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Encyclopedia > Commentarii de Bello Gallico
Commentarii de Bello Gallico
(Commentaries on the Gallic Wars)
An 18th century edition
An 18th century edition of Commentarii de Bello Gallico
Author Julius Caesar, Aulus Hirtius(VIII)
Language Classical Latin
Subject(s) History, Ethnography, Military history
Genre(s) Non-fiction
Publisher Julius Caesar
Publication date  ? 50s or 40s BC
Followed by Commentarii de Bello Civili
rmn-military-header.png

This article is part of the series on: Image File history File links Commentarii_de_Bello_Gallico. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Aulus Hirtius (c. ... The title page to The Historians History of the World. ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... For the book by Chuck Palahniuk titled Non-fiction, see Stranger Than Fiction: True Stories. ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... Commentarii de Bello Civile (literally Commentaries on the Civil War in Latin) is an account written by Julius Caesar about his war against Pompey the Great. ... Image File history File links Rmn-military-header. ...


Military of ancient Rome (Portal)
800 BC–AD 476 The Military of ancient Rome (known to the Romans as the militia) relates to the combined military forces of Ancient Rome from the founding of the city of Rome to the end of the Western Roman Empire. ...

Structural history
Roman army (unit types and ranks,
legions, auxiliaries, generals)
Roman navy (fleets, admirals)
Campaign history
Lists of Wars and Battles
Decorations and Punishments
Technological history
Military engineering (castra,
siege engines, arches, roads)
Personal equipment
Political history
Strategy and tactics
Infantry tactics
Frontiers and fortifications (Limes,
Hadrian's Wall)

Commentarii de Bello Gallico (literally Commentaries on the Gallic War in Latin) is an account written by Julius Caesar (in the third person) about his nine years of war in Gaul. English translations of the book often retain the Latin title; sometimes, various translations of the book's Latin title are used, including About the Gallic War, Of the Gallic War, On the Gallic War, The Conquest of Gaul, and The Gallic War. The branches of the Roman military at the highest level were the Roman army and the Roman navy. ... The Roman army is the set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... This is a list of both unit types and ranks of the Roman army from the Roman Republic to the fall of the Roman Empire. ... This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion. ... Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = supports) formed the standing non-citizen corps of the Roman army of the Principate (30 BC - 284 AD), alongside the citizen legions. ... // Manius Acilius Glabrio -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 191 BC) -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 91) -- Titus Aebutius Helva -- Aegidius -- Lucius Aemilius Barbula -- Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir) -- Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus -- Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (praetor 56 BC) -- Flavius Aëtius -- Lucius Afranius (consul) -- Sextus Calpurnius Agricola -- Gnaeus Julius Agricola -- Flavius Antoninus -- Marcus... Roman trireme, a warship, 31 BC. Note the bank of oars (two on the hidden side), the square-rigged sails, the steering oars, the tower on deck, the ram at the prow, the ballistae and the Greek fire. ... Roman trireme, a warship, 31 BC. Note the bank of oars (two on the hidden side), the square-rigged sails, the steering oars, the tower on deck, the ram at the prow, the ballistae and the Greek fire. ... The history of ancient Rome - originally a city-state of Italy, and later an empire covering much of Eurasia and North Africa from the ninth century BC to the fifth century AD - was often closely entwined with its military history. ... The following is a List of Roman wars fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, organized by date. ... The following is a List of Roman battles (fought by the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire), organized by date. ... As with most other military forces the Roman military adopted a carrot and stick approach to military, with an extensive list of decorations for military gallantry and likewise a range of punishments for the punishment of military transgressions. ... The technology history of the Roman military covers the development of and application of technologies for use in the armies and navies of Rome from the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Roman military engineering is a type of Roman engineering carried out by the Roman Army - almost exclusively by the Roman legions for the furthering of military objectives. ... Basic ideal plan of a Roman castrum. ... Roman siege engines were, for the most part, adapted from Hellenistic siege technology. ... List of ancient Roman triumphal arches (By modern country) // France Orange Reims: Porte de Mars Saint Rémy de Provence: Roman site of Glanum Saintes: Arch of Germanicus Greece Arch of Galerius, Thessaloniki Hadrians Arch, Athens Italy It has been suggested that List of Roman arches in Rome be... For the one-off TV Drama, see Roman Road (TV Drama) A Roman road in Pompeii. ... Roman military personal equipment was produced in large numbers to established patterns and used in an established way. ... Root directory at Military history of ancient Rome Romes military was always tightly keyed to its political system. ... The strategy of the Roman Military encompasses its grand strategy (the arrangements made by the state to implement its political goals through a selection of military goals, a process of diplomacy backed by threat of military action, and a dedication to the military of part of its production and resources... Roman infantry tactics refers to the theoretical and historical deployment, formation and maneuvers of the Roman infantry from the start of the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Map of all the territories once occupied by the Roman Empire, along with locations of limes Roman military borders and fortifications were part of a grand strategy of territorial defense in the Roman Empire. ... The limes Germanicus, 2nd century. ... // Hadrians Wall is a stone and turf fortification built by the Roman Empire across the width of Great Britain. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... For more details on this topic, see Point of view (literature). ... Combatants Roman Republic Several Gallic tribes Commanders Julius Caesar Titus Labienus Mark Antony Quintus Cicero Vercingetorix, Ambiorix, Commius, among other The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns by several invading Roman legions under the command of Julius Caesar into Gaul, and the subsequent uprisings of the Gallic tribes. ...


In Commentarii de Bello Gallico, Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting local armies that opposed Roman domination. The "Gaul" that Caesar refers to is sometimes all of Gaul except for the Provincia Narbonensis (modern day Provence), encompassing all of modern France, Belgium and some of Switzerland. On other occasions he refers only to that territory inhabited by the Celts (whom the Romans called Gauls), from the Channel to Lugdunum (Lyon). Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis, 120 AD Gallia Narbonensis was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. ... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ... This article is about the European people. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: (Franco-Provençal: Forward, forward, Lyon the best) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Rhône-Alpes Department Rhône (69) Subdivisions 9 arrondissements Intercommunality Urban Community of Lyon Mayor Gérard Collomb  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land...


The first book deals primarily but not exclusively with the Helvetian War in 58 BC. In it, Caesar describes Gaul and the campaign against the Helvetii, a conglomeration of peoples numbering in excess of 300,000, who decided to migrate by force of arms from the Alpine regions through the centre of Gaul to the west to alleviate population pressures. This would require the crossing either of Provence, or of areas held by tribes allied to Rome. When Caesar made it clear he would not allow this, the Helvetians formed an alliance of tribes to fight him. This drew the Romans out of Provence. Later books are about the campaigns against Veneti, Aquitani, Germanic peoples and Bretons; Caesar's invasions of Britain; the insurrection of Gaul (VII, 4) and the defeat of Vercingetorix at Alesia (VII, 89). A map of Gaul showing the northern Alpine position of the Helvetii. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... The Veneti were a seafaring people who lived in what is now Brittany, France. ... The Aquitanii (Latin for Aquitanians) were a people of horsemen living in what is now SW France, between the Pyrenees and the Garonne. ... Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul that includes the Brittany peninsula and the territory between the Seine and Loire rivers, extending inland to an indeterminate point and down the Atlantic coast. ... Roman invasion of Britain: Britain was the target of invasion by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire several times during its history. ... Statue of Vercingetorix by Bartholdi, on Place de Jaude, in Clermont-Ferrand Vercingetorix (pronounced in Gaulish) (died 46 BC), chieftain of the Arverni, originating from the Arvernian city of Gergovia, and known as the man who led the Gauls in their ultimately unsuccessful war against Roman rule under Julius Caesar. ... Combatants Roman Republic Gallic Tribes Commanders Julius Caesar Vercingetorix Commius Strength ~30,000-60,000, 12 Roman legions and auxiliaries ~330,000 some 80,000 besieged ~250,000 relief forces Casualties 12,800 40,000-250,000 [] The Battle of Alesia or Siege of Alesia took place in September 52...


Campaigns typically started in late summer with the provisioning of grain and construction of fortresses, and ended late in the year when Caesar returned to his winter quarters among the Sequani for the winter (Caesar 42). He campaigned with a number of legions in his army, sometimes as many as eight. He faced a variety of tribal armies, often hasty alliances of them, some numbering – or at least claimed to number – over 100,000 strong. Many of the campaigns end with the Roman cavalry running down thousands of fleeing tribesmen, and often their women and children as well. In one instance he defeated a tribe and immediately sold all 53,000 survivors into slavery. The Roman Legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) is a term that can apply both as a transliteration of legio (conscription or army) to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Slave redirects here. ...


After the second year of campaigning many of the hostile tribes had been defeated and much of Gaul was under some degree of Roman control. By this point any threat to the province, or to Rome itself, was dubious at best. It has been noted that the book may also have been intended as an answer to Caesar's political opponents, who questioned the real need for this costly war, at the time one of the most expensive in Roman history. Many of the reasons provided clearly stretch the credulity of its readers. For instance, his reasons for invading Britain came down to noting that while fighting in north-west Gaul, local armies were often supported by mercenaries from Britain.


It is often lauded for its polished, clear Latin. This book is traditionally the first authentic text assigned to students of Latin, as Xenophon's Anabasis is for students of Greek. It is therefore not always remembered with affection. On the other hand, a literary classic in an ancient language that can be read by high-school students is a rare thing. On re-reading it in later life, many people can perceive the clarity of syntax and beauty of style of which an early Latin teacher tried to convince them. The style is indeed simple and elegant, essential and not rhetorical, dry as a chronicle, yet rich in details and employing many stylistic devices in order to promote Caesar's political interests[1]. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... The Persian Expedition, Penguin Classics edition of Xenophons Anabasis, translated by Rex Warner Anabasis Aνάβασις is the most famous work of the Greek writer Xenophon. ... Generally a chronicle (Latin chronica, from Greek Χρόνος) is historical account of facts and events in chronological order. ...


Also, the books are valuable for the many geographical and historical facts (Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres...) that can be retrieved from the work, which was also one of the earliest to be written in third person. Notable chapters describe Gaulish costume (VI, 13), their religion (VI, 17), a comparison between Gauls and Germanic peoples (VI, 24) and other curious notes such as the lack of Germanic interest in agriculture (VI, 22).

Contents

Vorenus and Pullo

In Book 5, Chapter 44 the Commentarii de Bello Gallico notably mentions Lucius Vorenus and Titus Pullo, two Roman centurions of the 11th Legion[2]. Vorenus and Pullo are dramatized as main characters in the 2005 HBO/BBC original television series Rome, a fictionalized account of Caesar's rise and fall. Lucius Vorenus (given as L. Varenus in some translations) was one of the two soldiers of the 11th Legion (Legio XI prior to its demobilization and subsequent remobilization by Caesar Augustus - see also here) mentioned in the personal writings of Julius Caesar. ... The Historical Pullo Titus Pullo (given as T. Pulfio in some translations) was one of the two soldiers of the 11th Legion (Legio XI prior to its demobilization and subsequent remobilization by Caesar Augustus - see also here) mentioned in the personal writings of Julius Caesar. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Legio XI Claudia Pia Fidelis (faithful and loyal Claudian legion) was a Roman legion. ... For other uses, see HBO (disambiguation). ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... A television program is the content of television broadcasting. ... Rome is a multiple Emmy Award-winning historical drama, produced in Italy for television by the BBC (UK), HBO (USA), and RAI (Italy). ...


See also

The Roman army is the set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... Commentarii de Bello Civile (literally Commentaries on the Civil War in Latin) is an account written by Julius Caesar about his war against Pompey the Great. ... De Bello Hispaniensis (meaning On the Hispanic War in Latin) is a book said to be written by Julius Caesar, though its authorship is heavily disputed. ... De Bello Africo (meaning On the African War in Latin) is a book said to be written by Julius Caesar, though its authorship is heavily disputed. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ cf. Albrecht, Michael v.: Geschichte der römischen Literatur Band 1. Munich 1994 2nd ed., p. 332-334.
  2. ^ Prior to its demobilization and subsequent remobilization by Augustus - see also Republican and Imperatorial legions. Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico 5.44

For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ...

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Commentaries on the Gallic War

 
 

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