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Encyclopedia > Common chimpanzee
Common Chimpanzee[1]

Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Hominidae
Genus: Pan
Species: P. troglodytes
Binomial name
Pan troglodytes
(Blumenbach, 1775)
distribution of Common Chimpanzee. 1. Pan troglodytes verus. 2. P. t. vellerosus. 3. P. t. troglodytes. 4. P. t. schweinfurthii.
distribution of Common Chimpanzee. 1. Pan troglodytes verus. 2. P. t. vellerosus. 3. P. t. troglodytes. 4. P. t. schweinfurthii.

The Common Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), also known as the Robust Chimpanzee, is a great ape. The name troglodytes, Greek for 'cave-dweller', was coined by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach in his Handbuch der Naturgeschichte (Handbook of Natural History) published in 1779. Colloquially, it is often called the chimpanzee (or simply 'chimp'), though technically this term refers to both species in the genus Pan: the Common Chimpanzee and the closely-related Bonobo, or Pygmy Chimpanzee. Image File history File links Common Chimpanzee also known as Vlad Raskin could be found in greater Boston or greater Tbilisi area depending on the season By Aaron Logan, from http://www. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species in the genus Pan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (May 11, 1752 - January 22, 1840) was a German physiologist and anthropologist. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (960x543, 25 KB) Pan troglodytes subespecies and distribution 1. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (May 11, 1752 - January 22, 1840) was a German physiologist and anthropologist. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species in the genus Pan. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... For other uses of the word, please see Genus (disambiguation). ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species in the genus Pan. ... For other uses, see Bonobo (disambiguation). ...


Several subspecies of the Common Chimpanzee have been recognized:

Contents

Basic facts

Common Chimpanzees are found in the tropical forests and wet savannas of Western and Central Africa. They once inhabited most of this region, but their habitat has been dramatically reduced in recent years. Tropic wet forests in the World Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical wet forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome. ... Savanna at Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ...


Adults in the wild weigh between 40 and 65 kg (88 and 143 lb); males can measure up to 160 cm (63 inches) and females to 130 cm (51 inches), and although lighter than humans they have a pull five to six times stronger[1] This is because the muscles of chimpanzees and other primates are far more effective than those of humans.[2] Their bodies are covered by a coarse dark brown hair, except for the face, fingers, toes, palms of the hands and soles of the feet. Both their thumbs and their big toes are opposable, allowing a precision grip. Their gestation period is eight months. Infants are weaned when they are about three years old, but usually maintain a close relationship with their mother for several more years; they reach puberty at the age of eight to ten, and their lifespan in captivity is about fifty years. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. ...


Although omnivores, their diet is mainly vegetarian, consisting of fruits, leaves, nuts, seeds, tubers, and miscellaneous plantlife, supplemented by insects and small prey. There are also instances of organized hunting; in some cases, such as the killing of leopard cubs, this primarily seems to be a protective effort, since leopards are the main natural predators of chimps. However, Common Chimpanzees sometimes band together and hunt Western Red Colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus badius) for their meat. Isolated cases of cannibalism have been documented. Chimpanzees have also been known on rare occasions to attack and eat human infants.[3] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... “Foliage” redirects here. ... Hazelnuts from the Common Hazel Chestnut A nut can be either a seed or a fruit. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Articles with similar titles include benign tumours such as tuberous sclerosis. ... Insects (Class Insecta) are a major group of arthropods and the most diverse group of animals on the Earth, with over a million described species—more than all other animal groups combined. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis pardus Linnaeus, 1758 The Leopard (Panthera pardus) is is an Old World mammal of the Felidae family and one of the four big cats of the genus Panthera, along with the tiger, the lion and the jaguar. ... Binomial name Piliocolobus badius (Kerr, 1792) The Western Red Colobus (Piliocolobus) is a species of Old World monkey. ... This article is about consuming ones own species. ...


The West African Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) is the only animal besides humans known to routinely create and use specialized tools specifically for hunting. Chimpanzees near Kédougou, Senegal were observed to create spears by breaking off tree limbs, stripping them of their bark, sharpening one end with their teeth. They then used these weapons to kill galagos sleeping in hollows.[4] Kédougou is a town in south eastern Senegal at 12. ... Genera  Otolemur  Euoticus  Galago For other uses, see Galago (disambiguation). ...


Behaviour

Common Chimpanzee infant and mother.
Common Chimpanzee infant and mother.

Common Chimpanzees live in communities that typically range from twenty to more than 150 members, but spend most of their time travelling in small parties of just a few individuals. They are both arboreal and terrestrial, spending equal time in the trees and on the ground. Their habitual gait is quadrupedal, using the soles of their feet and resting on their knuckles, but they can walk upright for short distances. Common Chimpanzees are 'knuckle walkers', like gorillas, in contrast to the quadrupedal locomotion of orangutans and bonobos, 'palm walkers' who use the outside edge of their palms. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 1209 KB) author:The American Eagle of LA File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Common Chimpanzee Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 1209 KB) author:The American Eagle of LA File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Common Chimpanzee Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Faces of mother and child; detail of sculpture at Soldier Field, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Female mallard duck and ducklings. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Zebra is an example of a quadruped. ... Type species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 distribution of Gorilla Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the living primates, is a ground-dwelling omnivore that inhabits the forests of Africa. ... Type species Simia pygmaeus Linnaeus, 1760 Orangutan distribution Species Pongo pygmaeus Pongo abelii The orangutans are two species of great apes known for their intelligence and their long arms and reddish-brown hair. ...


The Common Chimpanzee lives in a fission-fusion society, where mating is promiscuous, and may be found in groups of the following types: all-male, adult females and offspring, consisting of both sexes, one female and her offspring, or a single individual. At the core of social structures are males, who roam around, protect group members, and search for food. Among males, there is generally a dominance hierarchy. However, this unusual fission-fusion social structure, "in which portions of the parent group may on a regular basis separate from and then rejoin the rest",[5] is highly variable in terms of which particular individual chimpanzees congregate at a given time. This is mainly due to chimpanzees having a high level of individual autonomy within their fission-fusion social groups. Also, communities have large ranges that overlap with those of other groups. In primatology, a fission-fusion society is one in which the social group, e. ... Sevenspotted Lady Beetles mating In biology, mating is the pairing of opposite-sex or hermaphroditic internal fertilization animals for copulation and, in social animals, also to raise their offspring. ...


As a result, individual chimpanzees often forage for food alone, or in smaller groups (as opposed to the much larger parent group, which encompasses all the chimpanzees who regularly come into contact and congregate into parties in a particular area). As stated, these smaller groups also emerge in a variety of types, for a variety of purposes. For example, an all-male troop may be organized in order to hunt for meat, while a group consisting of one mature male and one mature female may occur for the purposes of copulation. An individual may encounter certain individuals quite frequently, but have run-ins with others almost never or only in large-scale gatherings. Due to the varying frequency at which chimpanzees associate, the structure of their societies is highly complicated. A hunt is an activity during which humans or animals chase some prey, such as wild or specially bred animals (traditionally targeted species are known as game), in order to catch or kill them, either for food, sale, or as a form of sport. ... A pair of lions copulating in the Maasai Mara, Kenya. ...


When confronted by a predator, chimpanzees will react with loud screams and use any object they can get against the threat. As noted above, the leopard is the chimps main natural predator, but they have also fallen prey to lions as well.[6] Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Distribution of Lions in Africa Synonyms Felis leo (Linnaeus, 1758) The lion (Panthera leo) is a member of the family Felidae and one of four big cats in the genus Panthera. ...


Tool use

While it has long been known that modern chimpanzees use tools, recent research indicates that chimpanzee stone tool use dates to at least 4300 years ago.[7] A recent study revealed the use of such advanced tools as spears, which West African Chimpanzees in Senegal sharpen with their teeth, being used to spear Senegal Bushbabies out of small holes in trees.[8] An Eastern Chimpanzee has been observed using a modified branch as a tool to capture a squirrel.[9] Binomial name Galago senegalensis É. Geoffroy, 1796 The Senegal Bushbaby (Galago senegalensis), also known as the Senegal Galago, the Lesser Galago or the Lesser Bush Baby, is a small, nocturnal primate, a member of the galago family Galagidae (sometimes called Galagonidae). ...


Chimpanzee Genome Project

The ape clade. Chimpanzees are the closest living relatives to humans. The numbers in this diagram provide an estimate of relatedness based on similarities in proteins between the various apes.

Human and Common Chimpanzee DNA is very similar. After the completion of the Human genome project, a Common Chimpanzee Genome Project was initiated. In December of 2003, a preliminary analysis of 7600 genes shared between the two genomes confirmed that certain genes, such as the forkhead-box P2 transcription factor which is involved in speech development, have undergone rapid evolution in the human lineage. A draft version of the chimpanzee genome was published on September 1, 2005, in an article produced by the Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium[10]. The DNA sequence differences between humans and chimpanzees is about thirty-five million single-nucleotide changes, five million insertion/deletion events, and various chromosomal rearrangements. Typical human and chimp protein homologs differ in only an average of two amino acids. About 30% of all human proteins are identical in sequence to the corresponding chimp protein. Duplications of small parts of chromosomes have been the major source of differences between human and chimp genetic material; about 2.7% of the corresponding modern genomes represent differences, produced by gene duplications or deletions, during the approximately four to six million years since humans and chimps diverged from their common evolutionary ancestor. Results from human and chimp genome analyses, currently being conducted by geneticists including David Reich, should help in understanding the genetic basis of some human diseases. The Chimpanzee Genome Project is an effort to determine the DNA sequence of the genome of the closest living human relatives. ... Image File history File links Apeclade. ... Image File history File links Apeclade. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... // The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a project to de-code (i. ... The Chimpanzee Genome Project is an effort to determine the DNA sequence of the genome of the closest living human relatives. ... In molecular biology, a transcription factor is a protein that binds DNA at a specific promoter or enhancer region or site, where it regulates transcription. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium is the international team of researchers who have been attempting to sequence the chimpanzee genome. ... A point mutation, or substitution, is a type of mutation that causes the replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide. ... It has been suggested that mutant be merged into this article or section. ... Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... Chromosomal translocation of the 4th and 20th chromosome. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... In biology, homology is any similarity between structures that is due to their shared ancestry. ... Phenylalanine is one of the standard amino acids. ... Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... A geneticist is a scientist who studies genetics, the science of heredity and variation of organisms. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Link with Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1

Two types of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infect humans: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is the more virulent and easily transmitted, and is the source of the majority of HIV infections throughout the world; HIV-2 is largely confined to west Africa.[11] Both types originated in west and central Africa, jumping from primates to humans. HIV-1 has evolved from a Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIVcpz) found in the Common Chimpanzee subspecies, Pan troglodytes troglodytes, native to southern Cameroon.[12][13] Kinshasa, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, has the greatest genetic diversity of HIV-1 so far discovered, suggesting that the virus has been there longer than anywhere else. HIV-2 crossed species from a different strain of SIV, found in the Sooty Mangabey, monkeys in Guinea-Bissau.[11] The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a frequently mutating retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and which has been shown to cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Binomial name Cercocebus atys (Audebert, 1797) The Sooty Mangabey (Cercocebus atys), also called the White-collared Mangabey, is an Old World monkey of Guinea Bissau, Gabon, and Cameroon. ...


Divergence from the Bonobo

Recent DNA evidence suggests the Bonobo and Common Chimpanzee species separated from each other less than one million years ago.[14][15] The chimpanzee line split from the last common ancestor of the human line approximately six million years ago. Because no species other than Homo sapiens has survived from the human line of that branching, both chimpanzee species are the closest living relatives of humans. // For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ...


See also

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Advocates of Great Ape personhood consider common chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans (the hominid apes) to be persons. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This is a list of apes of encyclopedic interest. ... Washoe Washoe is a chimpanzee, currently living at the Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute (CHCI) at Central Washington University in Ellensburg, Washington. ... Nim Chimpsky (November 21, 1973 – March 10, 2000) was a chimpanzee who was the subject of an extended study of animal language acquisition (codenamed 6. ... The phrase theory of mind (often abbreviated as ToM) is used in several related ways: general categories of theories of mind - theories about the nature of mind, and its structure and processes; theories of mind related to individual minds; in recent years, the phrase theory of mind has more commonly...

References

  1. ^ Groves, Colin (16 November 2005). in Wilson, D. E., and Reeder, D. M. (eds): Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, Johns Hopkins University Press, 183. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ Butynski et al (2000). Pan troglodytes. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 10 May 2006. Database entry includes justification for why this species is endangered
  3. ^ Frodo: The Alpha Male (2003). Retrieved on 2006-12-06.
  4. ^ Jill D. Pruetz1 and Paco Bertolani, Savanna Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus, Hunt with Tools", Current Biology, March 6, 2007
  5. ^ Goodall, Jane (1986). The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior. 
  6. ^ http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/110514848/ABSTRACT| Lions eat chimpanzees: The first evidence of predation by lions on wild chimpanzees
  7. ^ Julio Mercader, Huw Barton, Jason Gillespie, Jack Harris, Steven Kuhn, Robert Tyler, Christophe Boesch (2007). "4300-year-old Chimpanzee Sites and the Origins of Percussive Stone Technology". PNAS Feb. 
  8. ^ Fox, M. (2007-02-22). Hunting chimps may change view of human evolution. Retrieved on 2007-02-22.
  9. ^ Michael A. Huffman and Mohamedi Seifu Kalunde. Tool-assisted predation on a squirrel by a female chimpanzee in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania.
  10. ^ Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium (2005). "Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome". Nature 437: 69-87.  (September 1) Entrez PubMed 16136131; Cheng Z, Ventura M et al. (2005). "A genome-wide comparison of recent chimpanzee and human segmental duplications". Nature 437: 88-93.  (September 1) Entrez PubMed 16136132
  11. ^ a b Reeves, J. D. and Doms, R. W (2002). "Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2". J. Gen. Virol. 83 (Pt 6): 1253-1265. PubMed. 
  12. ^ Keele, B. F., van Heuverswyn, F., Li, Y. Y., Bailes, E., Takehisa, J., Santiago, M. L., Bibollet-Ruche, F., Chen, Y., Wain, L. V., Liegois, F., Loul, S., Mpoudi Ngole, E., Bienvenue, Y., Delaporte, E., Brookfield, J. F. Y., Sharp, P. M., Shaw, G. M., Peeters, M., Hahn, B. H. (2006). "Chimpanzee Reservoirs of Pandemic and Nonpandemic HIV-1". Science. DOI:10.1126/science.1126531. 
  13. ^ Gao, F., Bailes, E., Robertson, D. L., Chen, Y., Rodenburg, C. M., Michael, S. F., Cummins, L. B., Arthur, L. O., Peeters, M., Shaw, G. M., Sharp, P. M. and Hahn, B. H. (1999). "Origin of HIV-1 in the Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes". Nature 397 (6718): 436-441. PubMed. 
  14. ^ Won, Yong-Jin, Hey, Jody (2005). "Divergence Population Genetics of Chimpanzees". Molecular Biology & Evolution 22 (2): 297-307. DOI:10.1093/molbev/msi017. 
  15. ^ Fischer, Anne et al. (2004). "Evidence for a Complex Demographic History of Chimpanzees". Molecular Biology & Evolution 21 (5): 799-808. DOI:10.1093/molbev/msh083. 

Dr Colin Groves is a Professor of Biological Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. ... November 16 is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 45 days remaining. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nature is one of the most prominent scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869. ... The Entrez logo The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System allows access to databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. ... Nature is one of the most prominent scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869. ... The Entrez logo The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System allows access to databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (May 11, 1752 - January 22, 1840) was a German physiologist and anthropologist. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Chimpanzee - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1279 words)
Its cousin, the Bonobo or Pygmy Chimpanzee, Pan paniscus, is found in the forests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Chimpanzees rarely live past the age of 40 in the wild, but have been known to reach the age of 60 in captivity, although Tarzan star Cheeta is still alive as of 2006 at the age of 74.
Common Chimpanzees have an omnivorous diet, a troop hunting culture based on beta males led by a relatively weak alpha, and highly complex social relationships; Bonobos, on the other hand, have a mostly herbivorous diet and an egalitarian, matriarchal, sexually promiscuous culture.
Common Chimpanzee - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1280 words)
Eastern Chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, in the Central African Republic, the Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, and Zambia.
Common Chimpanzees are found in the tropical forests and wet savannas of Western and Central Africa.
The Common Chimpanzee lives in a fission-fusion society, where mating is promiscuous, and may be found in groups of the following types: all-male, adult females and offspring, bisexual, one female and her offspring, or a single individual.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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