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Encyclopedia > Commercial sexual exploitation of children

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This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Coercion is the practice of compelling a person to act by employing threat of harm (usually physical force, sometimes other forms of harm). ... Political power (imperium in Latin) is a type of power held by a person or group in a society. ... Look up Persecution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

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Cruelty to animals refers to treatment or standards of care that causes unwarranted or unnecessary suffering or harm to animals. ... Bullying involves the tormenting of others through verbal harassment, physical assault, or other more subtle methods of coercion such as manipulation. ... Child abuse is the physical or psychological maltreatment of a child by an adult, often synonymous with the term child maltreatment or the term child abuse and neglect. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Brainwashing. ... Cyber bullying (cyberbullying, cyber-bullying, online bullying) is the use of electronic information and communication devices such as e-mail, instant messaging, text messages, mobile phones, pagers and defamatory websites to bully or otherwise harass an individual or group through personal attacks or other means, and it may constitute a... 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David Kirkwood on the ground after being struck by police batons Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, verbal attacks, and threats by police officers and other law enforcement officers. ... Prisoner abuse is the mistreatment of persons while they are under arrest or incarcerated. ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ... Psychological abuse refers to the humiliation or intimidation of another person, but is also used to refer to the long-term effects of emotional shock. ... A psychological punishment is a type of punishment that relies not or only in secondary order on the actual harm inflicted (such as corporal punishments or fines) but on psychological effects, mainly emotions, such as fear, shame and guilt. ... Relational aggression is a term used to describe psychological (social/emotional) aggression between people in relationships. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sexual harassment is harassment or unwelcome attention of a sexual nature. ... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution single-owner sexual slavery ritual slavery, sometimes associated with traditional religious practices slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is... Shunning is the act of deliberately avoiding association with, and habitually keeping away from an individual or group. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... Spousal abuse is a specific form of domestic violence where physical or sexual abuse is perpetuated by one spouse upon another. ... For other uses, see Stalking (disambiguation). ... Torture is defined by the United Nations Convention Against Torture as any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he... A poster from the Canadian Department of Justice Trafficking in human beings is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons for the purpose of exploitation. ... Trafficking is a term to define the recruiting, harboring, obtaining, transportation of a person by use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjecting them to involuntary acts, such as acts related to commercial sexual exploitation (including prostitution) or involuntary labor. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...

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Adult Protective Services
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Child Protective Services
Comfort women
Corporal punishment
Female genital cutting
Genital integrity
Human rights
Holocaust
Incest
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Massacre
Mind control
U.N. Declaration - Human Rights
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The commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) has been defined as one of the worst forms of child labour by the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (Convention No 182) of the International Labour Organization (ILO). This convention provides that countries which ratify it must eliminate CSEC without delay. It was adopted in 1999 and enjoyed the fastest ratification in the ILO's history since 1919. The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, known in short as the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, was adopted by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) in 1999 as ILO Convention No 182. ... The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations to deal with labour issues. ... Single European Act A treaty is a binding agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ...


The Convention was drawn up after the first World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation held in Stockholm in 1996. CSEC was defined in the declaration adopted at this congress as ‘sexual abuse by the adult and remuneration in cash or kind to the child or a third person or persons. The child is treated as a sexual object and as a commercial object.’ CSEC includes the prostitution of children; child pornography; and other forms of transactional sex where a child engages in sexual activities to have key needs fulfilled, such as food, shelter or access to education. It includes forms of transactional sex where the sexual abuse of children is not stopped or reported by household members, due to benefits derived by the household from the perpetrator. CSEC also potentially includes arranged marriages involving children under the age of 18 years, where the child has not freely consented to marriage and where the child is sexually abused.


The ILO views the prostitution of children under the age of 18 years, child pornography and the (often related) sale and trafficking of children as crimes of violence against children. They are considered to be economic exploitation akin to forced labour or slavery. Such children often suffer irreparable damage to their physical and mental health. They face early pregnancy and risk sexually transmitted diseases, particularly AIDS. They are often inadequately protected by the law and may be treated as criminals. This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ... Child pornography refers to pornography depicting minors. ... Trafficking is a term to define the recruiting, harboring, obtaining, transportation of a person by use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjecting them to involuntary acts, such as acts related to commercial sexual exploitation (including prostitution) or involuntary labor. ... The term exploitation may carry two distinct meanings: The act of utilizing something for any purpose. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), also known as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), are diseases that are commonly transmitted between partners through some form of sexual activity, most commonly vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. ... This article is about the syndrome. ...


Child trafficking and CSEC sometimes overlap. On the one hand, children who are trafficked are often trafficked for the purposes of CSEC. However, not all trafficked children are trafficked for these purposes. Further, even if some of the children trafficked for other forms of work are subsequently sexually abused at work, this does not necessarily constitute CSEC. On the other hand, by no means all children involved in CSEC have been trafficked. Many are involved in CSEC near their homes.


CSEC is also part of, but distinct from child abuse, or even child sexual abuse. Child rape, for example, will not usually constitute CSEC. Neither will domestic violence.


Although CSEC is considered as child labour, and indeed one of the WFCL, in terms of international conventions, in legislation, policy and programmatic terms, CSEC is often treated as a form of child abuse or a crime.

Contents

Causes

The causes of CSEC are complex and patterns differ among countries and regions. For example, in some areas the commercial sexual exploitation of children is clearly related to foreign child sex tourism, in others it is associated with the local demand. In most countries, girls represent 80 to 90 % of the victims, although in some places boys predominate. Sex tourism is tourism, partially or fully for the purpose of having sex, often with prostitutes. ...


As is the case for other worst forms of child labour, severe poverty, the possibility of relatively high earnings, low value attached to education, family dysfunction, a cultural obligation to help support the family or the need to earn money to simply survive are all factors that make children vulnerable to CSEC.


There are other non-economic factors that also push children into commercial sexual exploitation. Children who are at greatest risk of becoming victims of CSEC are those that have previously experienced physical or sexual abuse. A family environment of little protection, where caregivers are absent or where there is a high level of violence or alcohol or drug consumption, induces boys and girls to run away from home, making them highly susceptible to abuse. Gender discrimination and low educational levels of the caregivers, are also risk factors. Gender discriminaton is discrimination based on gender. ...


On the demand side, certain factors can aggravate the problem. For example, tourist areas are a source of demand for prostitution. The presence of military troops or of large public works may also create demand. Client preferences for young children, particularly in the context of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, pull in additional children. Additionally, the expansion of the Internet has facilitated the growth of child pornography. Sex tourism is travel (by men or women) to engage in sexual intercourse or sexual activity with prostitutes, and is typically undertaken internationally by tourists from wealthier countries whose payment for services may then be rendered either in cash or in kind. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Child pornography refers to pornography depicting minors. ...


Experience has shown that certain socio-economic characteristics, such as population density, concentration of night entertainment (bars and discos), high poverty and unemployment levels, movement of people, and access to highways, ports, or borders are also associated with CSEC.


Observations on CSEC from recent IPEC Rapid Assessments

While it is practically impossible to know the true extent of the problem, given its hidden and illegal nature, International Labour Organization (ILO) global child labour figures for the year 2000 estimate that there are as many as 1.8 million children exploited in prostitution or pornography worldwide. While the age that a child becomes involved may be quite young, 15 to 17-year olds are most affected. The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations to deal with labour issues. ...


The Rapid Assessment survey, developed by the ILO's International Programme for the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) and UNICEF, relies on interviews and other, mainly qualitative, techniques, to provide a picture of a specific activity in a limited geographic area. It is a highly useful tool for collecting information on the worst forms of child labour, like CSEC, that is difficult to capture with standard quantitative surveys. UNICEF Logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF (Arabic: ; French: ; Spanish: ) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ...

  • In Sri Lanka, children often become the prey of sexual exploiters through friends and relatives. The prevalence of boys in prostitution here is strongly related foreign tourism.
  • An estimated 12,000 Nepalese children, mainly girls, are trafficked for sexual commercial exploitation each year within Nepal or to brothels in India and other countries.
  • Some 84 % of girls in prostitution interviewed in Tanzania reported having been battered, raped or tortured by police officers and sungu sungu (local community guards). At least 60% had no permanent place to live. Some of these girls started out as child domestic workers.
  • In El Salvador, one-third of the sexually exploited children between 14 and 17 years of age are boys. The median age for entering into prostitution among all children interviewed was 13 years. They worked on average five days per week, although nearly 10% reported that they worked seven days a week.
  • In Vietnam, family poverty, low family education and family dysfunction were found to be primary causes for CSEC. Sixteen per cent of the children interviewed were illiterate, 38 % had only primary-level schooling. Sixty-six per cent said that tuition and school fees were beyond the means of their families.

A brothel, also known as a bordello or whorehouse, is an establishment specifically dedicated to prostitution. ... Ethnologue. ... Of the more than 200 million children working in the world, a substantial percentage are believed to be child domestic workers. ...

IPEC programmes on CSEC

The ILO's IPEC has the following programmes to eliminate commercial sexual exploitation of children:


Anglophone Africa

  • IPEC recently completed Phase I of this sub-regional programme. This programme produced studies on good practices in fighting CSEC in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. It also supported national workshops in these countries and a final sub-regional workshop to present findings and share experiences to build strategies for the future interventions.
  • The second phase will support the replication and scaling-up of these good practices through direct action to withdraw and rehabilitate victims of CSEC in these four countries plus Ethiopia. The programme also aims to improve the capacity of national and local institutions to fight CSEC.
  • A so-called Time-bound Programme in the United Republic of Tanzania.
  • In South Africa pilot projects are planned, also addressing child trafficking and the educational rehabilitation of children. These are run by the Programme Towards the Elimination of the worst forms of Child Labour, in support of the South African Child Labour Action Programme.

Trafficking in human beings (or human trafficking) involves the movement of people (mostly women and children) against their will by means of force for the purpose of sexual or labor exploitation. ... The Programme Towards the Elimination of the worst forms of Child Labour (TECL) is a programme on child labour and related issues that is run in all the countries of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU): Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland. ... The Child Labour Action Programme for South Africa was provisionally adopted by a large group of key stakeholders in September 2003. ...

Central and South America

  • With the financial support of the US Department of Labor, IPEC has developed a three-year regional project for the elimination of commercial sexual exploitation of children in seven countries of Central America: the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. This project has activities aimed at strengthening institutional capacities and the development of national policies; communication campaigns; and the development of pilot models of prevention and protection of the victims in three localities of the region.
  • IPEC also has large country programmes to combat CSEC underway in Chile, Brazil and Paraguay, and Mexico.
  • A Time-Bound Programme in the Dominican Republic.
  • A Time-Bound Programme in El Salvador.

Map of Central America Central America is the central geographic region of the Americas. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The United States Department of Labor is a Cabinet department of the United States government responsible for occupational safety, wage and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, re-employment services, and some economic statistics. ... The ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (Convention No. ... The ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (Convention No. ...

Asia

  • A Time-Bound Programme is running in Nepal, where trafficking of children (many of whom end up victims of CSEC) is included among its targeted worst forms.

World map showing the location of Asia. ... The ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (Convention No. ... Trafficking in human beings (or human trafficking) involves the movement of people (mostly women and children) against their will by means of force for the purpose of sexual or labor exploitation. ...

South-East Asia

  • A sub-regional programme to combat trafficking in children and women, the majority of whom are trafficked for prostitution, was begun in 1998 covering Cambodia, China (Yunnan Province), Laos, Thailand and Vietnam. In cooperation with the ILO’s Gender Promotion Bureau, a three-year pilot intervention has focused on working with local partners in implementing projects in education and skills training, alternative livelihood promotion, legal literacy and awareness raising. A region strategic framework added capacity building, advocacy and cross-border consultation to these national actions.
  • A Time-Bound Programme in the Philippines.

Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Yunnan (Simplified Chinese: 云南; Traditional Chinese: 雲南; pinyin: Yúnnán) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the far southwestern corner of the country. ... The ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (Convention No. ...

See also

Relevant ILO Conventions and Recommendations Child pornography refers to pornography depicting minors. ... ECPAT is a network of organizations and individuals working together to eliminate the commercial sexual exploitation of children. ... OneChild (or One Child) is a Canadian-based, non-governmental organization dedicated to the elimination of the commercial sexual exploitation of children abroad. ... The International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) is a programme that the International Labour Organisation has run from 1992. ... Pedophilia, paedophilia or pædophilia (see spelling differences) is the paraphilia of being sexually attracted primarily or exclusively to prepubescent or peripubescent children. ... This article is about pedophilia/paedophilia in literature, i. ... This article is about pedophilia/paedophilia in movies/films. ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ... A poster from the Canadian Department of Justice Trafficking in human beings is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons for the purpose of exploitation. ... The Programme Towards the Elimination of the worst forms of Child Labour (TECL) is a programme on child labour and related issues that is run in all the countries of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU): Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland. ... NAMBLA is a organization of perverts, who should be executed. ...

The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, known in short as the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, was adopted by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) in 1999 as ILO Convention No 182. ... The Worst Forms of Child Labour Recommendation was adopted by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) in 1999 as ILO Recommendation No 190. ...

External links

  • 'Asia's sex trade is 'slavery' - BBC
  • Europe warned over trafficking of children - BBC
  • 'Tracking Africa's child trafficking - BBC
  • 'Trapping Cambodia's sex tourists - BBC
  • Fears of rising child sex trade – The Guardian
  • 5,000 child sex slaves in UK - The Independent
  • Trafficking in Minors - United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute

  Results from FactBites:
 
ELCA Message on Commercial Sexual Exploitation (3773 words)
Commercial sexual exploitation is widespread throughout the United States and around the world, and it continues to grow.
Commercial sexual exploitation of children and youth is pervasive.
Much of the system of sexual exploitation arises from and reinforces culture’s deeply ingrained attitudes and power patterns that assume that women and children are not fully or equally human, and are meant to be subservient to others.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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