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Encyclopedia > Commedia dell'Arte
Image:Commedia dell'Arte - troupe Gelosi.JPG
Commedia dell'Arte troupe Gelosi in a late 16th-century Flemish painting (Musée Carnavalet, Paris)

Commedia dell'Arte (Italian: "play of professional artists") is a form of improvisational theatre that began in Italy in the 16th century and held its popularity through the 18th century, although it is still performed today.[1] Performances were unscripted, held outside, and used few props. They were free to watch, funded by donations. A troupe consisted of ten people: eight men and two women. Outside Italy the form was also known as "Italian Comedy". Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Acap. ... Dante redirects here. ... In mathematics, see epic morphism. ... For other uses see The Divine Comedy (disambiguation), Dantes Inferno (disambiguation), and The Inferno (disambiguation) Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelino... The Musée Carnavalet or Musée de lHistoire de Paris focuses on the history of the city of Paris, France. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Commedia dell'Arte performances followed a repertory of conventional plot lines written on themes of adultery, jealousy, old age, and love. Many of the basic plot elements can be traced back to the Roman comedies of Plautus and Terence, some of which were themselves translations of lost Greek comedies of the fourth century BC. Performers made use of well-rehearsed jokes and stock physical gags, known as Lazzi and Concetti, as well as, of course, on-the-spot improvised routines. Since the productions were improvised, dialogue and action could easily be changed to satirize local scandals, current events, or regional tastes, while still using old jokes and punch lines. Characters were identified by costumes, masks, and even props, such as a type of baton known as a slapstick. These characters included the forebears of the modern clown, namely Harlequin (english for arlecchino) and Zanni. This article is about the act of adultery. ... Jealous redirects here. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... Titus Macchius Plautus, generally referred to simply as Plautus, was a playwright of Ancient Rome. ... Publius Terentius Afer, better known as Terence, was a comic playwright of the Roman Republic. ... Lazzi (from the Italian lazzo, a joke or witticism) is a piece of well-rehearsed comic action commonly used in the Commedia dellarte. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... Yarkand ladies summer fashions. ... For other uses, see Mask (disambiguation). ... Theatrical properties, or props, are items used in stage plays and similar entertainments to further the action. ... For other uses, see Slapstick (disambiguation). ... Clowning redirects here. ... “Arlecchino” redirects here. ... Zanni (from the Italian, dialectal nickname for Giovanni) was the archetype of the comic servant characters of the Commedia dellarte. ...


The classic, traditional plot is that the innamorati are in love and wish to be married, but one elder (vecchio) or several elders (vecchi) are stopping this from happening, leading the lovers to ask one or more zanni (eccentric servants) for help. Typically the story ends happily, with the marriage of the innamorati and forgiveness for any wrongdoings. There are countless variations on this story, as well as many that diverge wholly from the structure, such as a well-known story about Arlecchino becoming mysteriously pregnant, or the Punch and Judy scenario. The Innamorati (from the Italian innamorato, lover, the one who is in love) are young lovers, characters of the Commedia dellarte. ... Vecchio (plural vecchi). ... Zanni (from the Italian, dialectal nickname for Giovanni) was the archetype of the comic servant characters of the Commedia dellarte. ... Arlecchino (also known as Harlequin in English, Arlequin in French) is the most popular of the zanni or comic servant characters from the Italian Commedia dellArte. ... For other uses, see Punch and Judy (disambiguation). ...

Karel Dujardins set his closely-observed scene of a traveling troupe's makeshift stage against idealized ruins in the Roman Campagna: dated 1657 (Louvre Museum)

Contents

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x603, 102 KB) Описание Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Performing arts Commedia dellarte Karel Dujardin ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x603, 102 KB) Описание Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Performing arts Commedia dellarte Karel Dujardin ... The main courtyard of the Louvre. ...

The Characters

  • Arlecchino - also known as Harlequin. Arlecchino is a clown. Typically acrobatic and mischievous, he is one of the zanni. He is a servant, and is recognizable by the colorful diamond-shaped patches that traditionally were part of his costume. The part is sometimes substituted with Truffaldino, his son. However, Arlecchino is never the loser. His mask has a low forehead with a wart, and sometimes wore a black stocking wound round the lower face and then up over the head. Arlecchino is often the servant to Pantalone, or sometimes to Il Dottore. He is in love with Colombina, but she only makes fun of him. He can often have a close relationship with the audience, involving them in the action or gesturing to them.
  • Il Capitano Spavento - swash-buckling and bold, but not necessarily heroic. Il Capitano generally wears the military dress of the period he is acting. His attire is generally foppish and overdone. Il Capitano is usually played as a braggart, a ladies-man, and a cavalier.
  • Colombina - developed out of Arlecchino, she is his female counterpart. Usually portrayed as clever, crafty, and untamed. She is also a servant and a member of the zanni, and quite often she compels the action. She sometimes is played wearing colored patches in Arlecchino's style.
  • Il Dottore - the doctor. Seen as the learned man, but generally that impression is false. He is older, wealthy, and a member of the vecchi. Often played as pedantic, miserly, and hopelessly unsuccessful with women.
  • The Innamorati are the lovers. The innamorato and innamorata had many different names over time ("Isabella" was a particularly popular name for the woman, as was "Flavio" for the man). They are young, righteous, and helplessly in love with one another. They wear the most fashionable dress of the period they are acting, and never play in mask. Often seen singing, dancing, or reciting poetry. They are usually played as the children of Dottore and Pantalone depending on the situation they are in. They are madly in love but never seem able to get together.
  • Pantalone - a member of the vecchi. Usually quite wealthy, but very greedy. He is the archetypal "old miser." He cares about nothing so much as money, and will do anything in order to get it. His costume includes red pants, and often a long beard.
  • Pedrolino - the loyal servant, also known as "Pierrot" or "Pedro." He is hard, trustworthy, honest, and in every way devoted to his master. He is also charming and likable, and is portrayed wearing a loose white outfit with a neck ruff.
  • Pulcinella - sometimes called "Punch," he is portrayed as pitiable, helpless, and often physically disfigured. He usually has a hump, a distinct limp, or some other obvious physical deformity. In some portrayals he cannot speak, and expresses himself in squeaks or other strange sounds. His personality can be foolish or sly and shrewd.
  • Scaramuccia - also known as Scaramouche, he is a roguish character who wears a black velvet mask and black trousers, shirt and hat. He is usually portrayed as a buffoon or boastful coward.
  • Tartaglia - short sighted and with a terrible stutter, he is usually classed as one of the group of old characters who appears in many scenarios as one of the lovers. His social status varies; he is sometimes a bailiff, lawyer, notary or chemist. Dramatist Carlo Omlette Du Fromage Gozzi turned him into a statesman, and so he remained thereafter. Tartaglia wears a large felt hat, an enormous cloak, oversized boots, a long sword, a giant mustache and a cardboard nose.

Arlecchino (also known as Harlequin in English, Arlequin in French) is the most popular of the zanni or comic servant characters from the Italian Commedia dellArte. ... “Arlecchino” redirects here. ... Clowning redirects here. ... Pantalone, year 1550, by Maurice Sand Pantalone (French: Pantaloon) is a stock character that is classified as one of the vecchi (old men) in Commedia dellarte. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Innamorati (from the Italian innamorato, lover, the one who is in love) are young lovers, characters of the Commedia dellarte. ... Pantalone, year 1550, by Maurice Sand Pantalone (French: Pantaloon) is a stock character that is classified as one of the vecchi (old men) in Commedia dellarte. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pierrot. ... Pulcinella, often called Punch in English, is a classical character that originated in the Commedia dellarte of the 17th century and became a stock character in Neapolitan puppetry. ... Scaramuccia is a commedia dellarte character who wears a black velvet mask and black trousers, shirt and hat. ... Niccolo Fontana Tartaglia. ...

References

  1. ^ See the Commedia timeline.

Further reading

  • Commedia dell'Arte: A Practical Handbook for the Actor by John Rudlin
  • Playing Commedia and Commedia Plays by Barry Grantham
  • The Comic Mask and the Commedia dell'Arte by Antonio Fava
  • The Innamorati by Midori Snyder is a novel with the commedia as its central conceit.
  • One version of The Love Of Three Oranges is subtitled "A Play for the Theater That Takes the Commedia Dell'Arte of Carlo Gozzi and Updates it for the New Millennium". The authors are Carlo Gozzi and Hillary DePiano.
  • Flamino Scala's Il Teatro delle Favole Rappresentative, translated into English by Henry F. Salerno as Scenarios of the Commedia dell'Arte.
  • The Commedia dell'Arte by Kenneth Richards and Laura Richards is an overview of Commedia dell'Arte. It provides many original documents in translation including scenarios, lazzi and descriptions of characters, players and companies by contemporaries.
  • Martin Green and John Swan's The Triumph of Pierrot: The Commedia Dell'Arte and the Modern Imagination discusses interpretations and adaptations of Commedia dell'Arte in 20th century literature, music, art, and film.
  • An annotated bibliography from Judith Chaffee.
  • Commedia dell'Arte: A Handbook for Troupes by Olly Crick and John Rudlin
  • Screener for Commedia by Fava

Carlo, Count Gozzi (13 December 1720 – April 4, 1806), was an Italian dramatist. ... Berryman Bridge 1986 The Te Rata Bridge was a suspension bridge across the Retaruke River in the King Country, New Zealand. ... Laura Elizabeth Howe Richards (February 27, 1850 - January 14, 1943) was born in Boston, Massachusetts, to a high-profile family. ...

Education Programs

  • 'Cafe Floriani' a Commedia del'Arte high school touring production currently performing in Australia. View online videos.
  • Rubber Latex Condoms del'arte masks as a teaching tool for Drama teachers.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Commedia dell'arte at AllExperts (1284 words)
Commedia dell'arte (Italian, meaning "comedy of professional artists") was a form of improvisational theater which began in the 16th century and was popular until the 18th century, although it is still performed today.
Commedia had all but disappeared until it was revived by Giorgio Strehler at the Piccolo teatro of Milan.
The Innamorati by Midori Snyder is a novel with the commedia as its central conceit.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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