies differ in the salt used, concentration of the salt, dosage form, and formulation, and some suffer from defects in design or methods. For example, there is evidence that the potential efficacy of zinc gluconate lozenges may be affected by other food acids (citric acid, ascorbic acid and glycine) present in the lozenge.[50] Furthermore, interpretation of the results depends on whether concentration of total zinc or ionic zinc is considered.[51][52] Zinc acetate is a preparation of zinc used as a dietary supplement and in lozenges used to treat the common cold. ... Zinc gluconate is the salt of gluconate and zinc II. It is an ionic compound consisting of two moles of gluconate for each mole of zinc. ... Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in citrus fruits. ... This article deals with the molecular aspects of ascorbic acid. ... For the plant, see Glycine (plant). ...


There are concerns regarding the safety of long-term use of cold preparations in an estimated 25 million persons who are haemochromatosis heterozygotes.[53] Use of high doses of zinc for more than two weeks may cause copper depletion, which leads to anemia.[54] Other adverse events of high doses of zinc include nausea, vomiting gastrointestinal discomfort, headache, drowsiness, unpleasant taste, taste distortion, abdominal cramping, and diarrhea.[49][54] Some users of nasal spray applicators containing zinc have reported temporary or permanent loss of sense of smell.[55] Haemochromatosis, also spelled hemochromatosis, is a hereditary disease characterized by improper dietary iron metabolism (making it an iron overload disorder), which causes the accumulation of iron in a number of body tissues. ... An organism is a heterozygote or heterozygous for a gene or trait if it has different alleles at the genes locus for each homologous chromosome. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Somnolence (or drowsiness, or hypersomnia) is a state of near-sleep, a strong desire for sleep, or sleeping unusually long periods. ... Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause of death in developing countries (particularly among infants), accounting for 5 to 8 million deaths... Look up smell in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Although widely available and advertised in the United States as dietary supplements or homeopathic treatments, the safety and efficacy of zinc preparations have not been evaluated or approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Authoritative sources consider the effect of zinc preparations on the cold unproven.[4][11] “FDA” redirects here. ...

See also: Zinc gluconate

Zinc gluconate is the salt of gluconate and zinc II. It is an ionic compound consisting of two moles of gluconate for each mole of zinc. ...

Steam inhalation

Many people believe that steam inhalation reduces symptoms of the cold.[56]


However, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study found no effect of steam inhalation on cold symptoms.[57] A scientific review of medical literature concluded that "there is insufficient evidence to support the use of steam inhalation as a treatment."[58] There have been reports of children being badly burned when using steam inhalation to alleviate cold symptoms leading to the recommendation to "...start discouraging patients from using this form of home remedy, as there appears to be no significant benefit from steam inhalation."[59] The double blind is ray charles is ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesof the scientific method, used to prevent research...


Chicken soup

In the twelfth century, Moses Maimonides wrote, "Chicken soup...is recommended as an excellent food as well as medication."[60] Since then, there have been numerous reports in the United States that chicken soup alleviates the symptoms of the common cold. Even usually staid medical journals have published tongue-in-cheek humorous articles on the alleged medicinal properties of chicken soup.[61][62][63] Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... A bowl of homemade chicken soup. ... Sarcasm is the making of remarks intended to mock the person referred to (who is normally the person addressed), a situation or thing. ...


Historical research

"Definition of a Cold." Benjamin Franklin's notes for a paper he intended to write on the common cold.
"Definition of a Cold." Benjamin Franklin's notes for a paper he intended to write on the common cold.

The name "common cold" came into use in the 16th century, due to the similarity between its symptoms and those of exposure to cold weather.[64] In the 18th century, Benjamin Franklin considered the causes and prevention of the common cold. After several years of research he concluded: "People often catch cold from one another when shut up together in small close rooms, coaches, etc. and when sitting near and conversing so as to breathe in each other's transpiration." Although viruses had not yet been discovered, Franklin hypothesized that the common cold was passed between people through the air. He recommended exercise, bathing, and moderation in food and drink consumption to avoid the common cold.[65] Franklin's theory on the transmission of the cold was confirmed some 150 years later.[66] Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ...


Common Cold Unit

Main article: Common Cold Unit

In the United Kingdom, the Common Cold Unit was set up by the Medical Research Council in 1946. The unit worked with volunteers who were infected with various viruses.[67] The rhinovirus was discovered there.[68] In the late 1950s, researchers were able to grow one of these cold viruses in a tissue culture, as it would not grow in fertilized chicken eggs, the method used for many other viruses. In the 1970s, the CCU demonstrated that treatment with interferon during the incubation phase of rhinovirus infection protects somewhat against the disease[69], but no practical treatment could be developed. The unit was closed in 1989, two years after it completed research of zinc gluconate lozenges in the prophylaxis and treatment of rhinovirus colds, the only successful treatment in the history of the unit.[70] In Britain, the Common Cold Unit (CCU) was set up by the civilian Medical Research Council (MRC) in 1946 on the site of a former military hospital, the Harvard Hospital, at Harnham Down near Salisbury in Wiltshire. ... In Britain, the Common Cold Unit (CCU) was set up by the civilian Medical Research Council (MRC) in 1946 on the site of a former military hospital, the Harvard Hospital, at Harnham Down near Salisbury in Wiltshire. ... Current MRC logo The Medical Research Council (MRC) is a UK organisation dedicated to promot[ing] the balanced development of medical and related biological research in the UK. // The MRC is one of seven Research Councils and is answerable to, although politically independent from, the Office of Science and Innovation... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tissue culture refers to the growth of tissues and/or cells separate from the organism. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Interferons (IFNs) are natural proteins produced by the cells of the immune system of most vertebrates in response to challenges by foreign agents such as viruses, bacteria, parasites and tumor cells. ...


See also


Bronchiolitis is inflammation of the bronchioles, the smallest air passages of the lungs. ... Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs. ... FLU redirects here. ... Otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear: the small space between the ear drum and the inner ear. ... Upper respiratory infections, commonly referred to the acronym URI, is the illness caused by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract: nose, sinuses, pharynx, larynx, or bronchi. ... Viral pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung caused by a virus. ...


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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... In humans the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy that has to do with the process of respiration or breathing. ... Upper respiratory infections, commonly referred to the acronym URI, is the illness caused by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract: nose, sinuses, pharynx, larynx, or bronchi. ... Rhinitis is the medical term describing irritation and inflammation of the nose. ... Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which may or may not be as a result of infection, from bacterial, fungal, viral, allergic or autoimmune issues. ... ÏŽ:For the noisegrind band, see Sore Throat. ... Strep throat (or Streptococcal pharyngitis, or Streptococcal Sore Throat) is a form of Group A streptococcal infection that affects the pharynx. ... Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils in the mouth and will often, but not necessarily, cause a sore throat and fever. ... Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx. ... Tracheitis (also known as Bacterial tracheitis or Acute bacterial tracheitis) is a bacterial infection of the trachea and is capable of producing airway obstruction. ... This term also refers to the rump of a quadruped; see croup (Wiktionary). ... Epiglottitis is inflammation of the cartilage that covers the trachea(windpipe). ... FLU redirects here. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... Viral pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung caused by a virus. ... Bacterial pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by bacteria. ... Bronchopneumonia (Lobular pneumonia) - is one of two types of bacterial pneumonia as classified by gross anatomic distribution of consolidation (solidification). ... SARS redirects here. ... While often used as a synonym for pneumonia, the rubric of lower respiratory tract infection can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess, acute bronchitis, and emphysema. ... Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs. ... TAE is an inflammation of the bronchi of the lungs, that causes the cilia of the bronchial epithelial cells to stop functioning. ... Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs. ... Bronchiolitis is inflammation of the bronchioles, the smallest air passages of the lungs. ... Vasomotor rhinitis is a form of rhinitis that is not related to allergic reactions, but which is characterized by many of the same symptoms, such as a chronic running nose with intermittent sneezing, rhinorrhea and blood-vessel congestion of the nasal mucus membranes. ... For the play, see Hay Fever. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... An MRI image showing a congenitally deviated nasal septum A deviated septum commonly occurs when the anterior spine of the maxilla is severed in half. ... Adenoid hypertrophy (or enlarged adenoids) is the unusual growth (hypertrophy) of the adenoid tonsil. ... A vocal fold nodule (or Nodules of vocal cords) is a nodule or mass of tissue that grows on the vocal folds (vocal cords). ... In medicine, laryngospasm is an uncontrolled/involuntary muscular contraction (spasm) of the laryngeal cords. ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), is a group of diseases characterized by limitation of airflow in the airway that is not fully reversible. ... Pneumoconiosis, also known as coal workers pneumoconiosis, miners asthma, or black lung disease, is a lung condition caused by the inhalation of dust, characterized by formation of nodular fibrotic changes in lungs. ... Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. ... Silicosis (also known as Grinders disease) is a form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in forms of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs. ... Bauxite pneumoconiosis, also known as Shavers disease, corundum smelters lung, bauxite lung or bauxite smelters disease, is a progressive form of pneumoconiosis caused by exposure to bauxite fumes which contain aluminium and silica particulates. ... Berylliosis is a chronic lung disease caused by prolonged exposure to beryllium, a chemical irritant to the lungs. ... Siderosis is the deposition of iron in tissue. ... Byssinosis, commonly called Brown Lung, pooh is caused by exposure to cotton dust in inadequately ventilated working environments. ... Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is an inflammation of the lung caused by the bodys immune reaction to small air-borne particles. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Bird fanciers lung is a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by bird droppings. ... Interstitial is a generic term for referring to the space between other structures or objects. ... Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), also known as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or adult respiratory distress syndrome (in contrast with IRDS) is a serious reaction to various forms of injuries to the lung. ... Pulmonary edema is swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs. ... Hamman-Rich syndrome (also known as acute interstitial pneumonia) is a rare, severe lung disease which usually affects otherwise healthy individuals. ... Interstitial lung disease (ILD), also known as diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), refers to a group of lung diseases (including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis), affecting the alveolar epithelium, pulmonary capillary endothelium, basement membrane, perivascular and perilymphatic tissues. ... Pus is a whitish-yellow or yellow substance that can be found in regions of bacterial infection, including superficial infections, such as pimples. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to unprogrammed death of cells/living tissue (compare with apoptosis - programmed cell death). ... Lung abscess is necrosis of the pulmonary tissue and formation of cavities containing necrotic debris or fluid caused by microbial infection. ... Pleural effusion Chest x-ray of a pleural effusion. ... An empyema is a collection of pus within a natural body cavity. ... “Collapsed lung” redirects here. ... A hemothorax is a condition that results from blood accumulating in the pleural cavity. ... Hemopneumothorax is a medical term relating to the combination of 2 conditions, Pneumothorax (air in the chest cavity) and Hemothorax (or Hæmothorax - Blood in the chest cavity). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Respiratory failure is a medical term for inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system. ... Atelectasis is defined as a state in which the lung, in whole or in part, is collapsed or without air. ... Pneumomediastinum (or mediastinal emphysema, from Greek pneuma - air) is a condition in which air is present in the mediastinum. ... Mediastinitis is inflammation of the tissues in the mediastinum. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... This article is about the disease. ... Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a condition that frequently affects survivors of poliomyelitis, a viral infection of the nervous system, after recovery from an initial paralytic attack of the virus. ... Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare chronic, progressive encephalitis that affects primarily children and young adults, caused by defective measles virus (which can be a result of a mutation of the virus itself). ... This article is about the viral disease. ... Encephalitis lethargica (EL) is an atypical form of encephalitis. ... Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM), is a rodent-borne viral infectious disease that presents as aseptic meningitis, encephalitis or meningoencephalitis. ... Tick-borne meningoencephalitis or Tick-borne encephalitis is a tick-borne viral infection of the central nervous system affecting humans as well as most other mammals. ... Tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) is an infection of the spinal cord by Human T-lymphotropic virus resulting in paraparesis or weakness of the legs. ... Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of viruses: Arenavirus, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae and Flavivirus. ... Dengue Fever redirects here. ... Chikungunya is a relatively rare form of viral fever caused by an alphavirus that is spread by mosquito bites from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, though recent research by the Pasteur Institute in Paris claims the virus has suffered a mutation that enables it to be transmitted by Aedes albopictus (Tiger mosquito). ... Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a viral zoonosis (affects primarily domestic livestock, but can be passed to humans) causing fever. ... Onyongnyong virus was first isolated by the Uganda Virus Research Institute in Entebbe, Uganda. ... West Nile virus (WNV) is a virus of the family Flaviviridae; part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) antigenic complex of viruses, it is found in both tropical and temperate regions. ... Red areas show the distribution of Japanese Enecphalitis in Asia 1970-1998 Japanese encephalitis (Japanese: 日本脳炎, Nihon-nōen; previously known as Japanese B encephalitis to distinguish it from von Economos A encephalitis) is a disease caused by the mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus. ... St. ... Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a flavivirus endemic to northern Australia and Papua New Guinea. ... Ross River virus (RRV) is an arbovirus of the genus Alphavirus. ... Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread tick-borne viral disease, a zoonosis of domestic animals and wild animals, that may affect humans. ... Omsk hemorrhagic fever is a viral hemorrhagic fever caused by a Flavivirus. ... Kyasanur forest disease is a tick-borne viral hemorrhagic fever endemic to South Asia. ... Alkhurma virus is a member of the Flaviviridae virus family (class IV) so has a positive sense single stranded RNA genome and the virus will replicate in the cytoplasm of the infected host cell. ... The Powassan virus is a tick-borne encephalitis virus related to the classic TBE flavivirus. ... Zoonosis is any infectious disease that can be transmitted from animals, both wild and domestic, to humans. ... Menangle virus is a virus that infects pigs, humans and bats. ... Species Hendravirus Nipahvirus Henipavirus is a genus of the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales containing two members, Hendravirus and Nipahvirus. ... Borna disease is an infectious neurological syndrome of warm-blooded animals, which causes abnormal behaviour and fatality. ... Lassa fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever first described in 1969 in the Nigerian town of Lassa in the Yedseram River valley. ... Species Guanarito virus Venezualan hemorrhagic fever (VHF) is a zoonotic human illness, first identified in 1989, causing fever and malaise followed by hemorrhagic manifestations and convulsions. ... Species Junín virus Argentine hemorrhagic fever, known locally as mal de los rastrojos, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease occurring in Argentina. ... Species Machupo virus Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), also known as black typhus or Machupo virus, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease occurring in Bolivia. ... Puumala virus is a species of hantavirus, and causes nephropathia epidemica. ... Andes virus (ANDV) is a hantavirus, which, in South America, is the major causative agent of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS or HPS). ... The Sin Nombre virus (Spanish for virus without name) (SNV) is the prototypical etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). ... Species Andes virus (ANDV) Bayou virus (BAYV) Black Creek Canal virus (BCCV) Cano Delgadito virus (CADV) Choclo virus (CHOV) Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) Hantaan virus (HTNV) Isla Vista virus (ISLAV) Khabarovsk virus (KHAV) Laguna Negra virus (LANV) Muleshoe virus (MULV) New York virus (NYV) Prospect Hill virus (PHV) Puumala virus... Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is a zoonotic virus closely related to rabies virus. ... For other uses, see Ebola (disambiguation). ... The Marburg virus is the causative agent of Marburg hemorrhagic fever. ... Mokola virus is one of four members of the lyssavirus genome found in Africa, the others being Duvenhage virus, Lagos bat virus and classical rabies virus. ... Duvenhage virus is a member of the lyssavirus genus which also contains rabies virus. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... Skin lesions caused by Chickenpox A lesion is any abnormal tissue found on or in an organism, usually damaged by disease or trauma. ... This article is about the disease. ... Chickenpox is one of the five classical childhood exanthems or rashes, once a cause of significant morbidity and mortality, but now chiefly of historical importance—it was formerly one of the childhood infectious diseases caught by and survived by almost every child. ... Shingles redirects here, for other uses of the term, see Shingle. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... (Cricetomys sp. ... Rubella, commonly known as German measles, is a disease caused by the rubella virus. ... A plantar wart (verruca plantaris, VP; also commonly called a verruca) is a wart caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). ... Cowpox is a disease of the skin caused by a virus (Cowpox virus) that is related to the Vaccinia virus. ... Vaccinia virus (VACV or VV) is a large, complex enveloped virus belonging to the poxvirus family of viruses. ... Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral infection of the skin or occasionally of the mucous membranes. ... species Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) Exanthem subitum (meaning sudden rash), also referred to as roseola infantum (or rose rash of infants), sixth disease and (confusingly) baby measles, or three day fever, is a benign disease of children, generally under two years old, whose manifestations... Fifth disease is also referred to as erythema infectiosum (meaning infectious redness) and as slapped cheek syndrome, slap face or slapped face. ... Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by a number of enteroviruses in the family Picornaviridae. ... Not to be confused with hand, foot and mouth disease. ... Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the eighth human herpesvirus; its formal name according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses is HHV-8. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... Species Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis A (formerly known as infectious hepatitis) is an acute infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatovirus hepatitis A virus. ... “HBV” redirects here. ... This page is for the disease. ... Hepatitis D is a disease caused by a small circular RNA virus (Hepatitis delta virus); this virus is replication defective and therefore cannot propagate in the absence of another virus. ... Hepatitis E is an acute viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) caused by infection with a virus called hepatitis E virus (HEV). ... Hepatitis G and GB virus C (GBV-C) are RNA viruses that were independently identified in 1995, and were subsequently found to be two isolates of the same virus. ... Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. ... FLU redirects here. ... SARS redirects here. ... Viral pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung caused by a virus. ... Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of four distinct serotypes of single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family. ... Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae, which includes common respiratory viruses such as those causing measles and mumps. ... Species Turkey rhinotracheitis virus Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was isolated for the first time in 2001 in the Netherlands by using the RAP-PCR technique for identification of unknown viruses growing in cultured cells. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... AIDS dementia complex (ADC; also known as HIV dementia, HIV encephalopathy and HIV-associated dementia) has become a common neurological disorder associated with HIV infection and AIDS. It is is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection and fueled by immune activation of brain macrophages and microglia. ... Genital warts (or Condyloma, Condylomata acuminata, or venereal warts) is a highly contagious sexually transmitted infection caused by some sub-types of human papillomavirus (HPV). ... Human T cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is believed to be the cause of several diseases, including adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a rare cancer of the immune systems own T-cells. ... See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Norovirus is a genus of viruses of the family Caliciviridae. ... Astroviruses that infect humans have been poorly studied due to the fact that they do not grow in culture. ... Coronavirus is a genus of animal virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. ... Genera Mastadenovirus Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ... Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is a human, single-stranded RNA retrovirus that causes T-cell leukemia and T-cell lymphoma in adults and may also be involved in certain demyelinating diseases, including tropical spastic paraparesis. ... Leukemia or leukaemia(Greek leukos λευκός, “white”; aima αίμα, “blood”) (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. ... An oncolytic virus is a virus used to treat cancer due to their ability to specifically infect cancer cells, while leaving normal cells unharmed. ... Species see text Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, cell, and -mega-, large) is a viral genus of the Herpesviruses group: in humans it is commonly known as human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). ... Bornholm disease or pleurodynia is a disease caused by the Coxsackie virus. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Species Human rhinovirus A (HRV-A) Human rhinovirus B (HRV-B) Rhinovirus (from the Greek rhin-, which means nose) is a genus of the Picornaviridae family of viruses. ... Coronavirus is a genus of animal virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. ... Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of four distinct serotypes of single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family. ... Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae, which includes common respiratory viruses such as those causing measles and mumps. ... Genera Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Mastadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ... Species Bovine enterovirus Coxsackie virus Echovirus Human enterovirus A Human enterovirus B Human enterovirus C Human enterovirus D Human enterovirus E Poliovirus Porcine enterovirus A Porcine enterovirus B Swine vesicular disease virus The enteroviruses are a genus of (+)ssRNA viruses associated with several human and mammalian diseases. ... Species Turkey rhinotracheitis virus Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was isolated for the first time in 2001 in the Netherlands by using the RAP-PCR technique for identification of unknown viruses growing in cultured cells. ... The term symptom (from the Greek meaning chance, mishap or casualty, itself derived from συμπιπτω meaning to fall upon or to happen to) has two similar meanings in the context of physical and mental health: Strictly, a symptom is a sensation or change in health function experienced by a patient. ... ÏŽ:For the noisegrind band, see Sore Throat. ... Rhinorrhea, commonly known as a runny nose, is a symptom of the common cold and allergies (hay fever). ... Nasal congestion is the blockage of the nasal passages usually due to membranes lining the nose becoming swollen from inflamed blood vessels. ... For other uses, see Sneeze (disambiguation). ... Myalgia means muscle pain and is a symptom of many diseases and disorders. ... Exhaustion redirects here. ... Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort or uneasiness, an out of sorts feeling, often the first indication of an infection or other disease. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Muscle weakness (or lack of strength) is a direct term for the inability to exert force with ones muscles to the degree that would be expected given the individuals general physical fitness. ... This article is about the symptom of decreased appetite. ... Complication, in medicine, is a unfavorable evolution of a disease, a health condition or a medical treatment. ... TAE is an inflammation of the bronchi of the lungs, that causes the cilia of the bronchial epithelial cells to stop functioning. ... Bronchiolitis is inflammation of the bronchioles, the smallest air passages of the lungs. ... This term also refers to the rump of a quadruped; see croup (Wiktionary). ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which may or may not be as a result of infection, from bacterial, fungal, viral, allergic or autoimmune issues. ... Otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear: the small space between the ear drum and the inner ear. ... Strep throat (or Streptococcal pharyngitis, or Streptococcal Sore Throat) is a form of Group A streptococcal infection that affects the pharynx. ... Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... Pleconaril is an antiviral drug being developed by Schering-Plough for prevention of asthma exacerbations and common cold symptoms in asthmatic subjects exposed to picornavirus respiratory infections. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Common Cold Information - Causes Of Common Cold - Common Cold Symptoms (226 words)
Common cold is a problem that is faced by almost everyone and not once but many times in a year.
Some causes of common cold are psychological stress, allergic disorders, menstrual cycles and person-to-person infection etc. Common cold symptoms consist of soreness of throat, nose blocking, sneezing, headache, pains in the body and rise in temperature.
Cold is basically a problem that starts in the nose and throat, but gradually tends to affect the whole body.
The Common Cold (1969 words)
Although the common cold is usually mild, with symptoms lasting a week or less, it is a leading cause of doctor visits and of school and job absenteeism.
Colds are most prevalent among children, and seem to be related to youngsters' relative lack of resistance to infection and to contacts with other children in day-care centers and schools.
The relative importance of various viruses in pediatric colds, however, is unclear because of the difficulty in isolating the precise cause of symptoms in studies of children with colds.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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