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Encyclopedia > Commodore 64
Hardware
Commodore 64
Type Home computer
Released August 1982
Discontinued April 1994
Processor MOS Technology 6510 @ 1.02 MHz (NTSC version) / 0.985MHz (PAL version)
Memory 64 KB
OS Commodore BASIC 2.0

The Commodore 64 is the best-selling single personal computer model of all time.[1] A pre-production Commodore 64 was first introduced at the winter Consumer Electronics Show in January 1982 by the manufacturer, Commodore International. It was later released in August 1982 at a price of US$595. The Commodore 64 is commonly referred to as the C64 (sometimes written C= 64 to mimic the Commodore company logo) and occasionally known as CBM 64 (Commodore Business Machines Model number 64), or VIC-64[2]. It has also been affectionately nicknamed the "breadbox" and "bullnose" due to its shape. The Noorduyn Norseman is a single-engine bush plane designed to operate from unimproved surfaces. ... The band Commodore 64 (named after the 1980s computer of the same name) was one of the pioneers of the hip hop music sub-genre known as geeksta rap or nerdcore. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1150, 588 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Children playing on a Amstrad CPC 464 in the 1980s. ... Image of the innards of a Commodore 64 showing the 6510 CPU (40-pin DIP, lower left). ... A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1,000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to either 1,000 bytes or 1,024 bytes (210), depending on context. ... Commodore BASIC is the dialect of BASIC used in Commodore Internationals 8-bit home computer line, stretching from the PET of 1977 to the C128 of 1985. ... The International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) is a trade show held each January in Las Vegas, Nevada, and is sponsored by the Consumer Electronics Association. ... Commodore, the commonly used name for Commodore International, was an American electronics company based in West Chester, Pennsylvania which was a vital player in the home/personal computer field in the 1980s. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ...


The C64 features 64 kilobytes (64×210 bytes) of RAM with sound and graphics performance that were superior to IBM-compatible computers of that time. During the Commodore 64's lifetime (between 1982 and 1994), sales totalled around 17 million units.[3][4] A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1,000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to either 1,000 bytes or 1,024 bytes (210), depending on context. ... This article refers to the unit of binary information. ... Look up RAM, Ram, ram in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Part of its success was due to the fact that it was sold in retail stores instead of electronics stores, and that Commodore produced many of its parts in-house to control supplies and cost.


Approximately 10,000 commercial software titles were made for the Commodore 64 including development tools, office applications, and games. The machine is also credited with popularizing the computer demo scene. The Commodore 64 is still used today by some computer hobbyists, and emulators (see here for a list) allow anyone with a modern computer (or even smartphones) to run these programs on their desktop (with varying degrees of success and functionality). Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... The demoscene is a computer art subculture that specializes itself on producing demos, non-interactive audio-visual presentations, which are run real-time on a computer. ... This article is about emulation in computer science. ... This article lists software and hardware that emulates computing platforms. ...


The Commodore 64 is commonly seen as an icon of the 1980s. An example is the introductory movie of the video game Grand Theft Auto: Vice City, which features a Commodore 64 screen which later reveals the Rockstar North logo. The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Grand Theft Auto: Vice City (released in October 2002) is the fourth video game in the hit Grand Theft Auto series. ... Rockstar North Limited (formerly DMA Design Limited) is a Scottish developer of computer and video games founded by David Jones in Dundee and presently located in Leith Street, Edinburgh, Scotland. ...

Contents

History

In January 1981, MOS Technology, Inc., Commodore's integrated circuit design subsidiary, initiated a project to design the graphic and audio chips for a next generation video game console. Design work for the chips, named MOS Technology VIC-II (graphics) and MOS Technology SID (audio), was completed in November 1981. MOS Technology, Inc. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... “Game console” redirects here. ... The VIC-II (Video Interface Chip II), specifically known as the MOS Technology 6567/8562/8564 (NTSC versions), 6569/8565/8566 (PAL), is the integrated circuit chip tasked with generating composite video graphics and DRAM refresh signals in the Commodore 64 and C128 home computers. ... MOS Technology SIDs: The right image shows a 6581 from MOS Technology, at the time they were known as the Commodore Semiconductor Group (CSG) and the left image shows an 8580 from MOS Technology. ...


A game console project was then initiated by Commodore that would use the new chips -- called the Ultimax or alternatively the Commodore MAX Machine, engineered by Yashi Terakura from Commodore Japan. This project was eventually cancelled after just a few machines were manufactured for the Japanese market. The Commodore MAX Machine, also known as Ultimax in the United States and VC-10 in Germany, was a computer designed and sold by Commodore International in Japan, beginning in early 1982, a predecessor to the popular Commodore 64. ...


At the same time Robert "Bob" Russell (system programmer and architect on the VIC-20) and Robert Yannes (engineer of the SID) were critical of the current product line-up at Commodore, which was a continuation of the Commodore PET line aimed at business users. With the support of Al Charpentier (engineer of the VIC-II) and Charles Winterble (manager of MOS Technology), they proposed to Commodore CEO Jack Tramiel a true low-cost sequel to the VIC-20. Tramiel dictated that the machine should have 64 KB of RAM. Although 64 KB of DRAM cost over US $100 at the time, he knew that DRAM prices were falling, and would soon drop to an acceptable level before full production was reached. In November, Tramiel set a deadline for the first weekend of January, to coincide with the 1982 Consumer Electronics Show. VIC-20 with accessories. ... The PET (Personal Electronic Transactor) was a home-/personal computer produced by Commodore starting in the late 1970s. ... Jack Tramiel (born 1928) is a businessman, famous for founding Commodore International, manufacturer of the Commodore 64 and Commodore Amiga home computers, and later President and CEO of Atari Corp. ... Dram can mean several things: Dram (unit), an imperial unit of volume Dram, an imperial unit of weight or mass, see avoirdupois and apothecaries system Ottoman dram, a unit of weight, see dirhem Armenian dram, a monetary unit DRAM, a type of RAM Category: ... The International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) is a trade show held each January in Las Vegas, Nevada, and is sponsored by the Consumer Electronics Association. ...


The product was codenamed the VIC-40 as the successor to the popular VIC-20. The team that constructed it consisted of Robert Russell, Robert "Bob" Yannes and David A. Ziembicki. The design, prototypes and some sample software was finished in time for the show, after the team had worked tirelessly over both Thanksgiving and Christmas weekends. A code name or cryptonym is a word or name used clandestinely to refer to another name or word. ... VIC-20 with accessories. ...


When the product was to be presented, the VIC-40 product was renamed C64 in order to fit into the current Commodore business products lineup which contained the P128 and the B256, both named by a letter and their respective memory size.


The C64 made an impressive debut, as recalled by Production Engineer David A. Ziembicki: "All we saw at our booth were Atari people with their mouths dropping open, saying, 'How can you do that for $595?'" The answer, as it turned out, was vertical integration; thanks to Commodore's ownership of MOS Technology's semiconductor fabrication facilities, each C64 had an estimated production cost of only $135. However, cheaper manufacturing techniques resulted in manufacturing problems; many of early units had video problems causing a blurry effect that made alphanumeric characters difficult to read.[citations needed] It has been suggested that Vertical expansion be merged into this article or section. ... MOS Technology, Inc. ... NASAs Glenn Research Center cleanroom. ...


Winning the market war

Commodore BASIC V2.0.

The C64 faced a wide range of competing home computers at its introduction in August 1982. With an impressive price coupled with the C64's advanced hardware, it quickly out-classed many of its competitors. In the United States the greatest competitors to the C64 were the Atari 8-bit 400 and 800, the IBM PC and the Apple II. The Atari 400 and 800 were very similar in hardware terms, but were very expensive to build, which forced Atari to redesign their machine to be more cost effective. This resulted in the 600XL/800XL line and the transfer of their production to the Far East. The IBM PC and the latest in the aging Apple II line both had higher resolution graphics modes[5][6] than the C64, but due to poor color support they were rarely used, so in practice the C64's 16-color (4-bit) graphics and sound abilities outmatched them at the time of its release. But the PC and Apple II were very expandable with their internal expansion slots, a feature lacking in the 64. Image File history File links C64_startup_animiert. ... Image File history File links C64_startup_animiert. ... Children playing on a Amstrad CPC 464 in the 1980s. ... Atari built a series of 8-bit home computers based on the MOS Technology 6502 CPU, starting in 1979. ... IBM PC (IBM 5150) with keyboard and green screen monochrome monitor (IBM 5151), running MS-DOS 5. ... The Apple II was one of the most popular personal computers of the 1980s. ...


All four machines had similar standard memory configurations in the years 1982/83: 48K for the Apple II+[7] (upgraded within months of C64's release to 64K with the Apple IIe)[8]; 64K for the IBM PC[9]; and 48K for the Atari 800[10]. At upwards of US$1,200,[11][12] the IBM PC and Apple II were more than twice as expensive, while the Atari 800 cost $899. One key to the C64's success was Commodore's aggressive marketing tactics, and they were quick to exploit the relative price/performance divisions between its competitors with a series of television commercials after the C64's launch in late 1982.[13]


Commodore sold the C64 not only through its network of authorized dealers, but also placed it on the shelves of department stores, discount stores, and toy stores. Since it had the ability to output composite video, the C64 did not require a specialized monitor, but could be plugged into a television set. This allowed it (like its predecessor, the VIC-20) to compete directly against video game consoles such as the Atari 2600. Composite video, also called CVBS (Composite Video Blanking and Sync), is the format of an analog television (picture only) signal before it is combined with a sound signal and modulated onto an RF carrier. ...


Aggressive pricing of the C64 is considered to be a major catalyst in the video game crash of 1983. In 1983, Commodore offered a $100 rebate in the United States on the purchase of a C64 upon receipt of any video game console or computer. To take advantage of the $100 rebate, some mail-order dealers and retailers offered a Timex Sinclair 1000 for as little as $10 with purchase of a C64 so the consumer could send the computer to Commodore, collect the rebate, and pocket the difference.[14] Timex Corporation departed the marketplace within a year. The success of the VIC-20 and C64 also contributed significantly to the exit of Texas Instruments and other competitors from the field. ET for the Atari 2600 is considered by many to be emblematic of the crash along with the Atari 2600 version of Pac-Man. ... For other uses, see rebate (disambiguation). ... The Timex Sinclair 1000 (TS1000) was the first computer produced by Timex Sinclair, a joint-venture between Timex Corporation and Sinclair Research. ... Timex Group B.V. is an American watch company. ... Texas Instruments (NYSE: TXN), better known in the electronics industry (and popularly) as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, USA, renowned for developing and commercializing semiconductor and computer technology. ...


In 1984, Commodore released the Commodore Plus/4. The Plus/4 offered a higher-color display, a better implementation of BASIC (V3.5), and built-in software. However, Commodore committed what was perceived by critics and consumers as a major strategic error by making it incompatible with the C64. The Plus/4 lacked hardware sprite capability and had much poorer sound, thus seriously underperforming in two of the areas that had made the C64 a star. Commodore Plus/4. ... Commodore BASIC is the dialect of BASIC used in Commodore Internationals 8-bit home computer line, stretching from the PET of 1977 to the C128 of 1985. ... In computer graphics, a sprite (also known by other names; see Synonyms below) is a two-dimensional/three-dimensional image or animation that is integrated into a larger scene. ...


In the United Kingdom, the primary competitors to the C64 were the British-built Sinclair ZX Spectrum and the Amstrad CPC 464. Released a few months ahead of the C64, and selling for almost half the price, the Spectrum quickly became the market leader. Commodore had an uphill struggle against the Spectrum as it could not rely on undercutting the competition. The C64 debuted at £399 in early 1983, while the Spectrum cost £175. The C64 would later rival the Spectrum in popularity in the latter half of the 1980s, eventually outliving the Spectrum when the latter was discontinued in December 1990. The Sinclair ZX Spectrum was a small home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research. ... The Amstrad CPC 464 was an 8-bit home computer produced by Amstrad in the 1980s. ...


Despite a few attempts by Commodore to discontinue the C64 in favour of other, higher priced machines, constant demand made its discontinuation a hard task. By 1988, Commodore was selling 1.5 million C64s worldwide.[15] Although demand for the C64 dropped off in the US by 1990, it continued to be popular in the UK and other European countries. In the end, economics, not obsolescence sealed the C64's fate. In March 1994, at CeBIT in Hanover, Germany, Commodore announced that the C64 would be finally discontinued in 1995. Commodore claimed that the C64's disk drive was more expensive to manufacture than the C64 itself. Although Commodore had planned to discontinue the C64 by 1995, the company filed for bankruptcy a month later, in April 1994.[16] A crowded exhibition hall during CeBIT 2000. ... Alternate meanings: Hanover (district), Hanover (region), Hanover (state), other uses Map of Germany showing Hanover Hanover (in German: Hannover [haˈnoːfɐ]), on the Leine river, is the capital of the state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen) in Germany. ... Front view of the most common version of the Commodore 1541 disk drive, with open disk slot. ...


The C64 family

The Commodore SX-64 (right) and the Commodore Games System (left).
The Commodore SX-64 (right) and the Commodore Games System (left).

1982: Commodore releases the Commodore MAX Machine in Japan. It is called the Ultimax in the US, and VC-10 in Germany. The MAX was intended to be a game console with limited computing capability. It was discontinued months after its introduction, because of poor sales in Japan. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 560 pixel Image in higher resolution (1200 × 840 pixel, file size: 609 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) own picture, taken 1997 shows the Commodore 64 Game Station (console version of the C64)(left) and the Commodore SX-64 (portable version... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 560 pixel Image in higher resolution (1200 × 840 pixel, file size: 609 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) own picture, taken 1997 shows the Commodore 64 Game Station (console version of the C64)(left) and the Commodore SX-64 (portable version... The Commodore MAX Machine, also known as Ultimax in the United States and VC-10 in Germany, was a computer designed and sold by Commodore International in Japan, beginning in early 1982, a predecessor to the popular Commodore 64. ...


In 1984 Commodore released the SX-64, a portable version of the C64. The SX-64 has the distinction of being the first full-color portable computer. The base unit featured a 5 inch (127 mm) CRT and an integrated 1541 floppy disk drive. The SX-64 did not have a cassette connector. Commodore SX-64 The Commodore SX-64, also known as the Executive 64, was a portable, briefcase/suitcase-size luggable version of the popular Commodore 64 home computer and holds the distinction of being the first full-color portable computer. ... Cathode ray tube employing electromagnetic focus and deflection Cutaway rendering of a color CRT: 1. ... Front view of the most common version of the Commodore 1541 disk drive, with open disk slot. ...


Commodore was determined to avoid the problems of the Plus/4, making sure that the eventual successors to the C64—the Commodore 128 and 128D computers (1985)—were as good as, and fully compatible with the original, as well as offering a host of improvements (such as a structured BASIC with graphics and sound commands, 80-column display capability, and full CP/M compatibility). Commodore Plus/4. ... The Commodore 128 (C128, CBM 128, C=128) home/personal computer was Commodore Business Machiness (CBM) last commercially released 8-bit machine. ... CP/M was an operating system originally created for Intel 8080/85 based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc. ...

Commodore 64C system with 1541-II floppy drive and 1084S RGB monitor (1986).
Commodore 64C system with 1541-II floppy drive and 1084S RGB monitor (1986).

In 1986, Commodore released the Commodore 64C (C64C) computer, which was functionally identical to the original, but whose exterior design was remodeled in the sleeker style of the Commodore 128 and other contemporary design trends. The modifications to the C64 line were more than skin deep in the C64C with new versions of the SID, VIC and I/O chips being deployed - with the core voltage reduced from 12v to 5v. In the United States, the C64C was often bundled with the third-party GEOS GUI-based operating system. The Commodore 1541 disk drive received a matching face-lift resulting in the 1541c. Later a smaller, sleeker 1541-II model was introduced along with the 800KB 3.5" capable 1581. Download high resolution version (1280x1024, 423 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1280x1024, 423 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Commodore 128 (C128, CBM 128, C=128) home/personal computer was Commodore Business Machiness (CBM) last commercially released 8-bit machine. ... GEOS (Graphic Environment Operating System) was an operating system from Berkeley Softworks (later GeoWorks). ... “GUI” redirects here. ... Front view of the most common version of the Commodore 1541 disk drive, with open disk slot. ... The Commodore 1581 is a 3½ inch double sided double density floppy disk drive made primarily for the Commodore 64 and Commodore 128 home/personal computers. ...


In 1990, the C64 was re-released in the form of a game console, called the C64 Games System (C64GS). A simple modification to the C64C's motherboard was made to orient the cartridge connector to a vertical position. This allowed cartridges to be inserted from above. A modified ROM replaced the BASIC interpreter with a boot screen to inform the user to insert a cartridge. The C64GS was another commercial failure for Commodore, and it was never released outside of Europe. The Commodore C64 Games System (often abbreviated C64GS) was the cartridge-based game console version of the popular Commodore 64 home computer. ...


In 1990, an advanced successor to the C64, the Commodore 65 (also known as the "C64DX"), was prototyped, but the project was cancelled by Commodore's chairman Irving Gould in 1991. The C65's specifications were very good for an 8-bit computer. For example, it could display 256 colors on screen, while OCS based Amigas could only display 64. Although no specific reason was given for the C65's cancellation, it would have competed in the marketplace with Commodore's lower end Amigas. The Amiga 600 was released in mid 1992, eventually taking the C65's place as the upgrade from the C64. The Commodore 65 (also known as the C64DX, not to be confused with the Commodore DX-64 portable unit) was a prototype computer created by Fred Bowen and others at Commodore Business Machines (CBM) (part of Commodore International) in 1990–91. ... Irving Gould (?-2004) was a Canadian businessperson credited with both saving and sinking Commodore. ... The Original Chip Set (OCS) was a chipset used in the earliest Commodore Amiga computers. ... The Amiga 600, also known as the A600 (codenamed June Bug after a B-52s song), was a home computer introduced at the CeBIT show in March 1992. ...


C64 clones

In the summer of 2004, after an absence from the marketplace of more than 10 years, PC manufacturer Tulip Computers BV (owners of the Commodore brand since 1997) announced the C64 Direct-to-TV (C64DTV), a joystick-based TV game based on the C64 with 30 games built into ROM. Designed by Jeri Ellsworth, a self-taught computer designer who had earlier designed the modern C-One C64 implementation, the C64DTV was similar in concept to other mini-consoles based on the Atari 2600 and Intellivision which had gained modest success earlier in the decade. The product was advertised on QVC in the United States for the 2004 holiday season. Some users have installed 1541 floppy disk drives, hard drives, second joysticks and keyboards to these units, which give the DTV devices nearly all of the capabilities of a full Commodore 64. The DTV hardware is also used in the mini-console/game Hummer, sold at Radio Shack mid-2005. Tulip Computers NV is a Dutch computer manufacturer that manufactures PC clones. ... The C64 Direct-to-TV, called C64DTV for short, is a single-chip implementation of the Commodore 64 computer, contained in a joystick with 30 built-in games. ... Joystick elements: 1. ... The Atari Classic 10-in-1 TV game by Jakks Pacific A TV game is an interactive entertainment device designed for use on a television set that does not require the use of an actual video game console for operation. ... Jeri Ellsworth, 2002 Jeri Ellsworth (born 1974) is an American entrepreneur and self-taught computer chip designer. ... The C-One The C-One single-board microcomputer designed by Jeri Ellsworth, a self-taught designer, was initially created in 2002 as an enhanced Commodore 64 home computer, but has been reengineered to allow cloning of other 8-bit computers. ... The Atari 2600, released in October 1977, is the video game console credited with popularizing the use of microprocessor based hardware and cartridges containing game code, instead of having non-microprocessor dedicated hardware with all games built in. ... The Intellivision is a video game console released by Mattel in 1979. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Front view of the most common version of the Commodore 1541 disk drive, with open disk slot. ... RadioShack Corporation (formerly Radio Shack) (NYSE: RSH) runs a chain of electronics retail stores in the United States, as well as parts of Europe. ...


As of 2006, C64 enthusiasts still develop new hardware, including Ethernet cards, specially adapted hard disks and Flash Card interfaces. 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operate at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... A USB flash drive. ...


Software

Main article: Commodore 64 software

At the time of its introduction, the C64's graphics and sound capabilities were rivalled only by the Atari 8-bit family. This was at a time when most IBM PCs and compatibles had text-only graphics cards, green screen monitors, and sound consisting of squeaks and beeps from the built-in tiny, low-quality speaker. The Commodore 64 amassed a large software library of nearly 10,000 commercial titles, rivaled in its day only by the Apple II family (a hardware-based Apple II+ emulation unit called The Spartan, manufactured by Mimic Systems Inc. ... An Atari 800XL, one of the most popular machines in the series. ... The IBM PC with green screen Green screen was the common name for a monochrome CRT computer display using a green P1 phosphor screen. ... For the Marty Friedman album, see Loudspeaker (album) An inexpensive low fidelity 3. ...


Due to its advanced graphics and sound, the C64 is often credited with starting the computer subculture known as the demoscene (see Commodore 64 demos). The C64 lost its top position among demo coders when the 16-bit Atari ST and Commodore Amiga were released in 1985, however it still remained a very popular platform for demo coding up to the early 90s. The demoscene is a computer art subculture that specializes itself on producing demos, non-interactive audio-visual presentations, which are run real-time on a computer. ... Game Music IV on the Commodore 64 by Charles Deenen (also known as The Mercenary Cracker (TMC) was perhaps one of the very first demos ever produced. ... In computer science, 16-bit is an adjective used to describe integers that are at most two bytes wide, or to describe CPU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. ... The Atari ST is a home/personal computer that was commercially popular from 1985 to the early 1990s. ... Amiga is the name of a range of home/personal computers using the Motorola 68000 processor family, whose development started in 1982. ...


By the turn of the millennium, it is still being actively used as a demo machine, especially for music (its sound chip even being used in special sound cards for PCs, and the Elektron SidStation synthesizer). Unfortunately, the differences between PAL and NTSC C64s caused compatibility problems between U.S./Canadian C64s and those from most other countries. The vast majority of demos run only on PAL machines. MOS Technology SIDs: The right image shows a 6581 from MOS Technology, at the time they were known as the Commodore Semiconductor Group (CSG) and the left image shows an 8580 from MOS Technology. ... The Elektron SidStation is a musical synthesizer sound module, built around the MOS Technology SID mixed-mode synthesizer chip originally used in the Commodore 64 home computer. ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ... NTSC is the analog television system in use in the United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, Mexico, and some other countries, mostly in the Americas (see map). ...


Hardware

See also: Commodore 64 peripherals

This article is about the various external peripherals of the Commodore 64 home computer. ...

Graphics and sound

The C64 used an 8-bit MOS Technology 6510 microprocessor. This was a close derivative of the 6502, with an added 6-bit internal I/O port that in the C64 is used for two purposes: to bank-switch the machine's ROM in and out of the processor's address space, and to operate the datasette tape recorder. 8-bit refers to the number of bits used in the data bus of a computer. ... Image of the innards of a Commodore 64 showing the 6510 CPU (40-pin DIP, lower left). ... A microprocessor is a programmable digital electronic component that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single semiconducting integrated circuit (IC). ... The MOS Technology 6502 is an 8-bit microprocessor that was designed by Chuck Peddle for MOS Technology in 1975. ... Read-only memory (usually known by its acronym, ROM) is a class of storage media used in computers and other electronic devices. ... The 1530/C2N Datassette (a portmanteau of data + cassette), was Commodores dedicated computer tape recorder. ...


The C64 had 64 kilobytes of RAM, of which 38 KB were available to built-in Commodore BASIC 2.0. A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1,000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to either 1,000 bytes or 1,024 bytes (210), depending on context. ... “RAM” redirects here. ... Commodore BASIC is the dialect of BASIC used in Commodore Internationals 8-bit home computer line, stretching from the PET of 1977 to the C128 of 1985. ...


The graphics chip, VIC-II, featured 16 colors, eight hardware sprites (more is possible via software multiplexing), scrolling capabilities, and two bitmap graphics modes. The standard text mode featured 40 columns, like most Commodore PET models; the built in font was not standard ASCII but PETSCII, an extended form of ASCII-1963. A Video Display Controller or VDC is an integrated circuit which is the main component in a video signal generator, a device responsible for the production of a TV video signal in a computing or game system. ... The VIC-II (Video Interface Chip II), specifically known as the MOS Technology 6567/8562/8564 (NTSC versions), 6569/8565/8566 (PAL), is the integrated circuit chip tasked with generating composite video graphics and DRAM refresh signals in the Commodore 64 and C128 home computers. ... In computer graphics, a sprite (also known by other names; see Synonyms below) is a two-dimensional/three-dimensional image or animation that is integrated into a larger scene. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The PET (Personal Electronic Transactor) was a home-/personal computer produced by Commodore starting in the late 1970s. ... A font can mean: A member of a typeface family; or digital font - file format that encapsulates a typeface family in a database. ... Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... PETSCII (PET Standard Code of Information Interchange), also known as CBM ASCII, is the variation of the ASCII character set used in Commodore (CBM)s 8-bit home computers, starting with the PET from 1977 and including the VIC-20, C64, Plus/4, C16 and C128. ...


The sound chip, SID, had three channels, each with its own ADSR envelope generator, and with several different waveforms, ring modulation and filter capabilities. It too, was very advanced for its time. It was designed by Bob Yannes, who would later co-found synthesizer company Ensoniq. Yannes criticized other contemporary computer sound chips as "primitive, obviously . . . designed by people who knew nothing about music." Often the game music became a hit of its own among C64 users. Well-known composers and programmers of game music on the C64 were Rob Hubbard, David Whittaker, Chris Hülsbeck, Ben Daglish, Martin Galway and David Dunn among many others. Due to the chip's limitation to three channels, chords were played as arpeggios typically, coining the C64's characteristic lively sound. MOS Technology SIDs: The right image shows a 6581 from MOS Technology, at the time they were known as the Commodore Semiconductor Group (CSG) and the left image shows an 8580 from MOS Technology. ... An ADSR envelope is a parameter used in synthesizers, including those that produce sound by subtractive synthesis, to control the sound produced. ... Waveform quite literally means the shape and form of a signal, such as a wave moving across the surface of water, or the vibration of a plucked string. ... Ring modulation is an audio effect performed by multiplying two audio signals, where one is typically a sine-wave or another simple waveform. ... Ensoniq Corp. ... Rob Hubbard (born 1956?, Kingston upon Hull, England) is a music composer best known for his composition of computer game theme music, especially for microcomputers of the 1980s such as the Commodore 64. ... David Whittaker is known for numerous computer game tunes he wrote in 1980s and early 1990s for many different formats. ... Chris Hülsbeck (born March 2, 1968) is a game music composer from Germany. ... Ben Daglish is a composer and musician from the UK, known for creating many soundtracks during the 1980s for home computer games. ... Martin Galway (born January 3, 1966, Belfast, Northern Ireland) is one of the best known composers of music for the Commodore 64 sound chip, the SID soundchip. ... Various arpeggios as seen on a staff Notation of a chord in arpeggio In music, an arpeggio is a broken chord where the notes are played or sung in succession rather than simultaneously. ...


There are two versions of the SID chip. The first version was the MOS Technology 6581, which is to be found in all of the original "breadbox" C64s, and early versions of the C64C and the Commodore 128. It was later replaced with the MOS Technology 8580 in 1987. The sound quality was a little more crisp on the 6581 and many Commodore 64 fans still prefer its sound. The main difference between the 6581 and the 8580 was the voltage supply: the 6581 uses a 12 volt supply, while the 8580 required only 9 volts. A voltage modification can be made to use a 6581 in a C64C board (which uses 9V). The Commodore 128 (C128, CBM 128, C=128) home/personal computer was Commodore Business Machiness (CBM) last commercially released 8-bit machine. ...


The SID chip has a distinctive sound which retained a following of devotees. In 1999, Swedish company Elektron produced a SidStation synth module, built around the 6581 model SID chip (as opposed the superior 8580), using remaining stocks of the chip. Several bands use these devices in their music. Elektron is an electronic musical instrument company, based in Gothenburg, Sweden. ... The SidStation is a musical synthesizer, based on the MOS Technology SID mixed-mode synthesizer chip. ...


Hardware revisions

Cost reduction was the driving force for hardware revisions to the C64's motherboard. Reducing manufacturing costs was vitally important to Commodore's survival during the price war and leaner years of the 16-bit era. The C64's original (NMOS based) motherboard would go through two major redesigns, (and numerous sub-revisions) exchanging positions of the VIC-II, SID and PLA chips. Initially, a large proportion of the cost was lowered by reducing the number of discrete components used, such as diodes and resistors, which also enabled the use of the now physically smaller board. It is likely that the reduced board size led to further cost savings. NMOS logic uses n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits. ... A programmable logic array (PLA) is a programmable device used to implement combinational logic circuits. ...

An early C64 motherboard (Rev A PAL 1982).
An early C64 motherboard (Rev A PAL 1982).
A C64C motherboard ("C64E" Rev B PAL 1992).
A C64C motherboard ("C64E" Rev B PAL 1992).

The VIC-II was manufactured with 5 micrometre NMOS technology and was clocked at either 14.31818 MHz (NTSC) or 17.73447 MHz (PAL). Internally, the clock was divided down to generate the pixel clock (about 8 MHz) and the two-phase system clocks (about 1 MHz; the exact pixel and system clock speeds are slightly different between NTSC and PAL machines). At such high clock rates, the chip generated a lot of heat, forcing MOS Technology to use a ceramic DIL package (called a "CERDIP"). The ceramic package was more expensive, but it dissipated heat more effectively than plastic. Download high resolution version (2048x953, 384 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2048x953, 384 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ... Download high resolution version (2048x730, 701 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2048x730, 701 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ... ICs in DIP14-Package Several PDIPs and CERDIPS. The large CERDIP in the foreground is an 8080 processor. ...


After a redesign in 1983, the VIC-II was encased in a plastic DIL package, which reduced costs substantially, but it did not eliminate the heat problem. Without a ceramic package, the VIC-II required the use of a heatsink. To avoid extra cost, the metal RF shielding doubled as the heatsink for the VIC, although not all units shipped with this type of shielding. Most C64s in Europe shipped with a cardboard RF shield, coated with a layer of metal foil. The effectiveness of the cardboard was highly questionable, and worse still it acted as an insulator, blocking airflow which trapped heat generated by the SID, VIC and PLA chips. A large copper heatsink. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Radio waves. ... Electromagnetic shielding is the process of limiting the flow of electromagnetic fields between two locations, by separating them with a barrier made of conductive material. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


The SID was manufactured using NMOS at 7 and in some areas 6 micrometres. The prototype SID and some very early production models featured a ceramic DIL package, but unlike the VIC-II, these are extremely rare as the SID was encased in plastic when production started in early 1982.


In 1986 Commodore released the last revision to the "classic" C64 motherboard. It was otherwise identical to the 1984 design, except that it now used two 64 kilobit ×4 DRAM chips rather than the original eight 64 kilobit ×1. A kilobit is a unit of information storage, abbreviated kbit or sometimes kb. ... Dram can mean several things: Dram (unit), an imperial unit of volume Dram, an imperial unit of weight or mass, see avoirdupois and apothecaries system Ottoman dram, a unit of weight, see dirhem Armenian dram, a monetary unit DRAM, a type of RAM Category: ...


After the release of the C64C, MOS Technology began to reconfigure the C64's chipset to use HMOS technology. The main benefit of using HMOS was that it required less voltage to drive the IC, which consequently generates less heat. This enhanced the overall reliability of the SID and VIC-II. The new chipset was re-numbered to 85xx in order to reflect the change to HMOS. HMOS, high-performance n-channel MOS, uses n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits. ...


In 1987 Commodore released C64Cs with a totally redesigned motherboard commonly known as a "short board". The new board used the new HMOS chipset, featuring new 64-pin PLA chip. The new "SuperPLA" as it was dubbed, integrated many discrete components and TTL chips. The 2114 color RAM was integrated into the last revision of the PLA. A Motorola 68000-based computer with various TTL chips. ...


The C64 used an external power supply. While this saved valuable space within the computer's case, the supply itself was barely adequate for the C64's power requirements. Commodore's plastic power bricks would typically break from overheating. Some users purchased heavier-duty, better-cooled, third-party power supplies. The 1541-II and 1581 disk drives, along with various third-party clones, also came with their own external power supplies. A wall wart style variable DC power supply with its cover removed. ...


Later in the Commodore's lifetime, third-party power supplies became increasingly important when used in conjunction with RAM expansions or Creative Micro Designs' peripherals. Of particular note, a C64 coupled with a RAM expansion or CMD SuperCPU required more power than the original Commodore power supply could provide. A modern PC power unit can be modified to power a C64 and its disk drives. Creative Micro Designs (CMD) is a computer technologies company which today sells PCs and equipment, but which started out in 1987 selling self-designed hardware for the Commodore 64 and C128 8-bit computers. ...


Specifications

Internal hardware

  • Microprocessor CPU:
  • Video: MOS Technology VIC-II 6567/8567 (NTSC), 6569/8569 (PAL)
    • 16 colors
    • Text mode: 40×25 characters; 256 user-defined chars (8×8 pixels, or 4×8 in multicolor mode); 4-bit color RAM defines foreground color
    • Bitmap modes: 320×200 (2 unique colors in each 8×8 pixel block)[17], 160×200 (3 unique colors + 1 common color in each 4×8 block)[18]
    • 8 hardware sprites of 24×21 pixels (12×21 in multicolor mode)
    • Smooth scrolling, raster interrupts
  • Sound: MOS Technology 6581/8580 SID
  • RAM:
    • 64 KB (65,536 bytes), of which 38 KB minus 1 byte (38,911 bytes) were available for BASIC programs
    • 512 bytes color RAM
    • Expandable to 320 KB with Commodore 1764 256 KB RAM Expansion Unit (REU); although only 64 KB directly accessible; REU mostly intended for GEOS. REUs of 128 KB and 512 KB, originally designed for the C128, were also available, but required the user to buy a stronger power supply from some third party supplier; with the 1764 this was included. Creative Micro Designs also produced a 2 MB REU for the C64 and C128, called the 1750 XL. The technology actually supported up to 16 MB, but 2 MB was the biggest one officially made. Expansions of up to 16 MB were also possible via the CMD SuperCPU.
  • ROM:
    • 20 KB (9 KB BASIC 2.0; 7 KB KERNAL; 4 KB character generator, providing two 2 KB character sets)

Image of the innards of a Commodore 64 showing the 6510 CPU (40-pin DIP, lower left). ... The MOS Technology 6502 is an 8-bit microprocessor that was designed by Chuck Peddle for MOS Technology in 1975. ... NTSC is the analog television system in use in the United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, Mexico, and some other countries, mostly in the Americas (see map). ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ... The VIC-II (Video Interface Chip II), specifically known as the MOS Technology 6567/8562/8564 (NTSC versions), 6569/8565/8566 (PAL), is the integrated circuit chip tasked with generating composite video graphics and DRAM refresh signals in the Commodore 64 and C128 home computers. ... This example shows an image with a portion greatly enlarged, in which the individual pixels are rendered as little squares and can easily be seen. ... In computer graphics, a sprite (also known by other names; see Synonyms below) is a two-dimensional/three-dimensional image or animation that is integrated into a larger scene. ... For other uses, see scroll. ... A raster interrupt is a computer interrupt signal that is utilized for display timing purposes. ... MOS Technology SIDs: The right image shows a 6581 from MOS Technology, at the time they were known as the Commodore Semiconductor Group (CSG) and the left image shows an 8580 from MOS Technology. ... For other uses, see Synthesizer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Synthesizer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Octave (disambiguation). ... Ring modulation is an audio effect performed by multiplying two audio signals, where one is typically a sine-wave or another simple waveform. ... A high-pass filter is a filter that passes high frequencies well, but attenuates (or reduces) frequencies lower than the cutoff frequency. ... A low-pass filter is a filter that passes low frequencies but attenuates (or reduces) frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency. ... The frequency axis of this symbolic diagram would be logarithmically scaled. ... A notch filter, also called a band-stop filter, sometimes a narrow band-pass filter, or T-notch filter, is an electronic filter typically used when the high frequency and the low frequency are less than 1 to 2 decades apart (that is, the high frequency is less than 10... Commodores RAM Expansion Unit (REU) range of external RAM add-ons for their Commodore 64/128 home computers was announced at the same time as the C128. ... GEOS (Graphic Environment Operating System) was an operating system from Berkeley Softworks (later GeoWorks). ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... Commodore BASIC is the dialect of BASIC used in Commodore Internationals 8-bit home computer line, stretching from the PET of 1977 to the C128 of 1985. ... The KERNAL is Commodores name for the ROM-resident operating system core in its 8-bit home computers; from the original PET of 1977, via the extended, but strongly related, versions used in its successors; the VIC-20, C64, Plus/4, C16, and C128. ...

I/O ports and power supply

  • I/O ports:
    • 8-pin DIN plug containing composite video output, separate Y/C outputs, and sound input/output. (Some early C64 units utilized a 5-pin DIN connector that omitted the Y/C output.)
    • Integrated RF modulator antenna output via a RCA connector
    • 2 × screwless DE9M game controller ports (compatible with Atari 2600 controllers), each supporting five digital inputs and two analog inputs. Available peripherals included digital joysticks, analog paddles, a light pen, the Commodore 1351 mouse, and the unique KoalaPad.
    • Cartridge expansion slot (slot for edge connector with 6510 CPU address/data bus lines and control signals, as well as GND and voltage pins; used for program modules and memory expansions, among others)
    • PET-type Datassette 300 baud tape interface (edge connector with cassette motor/read/write/sense signals and GND and +5 V pins; the motor pin is powered to directly supply the motor)
    • User port (edge connector with TTL-level RS-232 signals, for modems, etc; and byte-parallel signals which can be used to drive third-party parallel printers, among other things; with 17 logic signals, 7 GND and voltage pins, including 9V AC voltage)
    • Serial bus (serial version of IEEE-488, 6-pin DIN plug) for CBM printers and disk drives
  • Power supply:
    • 5V DC and 9V AC from an external "power brick", attached to a 7-pin female DIN-connector on the computer. The C64's original power brick was under-powered, and users would often replace it with a third party solution, particularly if they had power-hungry peripherals attached to their machines.

5 pin 180° DIN connector 4 pin Mini-DIN S-Video connector Speaker DIN line socket (left) and plug DIN connectors are multi-pin electrical connectors based on a DIN standard. ... An RF modulator (for radio frequency modulator) is a device that takes a baseband input signal and outputs a radio frequency-modulated signal. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that DE-9 be merged into this article or section. ... A game controller is an input device used to control a video game. ... Joystick elements: 1. ... A paddle is a game controller with a round wheel and one or more fire buttons, where the wheel is typically used to control movement of the player object along one axis of the video screen. ... A light pen is a computer input device in the form of a light-sensitive wand used in conjunction with the computers CRT monitor. ... Operating a mechanical 1: Pulling the mouse turns the ball. ... KoalaPad shown with manual, stylus, and software for the C64. ... In various types of electronic equipment, a cartridge can refer one method of adding different functionality or content (e. ... An edge connector is a type of electrical connector for use with PC boards. ... The PET (Personal Electronic Transactor) was a home-/personal computer produced by Commodore starting in the late 1970s. ... The Commodore 1530* (C2N) Datassette (a portmanteau of data + cassette), was Commodores dedicated computer tape recorder. ... For the town in France, see Baud, Morbihan. ... A Motorola 68000-based computer with various TTL chips. ... RS-232 (also referred to as EIA RS-232C or V.24) is a standard for serial binary data interchange between a DTE (Data terminal equipment) and a DCE (Data communication equipment). ... The Hewlett-Packard Instrument Bus (HP-IB), is a short-range digital communications cable standard developed by Hewlett-Packard (HP) in the 1970s for connecting electronic test and measurement devices (e. ...

Notes on C64 software

A C64 in "screensaver" mode.
A C64 in "screensaver" mode.
  • On address $FFF6-$FFF9 (65526-9) in the C64 KERNAL, immediately before the hard-coded jump vectors for the processor, is letter sequence "RRBY". These are the initials of Robert Russell and Bob Yannes, the two main engineers that created the C64.
  • The Commodore 64's BASIC V2, the programming language which came built-in with the computer, can be crashed by executing PRINT""+-x (where x is any integer), or by attempting to create a BASIC program with an initial line numbers 350720 to 353279.
  • Due to a quirk in the C64's BASIC operating system, an Easter egg or screensaver of sorts may be activated by pressing the RUN/STOP and RESTORE keys in unison, then entering POKE781,96:SYS58251 on the subsequently cleared screen.[19]
  • There are ways to hide lines of code written in the BASIC Language stored in local memory, using control characters outside delimiting quotes, which the BASIC LIST function displayed as cursor control codes. For example, the reverse "heart" symbol would clear the screen, the reverse [ character would delete characters, and the character shift-L (which looks like an L-shaped border corner) in the program code would cause a syntax error and abort the LISTing.
  • Even though the VIC chip displays borders around the screen, it is possible to disable these vertical or side borders to allow graphics to be displayed by altering the hardware registers at the correct time.[20]
  • Using short commands (the first letter, then shift and the second) it was possible to make BASIC lines more than two display rows long. The C64 could not parse more than two display rows when the subsequent code was LISTed.

Image File history File links C64-'screensaver'.png Summary This image was taken as a screenshot from the VICE x64 C64 Emulator displaying a quirk in the C64s operating system. ... Image File history File links C64-'screensaver'.png Summary This image was taken as a screenshot from the VICE x64 C64 Emulator displaying a quirk in the C64s operating system. ... The KERNAL is Commodores name for the ROM-resident operating system core in its 8-bit home computers; from the original PET of 1977, via the extended, but strongly related, versions used in its successors; the VIC-20, C64, Plus/4, C16, and C128. ... To hard code or hard coding (also, hard-code/hard-coding, hardcode/hardcoding) refers to the software development practice of embedding output data directly into the source code of a program or other executable object, or fixed formatting of the data, instead of obtaining that data from external sources or... The first easter egg. ... A screensaver is a computer program originally designed to conserve the image quality of computer displays by blanking the screen or filling them with moving images or patterns when the computers are not in use. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Kahney, Leander. Grandiose Price for a Modest PC. Wired. Lycos. Retrieved on 2006-10-25.
  2. ^ VIC 64 Användarmanual. Image of Swedish edition of the VIC 64 user's manual. Accessed 2007-03-12.
  3. ^ Walters, Marc. A World Record for 2002. 1993 Commodore Annual Report. Retrieved on 2006-10-26.
  4. ^ Commodore 64 Ram addresses.
  5. ^ http://www.old-computers.com/museum/computer.asp?st=1&c=274
  6. ^ http://www.old-computers.com/museum/computer.asp?st=1&c=83
  7. ^ http://www.old-computers.com/museum/computer.asp?st=1&c=571
  8. ^ http://www.old-computers.com/museum/computer.asp?st=1&c=83
  9. ^ http://www.old-computers.com/museum/computer.asp?st=1&c=274
  10. ^ http://www.old-computers.com/museum/computer.asp?st=1&c=460
  11. ^ http://apple2history.org/history/ah06.html
  12. ^ http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/history/year_1981.html
  13. ^ http://www.commodorebillboard.de/Commercials/Commodore/english/CommodoreCommercialsEnglish.htm
  14. ^ A contemporary rumor stated that while Commodore scavenged most trade-in computers for spare parts, its employees used the TS1000s as door stops.
  15. ^ Computer Chronicles: Interview with Commodore president with Max Toy (2007-07-24). Retrieved on 2007-07-24.
  16. ^ Amiga Format News Special. "Commodore at CeBIT '94". Amiga Format, Issue 59, May 1994.
  17. ^ Commodore 64 Programmer's Reference Guide: Standard High Resolution Bit Map Mode
  18. ^ Commodore 64 Programmer's Reference Guide: Multi-Color Bit Map Mode
  19. ^ C64 Screen Saver.
  20. ^ http://www.antimon.org/dl/c64/code/opening.txt
  • Angerhausen, M.; Becker, Dr. A.; Englisch, L.; Gerits, K. (1983, 84). The Anatomy of the Commodore 64. Abacus Software (US ed.) / First Publishing Ltd. (UK ed.). ISBN 0-948015-00-4 (UK ed.). German original edition published by Data Becker GmbH & Co. KG, Düsseldorf.
  • Bagnall, Brian (2005). On the Edge: the Spectacular Rise and Fall of Commodore. Variant Press. ISBN 0-9738649-0-7. See especially pp. 224−260.
  • Commodore Business Machines, Inc., Computer Systems Division (1982). Commodore 64 Programmer's Reference Guide. Self-published by CBM. ISBN 0-672-22056-3.
  • Tomczyk, Michael (1984). The Home Computer Wars: An Insider's Account of Commodore and Jack Tramiel. COMPUTE! Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-942386-75-2.
  • Perry, Tekla S.; Wallich, Paul. "Design case history: the Commodore 64". IEEE Spectrum. March 1985. [1]
  • Jeffries, Ron. "A best buy for '83: Commodore 64". Creative Computing, January 1983. [2]
  • Amiga Format News Special. "Commodore at CeBIT '94". Amiga Format, Issue 59, May 1994.
  • Computer Chronicles; "Commodore 64 - Interview with Commodore president Max Toy", 1988. [3]

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Door stops are objects or devices used to hold a door open or closed, or to prevent said door from opening too widely. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Data Becker GmbH & Co. ... Compute! was a classic computer magazine that was published from 1979 to 1994. ... IEEE Spectrum is a magazine edited by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. ... Creative Computing was one of the earliest magazines covering the personal computer revolution. ... Amiga Format was a British computer magazine for Amiga computers, published by Future Publishing. ... Hosted by Stewart Cheifet (with co-host Gary Kildall in the 1980s), Computer Chronicles was the worlds most popular television program on personal technology during the height of the personal computer revolution. ...

See also

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Game Music IV on the Commodore 64 by Charles Deenen (also known as The Mercenary Cracker (TMC) was perhaps one of the very first demos ever produced. ... Fruster legoss heated axed aucran ianct. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... Commodore, the commonly used name for Commodore International, was an American electronics company based in West Chester, Pennsylvania which was a vital player in the home/personal computer field in the 1980s. ... The MOS Technology 6502 is an 8-bit microprocessor that was designed by Chuck Peddle for MOS Technology in 1975. ... 8-bit refers to the number of bits used in the data bus of a computer. ... The KIM-1, short for Keyboard Input Monitor, was a small 6502-based microcomputer kit developed and produced by MOS Technology, Inc. ... The PET (Personal Electronic Transactor) was a home-/personal computer produced by Commodore starting in the late 1970s. ... The Commodore CBM-II series was a short-lived range of 8-bit personal computers from Commodore Business Machines (CBM), intended as a follow-on to the Commodore PET series, released in 1982. ... The VIC-20 (Germany: VC-20; Japan: VIC-1001) is an 8-bit home computer. ... Commodore SX-64 The Commodore SX-64, also known as the Executive 64, was a portable, briefcase/suitcase-size luggable version of the popular Commodore 64 home computer and holds the distinction of being the first full-color portable computer. ... The Commodore 16 was a home computer made by Commodore with a 6502-compatible 7501 CPU, released in 1984. ... Commodore Plus/4. ... The Commodore 128 (C128, CBM 128, C=128) home/personal computer was Commodore Business Machiness (CBM) last commercially released 8-bit machine. ... The Motorola 68000 is a 32-bit CISC microprocessor core designed and marketed by Freescale Semiconductor (formerly Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector). ... In computer science, 16-bit is an adjective used to describe integers that are at most two bytes wide, or to describe CPU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. ... 32-bit is a term applied to processors, and computer architectures which manipulate the address and data in 32-bit chunks. ... The A1000, or Commodore Amiga 1000, was Commodores initial Amiga personal computer, introduced on July 24, 1985 at the Lincoln Center in New York City. ... Missing image A500 The A500, also known as the Amiga 500, was the first low-end Commodore Amiga 16_bit multimedia home/personal computer model. ... The A2000, also known as the Commodore Amiga 2000, is the high-end Amiga personal computer that was released in 1987 at the same time as the low-end high-volume model A500. ... The Amiga 2500, also known as the A2500, was not a distinct Amiga model, but simply a marketing name for a Commodore Amiga 2000 bundled with a Motorola 68020 or 68030-based accelerator card. ... The A1500, also known as the Commodore Amiga 1500, was an 16-bit home/personal computer released in 1990. ... The Amiga CDTV (for Commodore Dynamic Total Vision) was a computer made by Commodore International and launched in March 1991. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Amiga 3000T, a towerized version of the A3000. ... The A3000UX is a model of the Amiga computer family that was released with Commodore Amiga Unix installed instead of AmigaOS, a full port of AT&T Unix System V Release 4. ... The Amiga 3000T is the tower version of the Commodore Amiga 3000. ... The Commodore Amiga 500 Plus, (A500+) is a enhanced version of the original Amiga 500. ... The Amiga 600, also known as the A600 (codenamed June Bug after a B-52s song), was a home computer introduced at the CeBIT show in March 1992. ... The Amiga 1200, or A1200, was Commodore Internationals third-generation Amiga computer, aimed at the home market. ... The A4000, or Commodore Amiga 4000, was the successor of the A2000 and A3000 computers. ... Amiga 4000T The A4000T, also known as the Commodore Amiga 4000T, was a tower version of the A4000 computer. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Commodore 64 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4926 words)
The Commodore 64 is still used today by many computer hobbyists and emulators allow anyone with a modern computer to run these programs on their desktop (with varying degrees of success and functionality).
Commodore claimed that the C64's disk drive was more expensive to manufacture than the C64 itself.
In 1990, an advanced successor to the C64, the Commodore 65 (also known as the "C64DX"), was prototyped, but the project was cancelled by Commodore's chairman Irving Gould in 1991.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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