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Encyclopedia > Common rail

Common rail direct fuel injection is a modern variant of direct injection system for diesel engines. It features a high-pressure (1000+ bar) fuel rail feeding individual solenoid valves, as opposed to low-pressure fuel pump feeding pump nozzles or high-pressure fuel line to mechanical valves controlled by cams on the camshaft. Third generation common rail diesels now feature piezoelectric injectors for even greater accuracy, with fuel pressures up to 180 MPa / 1800 bar, although a new version of Delphi’s proven diesel common rail system will allow compliance with Euro 6 and US Tier 2 Bin 5 without costly next-generation injection technologies. CRD may stand for CRD Records, record label Capital Regional District, sub-provincial administrative district encompassing Greater Victoria, British Columbia and environs Capstone requirements document, United States Military document Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, health research institute based at the University of York Cock Rock Disco, record label Conservative Research... HDi (abbreviation taken from interactive high definition, formerly iHD[]) is a format developed by Microsoft and Toshiba for providing interactive menus and special features such as additional bonus/extras content and games for HD DVD, (one of the high-definition video formats). ... // Fuel injection is a means of metering fuel into an internal combustion engine. ... A diesel engine built by MAN AG in 1906 Rudolf Diesels 1893 patent on his engine design A Diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... The bar (symbol bar), decibar (symbol dbar) and the millibar (symbol mbar, also mb) are units of pressure. ... Fuel rail, injectors and fuel pressure regulator from a four cylinder engine. ... A solenoid valve is an electromechanical valve for use with liquid or gas controlled by running or stopping an electrical current through a solenoid, which is a coil of wire, thus changing the state of the valve. ... mechanical fuel pump, fitted to cylinder head Electric fuel pump Petro-Canada Fuel Pump used to transfer fuel at a gas station. ... For other uses, see CAM. Animation showing rotating cams and cam followers producing reciprocating motion. ... For the fictional characters of the same name, see Camshaft (Transformers). ... Piezoelectricity is the ability of certain crystals to produce a voltage when subjected to mechanical stress. ...

Contents

History

The common rail system prototype was developed in the late 1960s by Robert Huber of Switzerland. After that, Ganser of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology developed the common rail technology further. In the mid-nineties, Dr. Shohei Itoh and Masahiko Miyaki, of the Denso Corporation, a Japanese automotive parts manufacturer, developed the Common Rail Fuel System for Heavy Duty Vehicles and finally turned into its first practical use on their ECD-U2 Common Rail system, which was mounted on the Hino Raising Ranger truck and sold for general use in 1995. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... ETH Zurich (from its German name Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, ETHZ) is the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, Switzerland. ... DENSO Corporation (株式会社デンソー) (TYO: 6902) is a global automotive components manufacturer headquartered in the city of Kariya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...


The modern ECU controlled common rail system whilst working on the same principle, is controlled by an electronic control unit which opens each injector electronically, rather than mechanically. This was extensively prototyped in the 1990s, with collaboration between Magneti Marelli, Centro Ricerche Fiat and Elasis. After research and development by the Fiat Group, the design was acquired by the German company Robert Bosch GmbH for completion of development and making suitable for mass-production. In 1997 they extended its use for passenger cars. The first passenger car that used the common rail system was the 1997 model Alfa Romeo 156 1.9 JTD and later on that same year Mercedes-Benz E 320 CDI. Magneti-Marelli is an Italian company which designs and produces high-tech components and systems for the automotive industry. ... The phrase research and development (also R and D or, more often, R&D), according to the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, refers to creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use... Fiat S.p. ... Logo of Robert Bosch GmbH Robert Bosch GmbH [1] is a German corporation which was started in 1886 by Robert Bosch in Stuttgart, Germany. ... Mass production (also called flow production, repetitive flow production or series production) is the production of large amounts of standardized products on production lines. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The Alfa Romeo 156 (known internally as the type 932) is a compact executive car introduced by Italian automaker Alfa Romeo at the 1997 Frankfurt Motor Show[2]as the replacement for the 155. ... JTD is Fiats term for its turbocharged diesel engines. ... Mercedes-Benz W210 E-Class wagon US-Spec W210 E-Class sedan The Mercedes-Benz W210 is a mid-size luxury car / executive car produced by the German automaker Mercedes-Benz from 1996 through 2002 (the W210 wagon was carried over to the 2003 model year). ...


Common rail engines have been used in marine and locomotive applications for some time. The Cooper-Bessemer GN-8 (circa 1942) is an example of a hydraulically operated common rail diesel engine, also known as a modified common rail. Great Western Railway No. ...


The engines are suitable for all types of road cars with diesel engines, ranging from city cars such as the Fiat Nuova Panda to large family cars like the Alfa Romeo 159. The Fiat Panda, a 1980s city car A current model Toyota Aygo city car A city car (or urban car) is a small, moderately powered automobile intended for use in urban areas. ... The Fiat Panda is a city car from the Italian automotive manufacturer Fiat. ... A Ford Mondeo, a large family car. ... This article is about the road car in 2000s. ...


Common rail today

Today the common rail system has brought about a revolution in diesel engine technology. Robert Bosch GmbH, Delphi Automotive Systems, Denso Corporation and Siemens VDO are the main suppliers of modern common rail systems. Different car makers refer to their common rail engines by different names: Logo of Robert Bosch GmbH Robert Bosch GmbH [1] is a German corporation which was started in 1886 by Robert Bosch in Stuttgart, Germany. ... Delphi logo from 2005 Delphi OTCBB: DPHIQ is an automotive parts company headquartered in Troy, Michigan, USA. It was spun-off from General Motors on May 28, 1999. ... DENSO Corporation (株式会社デンソー) (TYO: 6902) is a global automotive components manufacturer headquartered in the city of Kariya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. ... VDO (Vereinigte DEUTA (Deutsche Tachometerwerke GmbH) OTA (OTA Apparate GmbH)) is a manufacturer of information and cockpit systems, navigation, telematics, communication and audio systems and control and fuel systems. ...

Daimler may refer to Gottlieb Daimler, German engineer and automobile inventor in the 1880s Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft, his Stuttgart-based company, maker of Mercedes vehicles since 1903, later merged into Daimler-Benz, maker of Mercedes-Benz vehicles (since 1926) DaimlerChrysler (1998), a part German, part American, part Japanese car maker... The three-letter acronym CDI may stand for: Capacitor discharge ignition, an ignition system common for motorcycle engines Carbonyldiimidazole, a peptide coupling agent Cargo Disposition Instructions Category Development Index is a measure used in the allocation of media, and promotion for a specific product category or genre Category Development System... For other uses, including the Chrysler Brand, see Chrysler (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jeep (disambiguation). ... Fiat S.p. ... Fiat S.p. ... Alfa Romeo is an Italian automobile manufacturing company, founded as Darracq Italiana by Cavaliere Ugo Stella, an aristocrat from Milan in partnership with the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq. ... Lancia (pronounced Lan-cha) is an Italian automobile manufacturer founded in 1906 by Vincenzo Lancia and which became part of the Fiat Group in 1969. ... JTD is Fiats term for its turbocharged diesel engines. ... “Ford” redirects here. ... Duratorq is the name of a range of Ford diesel engines first introduced in 2000 for the Ford Mondeo range of cars. ... Introduced in 1995, the Power Stroke is a family of turbodiesel truck engines used in Ford F-Series trucks, the Ford Econoline van, the Ford LCF commercial truck, and the Ford Excursion SUV. The Power Stroke is manufactured by Navistar International Corporation (International Truck and Engine Corporation) and is based... General Motors Corporation, also known as GM, an American multinational corporation, is the worlds largest auto company by production volume for the first 9 months of 2007, and by sales volume for 76 consecutive years. ... This article is about the European car manufacturer. ... For information about the football team see Vauxhall Motors F.C. Vauxhall Motors is a UK car company. ... Common rail direct fuel injection is a modern variant of direct injection system for Diesel engines. ... Fiat S.p. ... This article is about the auto company GM Daewoo. ... This article is about a truck manufacturer. ... This article is about the auto company GM Daewoo. ... Chevrolet (IPA: - French origin) (colloquially Chevy) is a brand of automobile, produced by General Motors (GM). ... VM Motori S.p. ... This article is about the Japanese motor corporation. ... Hyundai Kia Automotive Group was formed through the merging of South Koreas largest car company, Hyundai Motor Company and the nations 2nd largest car company, Kia Motors in 1999 and is the worlds 6th largest car company. ... Common rail direct fuel injection is a modern variant of direct injection system for Diesel engines. ... Mahindra corporate logo Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd (The Mahindra Group) is an Indian 2. ... Maruti Udyog Limited is a publicly listed Automaker in India. ... Fiat S.p. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Mitsubishi Motors Corporation ) is the fifth largest automaker in Japan and the thirteenth largest in the world by unit sales. ... Common rail direct fuel injection is a modern variant of direct injection system for Diesel engines. ... Nissan Motor Co. ... PSA Peugeot Citroën (PSA) is a vehicle company that owns the marques Peugeot and Citroën. ... For the author, see Mary Renault. ... DCI may be an abbreviation for: In government: Director of Central Intelligence, also the head of the CIA. The latter, now a defunct position, is currently called the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. ... SsangYong logo SsangYong Motor Company (hangul:쌍용자동차, KSE: 003620) is the fourth largest South Korean automobile manufacturer. ... DaimlerChrysler AG (ISIN: DE0007100000) is a German car corporation and the worlds eighth largest car manufacturer. ... Tata Motors Limited, formerly known as TELCO (TATA Engineering and Locomotive Company), is Indias largest passenger automobile and commercial vehicle manufacturing company. ... This article is about the automaker. ... Common rail direct fuel injection is a modern variant of direct injection system for Diesel engines. ... Volkswagen Group (ISIN: DE0007664005, TYO: 7659 ) is a German automobile manufacturer and one of the largest automotive companies worldwide. ... Volvo Cars is the luxury car maker using the Volvo Trademark. ...

Principles

Solenoid or piezoelectric valves make possible fine electronic control over the injection time and amount, and the higher pressure that the common rail technology makes available provides better fuel atomisation. In order to lower engine noise, the engine's electronic control unit can inject a small amount of diesel just before the main injection event ("pilot" injection), thus reducing its explosiveness and vibration, as well as optimising injection timing and quantity for variations in fuel quality, cold starting, and so on. Some advanced common rail fuel systems perform as many as five injections per stroke. Piezoelectricity is the ability of certain crystals to produce a voltage when subjected to mechanical stress. ... In automotive electronics, an electronic control unit (ECU) is an embedded microcomputer that controls one or more of the electrical subsystems in a vehicle. ... Atomization is common practice to inject the fuel into the combustor (or premixer) through a nozzle, which atomizes the fuel. ... Environmental Noise is unwanted sound, which may cause both nuisance and damage to health. ... In automotive electronics, an electronic control unit (ECU) is an embedded microcomputer that controls one or more of the electrical subsystems in a vehicle. ...


Common rail engines require no heating up time, and produce lower engine noise and lower emissions than older systems.


In older diesel engines, a distributor-type injection pump, regulated by the engine, supplies bursts of fuel to injectors which are simply nozzles through which the diesel is sprayed into the engine's combustion chamber. As the fuel is at low pressure and there cannot be precise control of fuel delivery, the spray is relatively coarse and the combustion process is relatively crude and inefficient.

In common rail systems, the distributor injection pump is eliminated. Instead an extremely high pressure pump stores a reservoir of fuel at high pressure—up to 2,000 bar (200 MPa)—in a "common rail", basically a tube which in turn branches off to computer-controlled injector valves, each of which contains a precision-machined nozzle and a plunger driven by a solenoid. Driven by a computer (which also controls the amount of fuel to the pump), the valves, rather than pump timing, control the precise moment when the fuel injection into the cylinder occurs and also allow the pressure at which the fuel is injected into the cylinders to be increased. As a result, the fuel that is injected atomises easily and burns cleanly, reducing exhaust emissions and increasing efficiency. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1011x1067, 185 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Common rail ... The megapascal, symbol MPa is an SI unit of pressure. ...


Most European automakers have common rail diesels in their model lineups, even for commercial vehicles. Some Japanese manufacturers, such as Isuzu, Toyota, Nissan and recently Honda, have also developed common rail diesel engines. Some Indian companies have also successfully implemented this technology, notably Mahindra & Mahindra for their 'Scorpio-CRDe' and Tata Motors for their 'Safari-DICOR'. This article is about a truck manufacturer. ... This article is about the automaker. ... Nissan Motor Co. ... This article is about the Japanese motor corporation. ...


See also

Turbo Direct Injection - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Gasoline Direct injection or GDi is a variant of fuel injection employed in modern two- and four- stroke petrol engines. ...

External links

  • BSG GmbH: common rail system codeveloped by Daimler-Benz, Fiat, Elasis and Bosch
  • Common rail 101
  • Common rail injection animation
  • Video about Common Rail Injection on Sprinter 311 CDI (Portuguese)

  Results from FactBites:
 
common rail, common diesel rail, bosch common rail, delphi common rail, common rail direct injection (1831 words)
Common rail refers to a small accumulation tank called Rail where the pressure of the fuel remains almost constant and always available in order to supply the electronic injectors and therefore for an optimum injection.
The regulating valves for the pressure is fixed on the body of the high pressure pump or Rail and has the function to regulate and maintain the pressure in the Rail according to the loading condition of the engine.
On the rail it is possible to fit a capacity limit valve, a rail pressure sensor, a valve regulating and limiting the pressure.
Common rail - Patent 6505607 (1013 words)
The common rail of claim 1, wherein said two substantially circular-cylindrical recesses (2, 3) have the same diameter, and wherein the spacing of the longitudinal axes (4, 5) of said two substantially circular-cylindrical recesses (2, 3) is greater than their diameter.
In known common rail injection systems, a high-pressure pump, optionally with the aid of a preferred pump, pumps the fuel to be injected out of a tank into the central high-pressure fuel reservoir, which is also called a common rail.
This increases the high-pressure strength of the common rail of the invention.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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