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Encyclopedia > Comma (punctuation)

A comma, ) is a punctuation mark. It has the same shape as an apostrophe or single closing quotation mark in many typefaces, but it differs from them in being placed on the baseline of the text. Some typefaces render it as a small line, slightly curved or straight, or as a small, filled-in number 9. The term comma has various uses; comma is the name used for one of the punctuation symbols: , The term comma is also used in music theory for various small intervals that arise as differences between approximately equal intervals. ... The term punctuation has two different linguistic meanings: in general, the act and the effect of punctuating, i. ... For the prime symbol (′) used for feet and inches, see Prime (symbol). ... Quotation marks or inverted commas (also called quotes and speech marks) are punctuation marks used in pairs to set off speech, a quotation, a phrase or a word. ... “Font” redirects here. ...


The comma is used in many contexts, principally for separating things. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word comma comes directly from the Greek komma (κόμμα), which means something cut off or a short clause. The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of...

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v  d  e

Punctuation The term punctuation has two different linguistic meanings: in general, the act and the effect of punctuating, i. ...

apostrophe ( ' )
brackets ( ), [ ], { }, < >
colon ( : )
comma ( , )
dashes ( , , , )
ellipsis ( , ... )
exclamation mark ( ! )
full stop/period ( . )
guillemets ( « » )
hyphen ( -, )
question mark ( ? )
quotation marks ( ‘ ’, “ ” )
semicolon ( ; )
slash/stroke ( / )
solidus ( )
For the prime symbol (′) used for feet and inches, see Prime (symbol). ... For technical reasons, :) and some similar combinations starting with : redirect here. ... This article is about colons in punctuation. ... For other uses, see Dash (disambiguation). ... This article is about the punctuation symbol. ... an exclamation mark An exclamation mark, exclamation point or bang, !, is usually used after an interjection or exclamation to indicate strong feeling. ... A full stop or period (sometimes stop, full point or dot), is the punctuation mark commonly placed at the end of several different types of sentences in English and many other languages. ... Guillemets, also called angle quotes, are line segments, pointed as if arrows (« or »), sometimes forming a complementary set of punctuation marks used as a form of quotation mark. ... This article is about the punctuation mark. ... ? redirects here. ... Quotation marks or inverted commas (also called quotes and speech marks) are punctuation marks used in pairs to set off speech, a quotation, a phrase or a word. ... A semicolon (  ;  ) is a punctuation mark. ... Due to technical limitations, /. redirects here. ... A solidus, oblique or slash, /, is a punctuation mark. ...

Interword separation

spaces ( ) ( ) ( )
interpunct ( · )
This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A space is a punctuation convention for providing interword separation in some scripts, including the Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, and Arabic. ... An interpunct · is a small dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin script, being perhaps the first consistent visual representation of word boundaries in written language. ...

General typography

ampersand ( & )
asterisk ( * )
at ( @ )
backslash ( )
bullet ( )
caret ( ^ )
currency ( ¤ ) ¢, $, , £, ¥, ₩,
dagger/obelisk ( ) ( )
degree ( ° )
inverted exclamation point ( ¡ )
inverted question mark ( ¿ )
number sign ( # )
numero sign ( )
percent and related signs
( %, ‰, )
pilcrow ( )
prime ( )
section sign ( § )
tilde/swung dash ( ~ )
umlaut/diaeresis ( ¨ )
underscore/understrike ( _ )
vertical/pipe/broken bar ( |, ¦ )
A specimen of roman typefaces by William Caslon Typography is the art and techniques of type design, modifying type glyphs, and arranging type. ... An ampersand (&), also commonly called an and sign is a logogram representing the conjunction and. ... This article is about the typographical symbol. ... “@” redirects here. ... The backslash ( ) is a typographical mark (glyph) used chiefly in computing. ... In typography, a bullet is a typographical symbol or glyph used to introduce items in a list, like below, also known as the point of a bullet: This is the text of a list item. ... For other uses, see Caret (disambiguation). ... A two cent euro coin A US penny In currency, the cent is a monetary unit that equals th of the basic unit of value. ... $ redirects here. ... The euro (&#8364;; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve of the twenty-five nations that form the European Union (and four outside it, as well as Montenegro and Kosovo), which form the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). ... This article is about the currency symbol. ... ¥ ¥9 Chinese price sticker ¥ is a currency sign used for the following currencies: Chinese yuan (CNY) Japanese yen (JPY) The base unit of the two currencies above share the same Chinese character (圓/元/円), pronounced yuan in Mandarin Chinese and en in Standard Japanese. ... ₩ is a currency sign that is used for the following currencies: North Korean won South Korean won Woolong, a fictional currency in Cowboy Bebop Category: ... ₪ ₪ is a currency sign that is used for the Israeli new sheqel currency which replaced the Israeli sheqel in 1985. ... Everyone please stop nitpicking on the use of daggers in theoldnewthing blog! This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article describes the typographical or mathematical symbol. ... The inverted question mark and exclamation point are used to begin interrogative and exclamatory sentences, respectively, in written Spanish. ... The inverted question mark and exclamation point are used to begin interrogative and exclamatory sentences, respectively, in written Spanish. ... Number sign is one name for the symbol #, and is the preferred Unicode name for the codepoint represented by that glyph. ... The Numero sign (U+2116) or Number sign is used in many languages to indicate ordinal numbering, especially in names and titles, rather than the US-derived number sign, #. For example, instead of Number 4 Privet Drive or #4 Privet Drive, one could write № 4 Privet Drive. The symbol is... The percent sign (%) is the symbol used to indicate a percentage (that the preceding number is divided by one hundred). ... A pilcrow from the font Gentium, designed by J. Victor Gaultney, 2002. ... This article is not about the symbol for the set of prime numbers, ℙ. The prime (′, Unicode U+2032, &prime;) is a symbol with many mathematical uses: A complement in set theory: A′ is the complement of the set A A point related to another (e. ... The section sign (§; Unicode U+00A7, HTML entity &sect;) is a typographical character used mainly to refer to a particular section of a document, such as a legal code. ... For the baseball player known as the Big Tilde, see Magglio Ordóñez. ... The umlaut mark (or simply umlaut) and the trema or diaeresis mark (or simply diaeresis) are two diacritics consisting of a pair of dots placed over a letter. ... The underscore _ is the character with ASCII value 95. ... The symbol (|) has various names that refer to differing, yet sometimes related semantics: One of the more popular names is the Sheffer stroke, though often referred to as a pipe (by the Unix community) and Vertical bar, verti-bar, vertical line or divider line by others. ...

Uncommon typography

asterism ( )
index/fist ( )
therefore sign ( )
lozenge ( )
interrobang ( )
irony mark ( ؟ )
reference mark ( )
sarcasm mark
A specimen of roman typefaces by William Caslon Typography is the art and techniques of type design, modifying type glyphs, and arranging type. ... In typography, an asterism is a rare symbol consisting of three asterisks placed in a triangle, used to call attention to a passage or to separate sub-chapters in a book. ... The symbol ☞ is a rare punctuation mark, called an index or fist. ...   In a mathematical proof, the therefore sign is a symbol that is sometimes placed before a logical consequence, such as the conclusion of a syllogism. ... A lozenge (â—Š) is a form of rhombus. ... For other uses, see Interrobang (disambiguation). ... The irony mark (ØŸ) (French: point d’ironie) is a punctuation mark that purports to indicate that a sentence should be understood at a second level. ... This page lists Japanese typographic symbols which are not included in kana or kanji. ... A sarcasm mark, also called a sarcasm point, helps the reader identify certain messages as being derogatory or ironic. ...

Contents

History

The comma was one of the first punctuation marks. In the 3rd century BCE, Aristophanes of Byzantium invented a system of single dots (distinctiones) that separated verses (colometry) and indicated the amount of breath needed to complete each fragment of text when reading aloud (not to comply with rules of grammar, which were not applied to punctuation marks until thousands of years later). The different lengths were signified by a dot at the bottom, middle, or top of the line. For a short passage (a komma), a media distinctio dot was placed mid-level ( · ). This is the origin of the concept of a comma, though the name came to be used for the mark itself instead of the clause it separated. (4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events The first two Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome over dominance in western Mediterranean Rome conquers Spain Great Wall of China begun Indian traders regularly visited Arabia Scythians occupy... Aristophanes of Byzantium, Gr. ... An interpunct · is a small dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin script, being perhaps the first consistent visual representation of word boundaries in written language. ...


The mark used today is descended from a diagonal slash, or virgula suspensiva/ ), used from the 13th to 17th centuries to represent a pause, notably by Aldus Manutius. In the 16th century, the virgule dropped to the bottom of the line and curved, turning into the shape used today ( , ).[1][2][3][4] Due to technical limitations, /. redirects here. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Aldus Manutius (1449/50 - February 6, 1515), the Latin form of Aldo Manuzio (born Teobaldo Mannucci) was the founder of the Aldine Press. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


Grammar

The comma has several uses in English grammar, all related to marking-off separate elements within a sentence:

  1. Introductory words and phrases: Once upon a time, I didn't know how to use commas.[5]
  2. Parenthetical phrases: The parenthetical phrase has an important, often misunderstood, use. It is often used for thought interruptions. Information that is unnecessary to the meaning of the sentence is commonly set off and enclosed by commas. If the information is necessary, no commas should be used.
    • Restrictive and non-restrictive use: The sentences I cut down all the trees, which were over six feet tall and I cut down all the trees that were over six feet tall look similar but in fact have very different meanings. In the first sentence all the trees were cut down, and a detail (their height) is added. In the second case only some trees were cut down, those over six feet tall. There may have been shorter trees too, but none of them were felled. In the first case, which were over six feet tall is set off by a comma because it is a non-restrictive clause (i.e., its removal does not alter the meaning of the sentence). In the second, that were over six feet tall is a restrictive clause and takes no comma (because if you left it out, the sentence would then say that all the trees were cut down, not just the ones over six feet). Note that in British English, the restrictive clause example can be written as I cut down all the trees which were over six feet tall as the relative pronouns which, who, and whom are interchangeable with that.
    • Parenthetical phrases in sentences may include the following:
      • Address: My father ate the bagel, John.
      • Interjection: My father ate the bagel, gosh darn it!
      • Aside: My father, if you don’t mind my telling you this, ate the bagel.
      • Appositive: My father, a jaded and bitter man, ate the bagel.
      • Absolute phrase: My father, his eyes flashing with rage, ate the bagel.
      • Free modifier: My father ate the bagel, chewing with unbridled fury.
      • Resumptive modifier: My father ate the bagel, a bagel which no man had yet chewed.
      • Summative modifier: My father ate the bagel, a feat which no man had attempted.
      • Any phrase that interrupts the flow of the main clause:
        • My father, chewing with unbridled fury, ate the bagel (free modifier).
        • My father, in a fit of rage, ate the bagel (prepositional phrase).
        • My father, with no regard for his health, ate the bagel (adverbial phrase).
        • My father, despite his lack of teeth, ate the bagel (adverbial phrase).
      • Years following dates (this is American usage - whether this is really parenthetical is moot): My father ate a bagel on December 7, 1941, and never ate one again. (See #10 below.)
      • States following cities: My father ate a bagel in Dallas, Texas, in 1963.
      • In each case, the parenthesised (as if in parentheses) text is both preceded and followed by a comma, unless that would result in doubling a punctuation mark, or if the parenthetical is at the start or end of the sentence.
  3. The comma is often used to separate two independent clauses (a group of words that can function as a sentence) that are joined by a co-ordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so, when they are used to connect; the acronym FANBOYS can be used as a memory aid). Some people feel this is obligatory, while others prefer to use the comma only when not doing so would lead to a different reading.
    • I passed the test, but he failed. (comma) — I passed the test and He failed can function as separate sentences
    • I walked home and left shortly after. (no comma) — Although I walked home is independent, left shortly after is dependent on the first part of the sentence
  4. The comma is often used to separate a dependent clause from the independent clause if the dependent clause comes first.
    • After I brushed the cat, I lint-rollered my clothes. (optional comma)
    • I lint-rollered my clothes after I brushed the cat. (no comma)
  5. The comma is used to separate co-ordinate adjectives; that is, adjectives that directly and equally modify the following noun. Two questions can be asked to identify adjectives as coordinate adjectives:
    1. Would the meaning be the same if their order were reversed?
    2. Would the meaning be the same if and were placed between them?
    • A positive answer to either of these questions is evidence that a comma should be placed between the adjectives:
      • In the dull, incessant droning but not the cute little cottage.
      • The devious lazy red frog suggests there are lazy red frogs (one of which is devious), while the devious, lazy red frog does not carry this connotation.
  6. The comma is used to separate items in lists.
    • However, if any of the individual items in the list is complex and long, or contains a comma itself, it is best to use a semicolon (;) to separate the items, and possibly to introduce the list with a colon (:):
      • We had soup of the day; sole meunière, interestingly prepared with lime juice instead of lemon juice, and an unusual variety of parsley; a fruit salad; and a good port to finish off.
      • There were several tasks facing them: shaping the mast, for which they could use an adze or, with some difficulty, an axe; raising the finished mast; and caulking the timbers with whatever suitable material could be found.
    • A comma before the final and, or, or nor in a list of more than two things is called a serial comma or an Oxford comma:
      • We had milk, biscuits, and cream.
      • It is called the Oxford comma because the style guide of the Oxford University Press is one of its prominent advocates.
      • Although the Oxford comma is not always used, it should be applied to avoid ambiguity. Omitting the Oxford comma changes the meaning of a sentence, and unless the author is aware of the possible meaning the comma should be included rather than omitted.
        • I spoke to the boys, Sam and Tom.The boys refers to Sam and Tom.
        • I spoke to the boys, Sam, and Tom.The boys, Sam, and Tom are separate units; thus, four or more people were spoken to in all.
        • I spoke to x, y and z. This sentence is stating that y and z are what comprise x.
        • I spoke to x, y, and z. This sentence is stating that x, y, and z were all spoken to and that they are different entities.
  7. A comma is used to set off quoted material that is the grammatical object of an active verb of speaking or writing.
    • Mr. Kershner says, You should know how to use a comma.
      • Quotations that follow and support an assertion should be set off by a colon rather than a comma:
        • Wordsworth recalls his childhood existence as precious but as now outside his grasp: Where is it now, the glory and the dream?
      • Quotations that are incorporated in ways other than as the object of active verbs of speaking or writing should be punctuated the same as if there were no quotation marks: Mr. Kershner told me that I should know how to use a comma.
  8. In representing large numbers, English texts use commas separating each group of three digits. This is almost always done for numbers of six or more digits, and optionally for five (or even four) digits. Note, however, that in other-language texts the numerical use of commas and periods may be reversed (periods to group zeros, comma as decimal point). The International System of Units (SI) now recommends using spaces to separate sets of three digits in numbers more than four digits long (and the comma or period is then used only for the decimal place).
    • 6,345,990.01 (or 6 345 990.01 according to the SI)
    • 4123 (not 4,123 nor 4 123)
  9. Commas are used when writing names that are presented last name first.
    • Smith, John
  10. Two commas used when writing the date in the following forms:
    • American English: September 11, 2001, was a momentous day.
    • British English: Tuesday, 11 September 2001, was a momentous day.
  11. A comma is written in an address between the city and the state and again following the state):
    • My dog's masseuse lives in New York, NY, most of the year.
      • The following comma is commonly omitted by news agencies, but is a grammatical requirement per two rules: one, while considered necessary, the state functions parenthetically (New York city [in NY]) in that a preceding comma mandates a following comma; two, its omission serves incorrectly to separate the sentence (My dog's masseuse lives in New York and NY most of the year).
      • The USPS encourages no use of punctuations in address labels and everything to be in all caps. Thus, the address 1212 El Camino Real, San Bruno, California in postal form would be:
        1212 EL CAMINO REAL
        SAN BRUNO CA 94066
  12. Fowler's Modern English Usage demonstrates an optional use of commas with two sentences differing only by a comma:
    • The teacher beat the scholar with a whip. A simple description.
    • The teacher beat the scholar, with a whip. Expression of outrage.
      • An alternative interpretation is that the second example represents a comma used to remove an ambiguity - to clarify that it was the teacher, not the scholar, who had the whip.
  13. The comma is used to indicate that a word has been omitted (only if the reader will understand what the comma has replaced):
    • The cat was white; the dog, brown. (The comma clearly replaces "was".)

The comma is easy to misuse in multiple ways; see comma splice. In rhetoric, a parenthesis (plural: parentheses; from the Greek word παρενθεσις, which comes in turn from words meaning alongside of and to place) is An explanatory or qualifying word, clause, or sentence inserted into a passage with which it has not necessarily any grammatical connexion, and from which it is usually... In syntax, the concept of restrictiveness applies to a variety of syntactical constructions. ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... In grammar, an independent clause (or main clause) is a clause that can stand by itself as a grammatically viable simple sentence. ... Fanboy is a derogatory term used to describe someone who is utterly devoted to a hobby or a subject, to the point where it becomes an obsession. ... A dependent clause (or subordinate clause) cannot stand alone as a sentence. ... In grammar, an independent clause (or main clause) is a clause that can stand by itself as a grammatically viable simple sentence. ... An adjective is a part of speech which modifies a noun, usually making its meaning more specific. ... A semicolon (  ;  ) is a punctuation mark. ... This article is about colons in punctuation. ... The serial comma (also known as the Oxford comma or Harvard comma) is the comma used immediately before a grammatical conjunction (nearly always and or or; sometimes nor) that precedes the last item in a list of three or more items. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, often referred to simply as Fowlers Modern English Usage, or Fowler, is a style guide to British English usage, authored by Henry W. Fowler. ... A comma splice occurs when two independent clauses are joined by a comma with no conjunction. ...


Differences between American and British usage

The comma and the quotation mark pairing can be used in several ways. In American English, the comma is to be included inside a quotation, no matter what the circumstances.[6] For example: Image File history File links Comma. ... Quotation marks or inverted commas (also called quotes and speech marks) are punctuation marks used in pairs to set off speech, a quotation, a phrase or a word. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ...

  • My mother gave me the nickname "Johnny Boy," which really made me angry.

However, in British English, punctuation is only placed within quotation marks if it is part of what is being quoted or referred to. Thus: British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ...

  • My mother gave me the nickname "Johnny Boy", which really made me angry.

Barbara Child claims that in American English there is a trend toward a decreased use of the comma (Child, 1992, p. 398). This is reinforced by an article, by Robert J. Samuelson, in Newsweek.[7] Lynne Truss says that this is equally true in the UK and has been a slow, steady trend for at least a century: Robert J. Samuelson is a contributing editor of Newsweek and Washington Post where he has written columns since 1977. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... Lynne Truss is a British writer and journalist. ...

Nowadays… A passage peppered with commas — which in the past would have indicated painstaking and authoritative editorial attention — smacks simply of no backbone. People who put in all the commas betray themselves as moral weaklings with empty lives and out-of-date reference books. (Truss, 2004, p. 97–98)

In his 1963 book, Stanley P. Lovell recalls that, during the Second World War, the British carried the comma over into abbreviations. Specifically, Special Operations, Executive was written S.O.,E. Nowadays, even the full stops are usually discarded.


Diacritical usage

Main articles: S-comma and T-comma

The comma is used as a diacritic mark in Romanian under the s (Ș, ș), and under the t (Ț, ț). A cedilla is occasionally used instead of it (notably in the Unicode glyph names), but this is technically incorrect. A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... Èš È› (T-comma) is a letter which is part of the Romanian alphabet. ... Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritic or diacritical mark, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ...


Comparatively, some consider the diacritics on the Latvian consonants ģ, ķ, ļ, ņ, and formerly ŗ to be cedillas. However, from the typographical point of view, they are commas. Although their Adobe glyph names are commas, their names in the Unicode Standard are g, k, l, n, and r with cedilla. They were introduced to the Unicode standard before 1992, and their name cannot be altered. Adobe Systems (pronounced a-DOE-bee IPA: ) (NASDAQ: ADBE) (LSE: ABS) is an American computer software company headquartered in San Jose, California, USA. Adobe was founded in December 1982[1] by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who established the company after leaving Xerox PARC in order to develop and sell... variant glyphs representing the character a (allographs of a) in the Zapfino typeface. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ...


In the Czech and Slovak languages, the diacritics in the characters ď, ť, and ľ resemble superscript commas, but they are modified carons. For other uses, see Caron (disambiguation). ...


In numerals

Main article: Decimal separator

In many European languages, commas are used as decimal separators. The only English-speaking country which uses this convention is South Africa. Thus, 1,5 V means one and one-half volts. The decimal separator is a symbol used to mark the boundary between the integral and the fractional parts of a decimal numeral. ...


Another method of writing numbers is the international system writing style.[8] They write the number fifteen million as 15 000 000. The only punctuation mark is the decimal mark; a period in English text, a comma in all other languages (however ISO standards recommends the use of comma instead of points also in English speaking countries). Using this convention, twelve thousand fifty-one dollars, seven cents, and 5 mills, would be written in symbols as $12 051.075 in English text, but $12 051,075 in text of any other language. Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the type of currency. ... ¢ c A United States cent, or 1¢ or a penny In currency, the cent is a monetary unit that equals 1/100 of various countries basic monetary units. ... The mill or mille(â‚¥) (sometimes mil in the UK) is an abstract unit of currency. ...


In many places, English writers often put commas between each group of three digits. They would write the number fifteen million as 15,000,000. A number with a decimal does not use commas in the fractional portion. Thus, twelve thousand fifty-one dollars, seven cents, 5 mills is written in symbols as $12,051.075. This article is about the type of currency. ... ¢ c A United States cent, or 1¢ or a penny In currency, the cent is a monetary unit that equals 1/100 of various countries basic monetary units. ... The mill or mille(₥) (sometimes mil in the UK) is an abstract unit of currency. ...


Historically, writers in many European languages have used the exact opposite convention, writing the above quantities as 15.000.000 and $12.051,075.[9]


Computing

In the common character encoding systems Unicode and ASCII, character 44 (0x002C) corresponds to the comma symbol. The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal, base-16, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16, usually written using the symbols 0–9 and A–F, or a–f. ...


In many computer languages commas are used to separate arguments to a function and to separate elements of a list. In computer science, a subroutine (function, method, procedure, or subprogram) is a portion of code within a larger program, which performs a specific task and can be relatively independent of the remaining code. ... For the microarray in genetics, see SNP array. ...


In the C programming language, the comma symbol is an operator which evaluates its first argument (which may have side-effects) and then returns the value of its evaluated second argument. This is useful in for statements and macros. C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... In the C programming language (and many other C related programming languages, including C++), the comma operator (represented by the token ,) is a binary operator that evaluates its first operand and discards the result, it then evaluates the second operand and returns this value (and type). ... In computer programming, a parameter is a variable which takes on the meaning of a corresponding argument passed in a call to a subroutine. ... A statement is the minimal unit of structuring in imperative programming languages. ... For other uses, see Macro (disambiguation) A macro in computer science is a rule or pattern that specifies how a certain input sequence (often a sequence of characters) should be mapped to an output sequence (also often a sequence of characters) according to a defined procedure. ...


See also

A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation. ... It has been suggested that Ę be merged into this article or section. ... A semicolon (  ;  ) is a punctuation mark. ...

References

  1. ^ Reading Before PunctuationIntroduction to Latin Literature handout, Haverford College
  2. ^ A History Of Punctuation
  3. ^ Points to Ponder — STSC Crosstalk
  4. ^ Manuscript Studies, Medieval and Early ModernPaleography: Punctuation glossary
  5. ^ Garner's Modern American Usage, (Oxford: 2003, p. 655)
  6. ^ See, for example, the Chicago Manual of Style
  7. ^ Robert J. Samuelson. "The Sad Fate of the Comma", Newsweek, 2007-23-2007, p. 41. Retrieved on 2007-07-18. 
  8. ^ Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
  9. ^ The Math Forum

Haverford College is a private, coeducational liberal arts college located in Haverford, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Philadelphia. ... Palaeography, literally old writing, (from the Greek words paleos = old and grapho = write) is the study of script. ... The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) is a highly regarded style guide for American English, dealing with questions of style, manuscript preparation, and, to a lesser degree, usage. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Barbara Child, Drafting Legal Documents, 2nd Edition, 1992.
  • Lynne Truss, Eats, Shoots and Leaves, Gotham Books (2004), ISBN 1-59240-087-6.

This article was originally based on material from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, which is licensed under the GFDL. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “GFDL” redirects here. ...


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punctuation: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (2510 words)
Punctuation is the act and the effect of punctuating, i.e., using punctuation marks.
Punctuation marks are symbols that correspond to neither phonemes (sounds) of a language nor to lexemes (words and phrases), but which serve to indicate the structure and organization of writing, as well as intonation and pauses to be observed when reading it aloud.
The three underline-like punctuation marks in Chinese (proper noun mark, wavy book title mark, and emphasis mark) rotate and shift to the left side of the text in vertical script (shifting to the right side of the text is also possible, but this is outmoded and can clash with the placement of other punctuation marks).
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