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Encyclopedia > Common Horse chestnut
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Common Horse-chestnut

Common Horse-chestnut foliage and flowers
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Sapindales
Family: Sapindaceae
Genus: Aesculus
Species: A. hippocastanum
Binomial name
Aesculus hippocastanum
L.

The Common Horse-chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) is a large deciduous tree, native to a small area in the mountains of the Balkans in southeast Europe, mainly in northeastern Greece but also locally in Albania and FYRO Macedonia. It is widely cultivated throughout the temperate world. Image File history File linksMetadata KaÅ¡tan_1. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Angiospermae, and Anthophyta be merged into this article or section. ... Orders See text. ... Families See text Sapindales is a botanical name for an order of flowering plants. ... genera See text Sapindaceae, also known as the soapberry family, is a family of plants in the order Sapindales. ... Species Aesculus arguta: Texas Buckeye Aesculus californica: California Buckeye Aesculus chinensis: Chinese Horse-chestnut Aesculus flava (): Yellow Buckeye Aesculus glabra: Ohio Buckeye Aesculus hippocastanum: Common Horse-chestnut Aesculus indica: Indian Horse-chestnut Aesculus neglecta: Dwarf Buckeye Aesculus parviflora: Bottlebrush Buckeye Aesculus pavia: Red Buckeye Aesculus sylvatica: Painted Buckeye Aesculus turbinata... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[1] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Deciduous means temporary or tending to fall off (deriving from the Latin word decidere, to fall off). ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ... Balkan peninsula with northwest border Isonzo-Krka-Sava The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe a region of southeastern Europe. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ...


It grows to 36 m tall, with a domed crown of stout branches, on old trees the outer branches often pendulous with curled-up tips. The leaves are opposite and palmately compound, with 5-7 leaflets; each leaflet is 10-25 cm long, making the whole leaf up to 50 cm across, with a 20 cm petiole. The flowers are white with a small red spot; they are produced in spring in erect panicles 10-20 cm tall with about 20-50 flowers on each panicle. Usually only 1-5 fruit develop on each panicle; the fruit is a green, softly spiky capsule containing one (rarely two or three) nut-like seeds called horse chestnuts and also known as conkers. Each conker is 2-4 cm diameter, glossy nut-brown with a whitish scar at the base. The leaves of a Beech tree A leaf with laminar structure and pinnate venation In botany, a leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. ... A Phalaenopsis flower A flower, (<Old French flo(u)r<Latin florem<flos), also known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). ... Fruit stall in Barcelona, Spain. ... Flowers and fruit (capsules) of the ground orchid, Spathoglottis plicata. ... Hazelnuts from the Common Hazel Chestnut Carya ovata nut anatomy Walnuts A nut can be both a seed and a fruit. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... A selection of fresh conkers from a horse-chestnut tree. ...


The name is very often given as just 'Horse-chestnut' or 'Horse Chestnut'; the addition of 'Common' to the name however helps distinguish it from other species of horse-chestnut.


Uses

Horse-chestnut planted as a feature tree in a park.
Horse-chestnut planted as a feature tree in a park.

Cultivation for its spectacular spring flowers is successful in a range of climatic conditions provided summers are not too hot, with trees being grown as far north as Edmonton, Alberta; the Faroe Islands, and Tromsø, Norway. In more southern areas, growth is best in cooler mountain climates. Download high resolution version (800x1100, 188 KB)Horse-chestnut. ... Download high resolution version (800x1100, 188 KB)Horse-chestnut. ... Edmonton is the capital of the Canadian province of Alberta, situated in the north central region of the province, an area with some of the most fertile farm land on the prairies. ... Motto: Fortis et liber (Latin: Strong and free) Official languages English (see below) Flower   Wild rose Tree Lodgepole Pine Bird Great Horned Owl Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 28 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total... County Troms District Municipality NO-1902 Administrative centre Tromsø Mayor (2004) Herman Kristoffersen (Ap) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 18 2,566 km² 2,519 km² 0. ...


In Britain, the nuts are used for the popular children's game Conkers. During the two world wars, horse-chestnuts were used as a source of starch which in turn could be used via the Clostridium acetobutylicum fermentation method devised by Chaim Weizmann to produce acetone. This acetone was then used as a solvent which aided in the process of ballistite extrusion into cordite, which was then used in military armaments. A selection of fresh conkers from a horse-chestnut tree. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... Clostridium acetobutylicum () is a commercially valuable bacterium, included in the genus Clostridium. ... Chaim Weizmann and Harry S. Truman, May 25, 1948 Chaim Azriel Weizmann (Hebrew: חיים ויצמן) (also: Chaijim W., Haim W.) (November 27, 1874 – November 9, 1952) chemist, statesman, President of the World Zionist Organization, first President of Israel (elected May 16, 1948, served 1949 - 1952) and founder of a research institute in... In chemistry, acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... Ballistite is a smokeless propellant explosive made from two high explosives nitrocellulose mixed with nitroglycerin. ... Cordite is a particular family of smokeless propellants made by combining two high explosives: nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin, i. ...


The nuts are poisonous, containing the alkaloid saponin, but some mammals, notably deer, are able to break down the toxins and eat them safely. They are reputed to be good for horses with wind, but this is unproven and feeding them to horses is not advisable. The saponin aescin, however, has been used for health purposes (such as varicose veins, edema, sprains) and is available in food supplements. Diagram of Ephedrine An alkaloid, strictly speaking, is a naturally-occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... Saponins are glycosides of steroids, steroid alkaloids (steroids with a nitrogen function) or triterpenes found in plants, especially in the plant skins where they form a waxy protective coating. ... I smoke weed im growing a blue penis dude#REDIRECT penises are cool ... Fawn redirects here. ... Vein gymnastics in the barefoot park Dornstetten, Germany. ... Edema (American English) or oedema (British English), formerly known as dropsy or hydropsy, is swelling of any organ or tissue due to accumulation of excess lymph fluid, without an increase of the number of cells in the affected tissue. ... A sprain (from the French espraindre - to wring) is an injury which occurs to ligaments caused by a sudden overstretching (for the muscle injury, see strain). ...

A selection of fresh conkers from a Horse-chestnut.
A selection of fresh conkers from a Horse-chestnut.

In the past, Horse-chestnut seeds were used in France and Switzerland for whitening hemp, flax, silk and wool. They contain a soapy juice, fit for washing of linens and stuffs, for milling of caps and stockings, etc., and for fulling of cloth. For this, 20 horse-chestnut seeds were sufficient for six litres of water. They were peeled, then rasped or dried, and ground in a malt or other mill. The water must be soft, either rain or river water, for hard well water will not do. The nuts are then steeped in cold water, which soon becomes frothy, as with soap, and then turns white as milk. It must be stirred well at first, and then, after standing to settle, strained or poured off clear. Linen washed in this liquid, and afterwards rinsed in clear running water, takes on an agreeable light sky-blue colour. It takes spots out of both linen and woollen, and never damages or injures the cloth. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 400 KB) duplicate removed File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Conker Wikipedia:List of images/Nature/Plants User:Solipsist/images Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/October-2004... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 400 KB) duplicate removed File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Conker Wikipedia:List of images/Nature/Plants User:Solipsist/images Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/October-2004...


Conkers have been threatened by the leaf-mining moth Cameraria ohridella, whose larvae feed on horse chestnut leaves. The moth had been in Europe since 1985 but took 17 years to reach Britain. Binomial name Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic, 1985 The horse chestnut leaf miner Cameraria ohridella is a moth of the lepidopteran family Gracillariidae. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Aesculus hippocastanum is used in Bach flower remedies. When the buds are used it is referred to as Chestnut Bud and when the flowers are used it is referred to as White Chestnut. Bach flower remedies are dilutions of flower essences developed by Dr.Edward Bach. ...

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