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Commander-in-Chief (in For the National Association of Theatre Owners, please see The National Association of Theatre Owners (NATO) is a trade organization based in the United States whose members are the owners of movie theaters. Most major theater chains are members, as are many independent theater operators; collectively, they account for the... NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced "sink") is the commander of all the Military (from Latin militarius, miles soldier) as an adjective describes anything related to soldiers and warfare, more specifically to do with land forces, the sea forces equivalent being naval. Used as a noun, it is equivalent to Armed force. See also Armed force Martial art Militaria Military history Military rule... military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state.

While well-known Commanders-in-Chief often have been senior General is a military rank, in most nations the highest rank, although some nations have the higher rank of Field Marshal. The title is used by land and sometimes air forces. In the navies of the world, the equivalent rank is Admiral. Its equivalent rank in the Royal Air Force... generals, many countries have the rule that the A head of state or chief of state is the chief public representative of a nation-state, federation or commonwealth, whose role generally includes personifying the continuity and legitimacy of the state and exercising the political powers, functions and duties granted to the head of state in the countrys... Head of State is Commander-in-Chief in times of peace. Historically, the term "commander-in-chief" was first used by Charles I King of England, Scotland and Ireland Charles I (19 November 1600 - 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625, until his death. He famously engaged in a struggle for power with Parliament; he was an advocate of the divine right of kings... Charles I of England in 1639. Colonial governors in the future United States used the title.

During times of war, national governments often establish regionally-based Commanders in Chief to deal with a particular theater of war. Though subsidiary to the national Commander in Chief, such local-level Commanders in Chief usually have full decision-making authority in order to improve efficiency during war.


Democratic monarchies, Commonwealth

In democratic For related meanings see also Monarch (disambiguation) A monarchy, (from the Greek monos archein, meaning one ruler) is a form of government that has a monarch as Head of State. The distinguishing characteristic of monarchies is that the Head of State holds his office for life, unlike in republics, where... monarchies, the This article treats the generic title monarch. For the origins of the word king and its English use, see Germanic king. For other meanings of the word, see Monarch (disambiguation) A monarch is a type of ruler or head of state. The word derives from Greek monos archein, meaning one... King or This article treats the generic title monarch. For the origins of the word king and its English use, see Germanic king. For other meanings of the word, see Monarch (disambiguation) A monarch is a type of ruler or head of state. The word derives from Greek monos archein, meaning one... Queen is the symbolic Commander-in-Chief, though the active authority is exercised by the Alternative meaning: Prime Minister (band) A prime minister is the leading member of the Alternate meanings in cabinet (disambiguation) A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. It can also sometimes be referred to as the Council of Ministers or the Executive... Prime Minister and the subordinate A defence minister (Commonwealth English) or defense minister (American English) is a cabinet portfolio (position) which regulates the armed forces in a sovereign nation. The minister or secretary of defense is usually a very important role in a cabinet. When cabinets first started appearing in the late 18th century, they... defense ministers. In a few A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states that recognize Queen Elizabeth II as their Queen and head of state. In each state she acts as the monarch of that state and is titled accordingly. For example, in Australia she is known as Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth... Commonwealth Realms, Commander-in-Chief is the Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. The title has been, and is still used... Governor General (though they perform this role in the Queen's name), while in This article refers to a colony in politics and history. For alternate meanings of colony, see colony (disambiguation). In politics and in history, a colony is an administrative unit under the control of a geographically- distinct entity, usually an autonomous state. The term informal colony is used by some historians... colonies the Commander-in-Chief is the leader of the colonial power. In France, the President of the Republic has a title of Chef des Armées ("Commander of the Armies"), which is a legacy of the monarchy.

Before 1948 the This article is in need of attention. Please see its listing on Pages needing attention and improve it (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Commander-in-Chief%2C_India&action=edit) in any way you see fit. When the issues regarding this page have been resolved, remove... Commander-in-Chief in India reported to the civilian The Governor-General of India (or Governor-General and Viceroy of India) was the head of the British administration in India. The office was created in 1773, with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William. The officer had direct control only over Fort William, but supervised... Governor-General of India since independence the duties of the two posts were merged into a single office, the The President of India is the ceremonial head of state of India and the supreme commander of the Indian armed forces. The current President of the Republic of India is Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam. Contents // 1 History 2 Constitutional Role 3 List of Governors-General of India after... President of India, who in turn reports to the government of the The Republic of India is a large country in South Asia, and one of only two countries in the world with a population of over one billion. The Indian economy is the fourth largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity and is the worlds second fastest... Republic of India. This model has been emulated by most other Alternative meaning: the Commonwealth of Nations The English noun Commonwealth dates originally from the fifteenth century and in different contexts indicates one of: a nation, state or political unit a state founded on law by agreement of the people for the common good a republic a federated union of constituent... Commonwealth republics.


In France, the President of the Republic holds the title of "Chef des Armées" ("Chief of the Armies"). He is the supreme authority for military affairs, and is the only competent authority for the use of nuclear power.

Since the reign of Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. He was a minor when he inherited the Crown; he did not... Louis XIV France has been strongly centralized. After crushing local nobles engaged in warlordism, the Kings of France retained all authority ("Droit Divin", "divine authority") with the help of able yet discreet Prime ministers ( Cardinal Jules Mazarin, French diplomat and statesman Jules Mazarin, born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino; but best known as Cardinal Mazarin (July 14, 1602 – March 9, 1661) served as the chief minister of France from 1642, until his death. Mazarin succeeded his mentor, Cardinal Richelieu. Mazarins early military and diplomatic... Mazarin, For other uses of Richelieu, see Richelieu (disambiguation). Armand-Jean du Plessis, Cardinal and Duc de Richelieu (September 9, 1585 - December 4, 1642) was a French Cardinal, Duke, and politician. He was a prominent theorist of nationalism. Richelieu served as Louis XIIIs chief minister from 1624-42. Richelieu was... Richelieu).

The 1789 Revolution transferred the supreme authority to the King (in the context of the short-lived constitutional Monarchy), then to the multi-member Comité de Salut Public during the Convention, and later to the Directoire, before being regained in the hands of Napoleon Bonaparte alone.

The Restauration restored authority of the King, in an absolute, then constitutional way before being overthrown by the Second Empire. The following Third Republic was a parliamentary system, where the military authority was held by the President of the Council (Prime Minister).

During World War II, Marechal Pétain usurped power and held the supreme authority. The following and short-lived Fourth Republic was a parliamentary system, which was replaced by the Fifth Republic, a The semi-presidential system is a system of government that features both a Alternative meaning: Prime Minister (band) A prime minister is the leading member of the cabinet of the top level government in a parliamentary system of government of a country, alternatively A prime minister is an official in... semi-presidential system.


In a time of declared war or national emergency, the The Swiss Federal Council (in German: Bundesrat, in French: Conseil fédéral, in Italian: Consiglio federale, in Romansh: Cussegl Federal) is the seven-member executive council which collectively assumes the office of head of state equivalent to that of a president or of a monarch in the government of... Federal Council appoints a General (in normal conditions, Swiss general officers hold the title of "colonel"). The General acts as the highest military authority, but is subordinate to the Federal Council, which holds the supreme authority.

Four Swiss generals were appointed in its history, General Categories: People stubs | 1787 births | 1875 deaths | Swiss generals | Swiss cartographers ... Henri Dufour during the The Sonderbund (meaning separate alliance, in German), was a league created in 1845 in Switzerland between seven Catholic and Conservative cantons in order to protect their interests against a centralization of power. The member cantons were: Lucerne, Fribourg, Valais, Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden and Zug. Some liberal Catholic cantons such as... Swiss Civil War, General Hans Herzog during the Battle of Gravelotte Main article: Battle of Gravelotte Battle of Sedan Main article: Battle of Sedan The French were soundly defeated in several battles owing to the military superiority of the Prussian forces and their commanders. At Sedan on September 2, the French emperor Napoleon III was taken prisoner with... Franco-Prussian_War, General Ulrich Wille during the First World War, and General Henri Guisan during the Second World War ("la Mob", "the Mobilization (or mobilisation in British English) is the act of assembling and making both troops and supplies ready for war. Intricate plans for mobilization contributed greatly to the beginning of World War 1 or The Great War. In 1914, at the time of World War 1, the act of mobilization... Mobilisation"). Although Switzerland remained neutral during the latter three conflicts, the threat of having its territory used as a battlefield by the much bigger war parties of Germany and France required mobilization of the army.

In normal times, military units can be dispatched for peace-keeping or disaster response by the Federal Council.


The Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America and is... Constitution of the United States gives the title to the For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. Seal of the President of the United States, official impression The President of the United States is the head of state of the United States. Under the U.S. Constitution, the President is also the chief executive of... President of the United States, who "shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States" (See the 1941 Declarations of War[1] (http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/wwii/dec/decmenu.htm) against Japan and Germany for how this call is made).

In the United States, the Goldwater-Nichols Defense Reorganization act of 1986 added a new level of CINC. Under Goldwater-Nichols regional CINCs were created to bring a local supreme commander to a conflict. The most well known of which is CINC Emblem of the United States Central Command. The United States Central Command (CENTCOM) is a theater_level Unified Combatant Command unit of the U.S. armed forces, established in 1983 under the operational control of the U.S. Secretary of Defense. Its area of jurisdiction is in the Middle East, East... CENTCOM, who was Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. (born August 22, 1934), United States Army general, was commander of the United States forces in the Gulf War of 1991. Born in Trenton, New Jersey to Norman Schwarzkopf, Sr., he graduated from West Point in 1956, and earned a masters degree in missile engineering from... Norman Schwarzkopf during Operation Desert Storm.

Commander-in-Chief reserved for the President

On October 24, 2002, the U.S. Secretary of Defense announced that the title of Commander-in-Chief would be reserved for the President, and that armed forces CINCs would shorten their title to " Commander is a military rank used in many navies but not generally in armies or air forces. It is below Captain and above Lieutenant-Commander. The rank evolved in the 18th and early 19th centuries and was originally known as was Master and Commander. A commander in the Royal Navy... commander." They are typically referred to as combatant commanders, heading what are now know as combatant commands. The title has taken on prominent importance in the political debate in the United States in the context of the "War against Terrorism" [2] (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A16750-2004Sep12.html).

Political implications

Since the The World Trade Center on fire Sep 11, 2001 attacks Timeline Background history Planning Execution September 11, 2001 Rest of September October Aftermath Victims Casualties Missing Persons Survivors Foreign casualties Rescue workers Effects U.S. government response World political effects World economic effects Airport security Closings and cancellations Movies and... September 11, 2001 attacks on the World trade centers arose in the United States and Japan in the 1970s, spearheaded by New York Citys World Trade Center. A world trade center puts together under one roof all the services associated with global commerce, a kind of shopping mall providing networking access between corporations and governments... World Trade Center and the declaration of the The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Terrorism General Definition Conventions Counterterrorism Criticisms Lists Groups Incidents Types Nationalist Religious Left-wing Right-wing State Islamist Ethnic Narcoterrorism Domestic Anarchist Political Eco-terrorism Christian Tactics Hijacking Assassination Car bombing Suicide bombing Kidnapping... War on Terror, American media has increasingly referred to the President as the "Commander-in-Chief", even in civil affairs. In the discourses of opponents, this is often done when discussing the restriction of civil rights, such as with the This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. President Bush signs USA Patriot Act, October 26, 2001 The Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act, H.R. 3162... Patriot Act, suggesting a comparison between the President and the military leaders of dictatorial countries; but ambiguous statements are also regularly featured in statements of personalities favorable to the Bush administration, in such a way as to suggest a Commander in Chief of the USA themselves:

  • "A political candidate who jumps to conclusions without knowing the facts is not a person you want as your commander in chief when it comes to your security." (Good illustration, since the "Commander in Chief" part of the presidential charge always comes to security, this somehow implies that the "commander in chief" has taken over other parts of the presidency -- Bush campaign line, cited by John F. Kerry [3] (http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/10/28/election.main/index.html))
  • "No one should dare to even think about being the Commander in Chief of this country if he doesn't believe with all his heart that our soldiers are liberators abroad and defenders of freedom at home." ?Zell Miller, see 2004 Republican National Convention Logo President George W. Bush and Vice President Dick Cheney accepted their partys nomination to run for second terms. Delegates from every state crowded the convention floor. There were 2,509 delegates and 2,344 alternates in attendance. State Senator Barbara Marumoto decorated the Hawaii... 2004 Republican National Convention



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