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Encyclopedia > Comintern
Part of the Politics series on
Communism

History of communism
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Marxism is the philosophy, social theory and political practice based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century German socialist philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is therefore a branch of Marxism. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛泽东思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), is a variant of Marxism-Leninism derived from the teachings of the Chinese communist Mao Zedong. ... Left Communism is a term describing a whole range of communist viewpoints which oppose the political ideas of the Bolsheviks from a position which is asserted to be more authentically Marxist and proletarian than the views held by the Communist International after its first two Congresses. ... Council communism is a Radical Left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s. ... Anarchist communism is a form of anarchism that advocates the abolition of the State and capitalism in favor of a horizontal network of voluntary associations through which everyone will be free to satisfy his or her needs. ... Luxemburgism (also written Luxembourgism) is a specific revolutionary theory within communism, based on the writings of Rosa Luxemburg. ... Christian communism is a form of religious communism centered around Christianity. ...


Communist parties
Communist International
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Fourth International In modern usage, a communist party is a political party which promotes communism, the sociopolitical philosophy based on Marxism. ... The first edition of Communist International, journal of the Comintern published in Moscow and Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg) in May 1919. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The International Communist Current is a centralised international left communist organisation with sections throughout the world. ... The Communist Workers International (German: Kommunistische Arbeiter-Internationale, KAI), also known as the Fourth International (though another group is better known by this name), was a council communist international. ... The Fourth International has been the Trotskyist movements most important international organisation. ...


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Related subjects
Socialism
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Religious communism
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Historical materialism
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Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... Titoism is a term describing political ideology named after Yugoslav leader, Josip Broz Tito, primarily used to describe the schism between the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia after the Second World War (see Cominform) when the Communist Party of Yugoslavia refused to take further dictates from Moscow. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... Eurocommunism was an attempt in the 1970s by various European communist parties to widen their appeal by embracing public sector middle-class workers, new social movements such as feminism and gay liberation, rejecting support of the Soviet Union, and expressing more clearly their fidelity to democratic institutions. ... Religious communism is a term used by some Communists that claim that before communism became associated with atheism, the word communism was mainly used by religious groups. ... The New Left is a term used in political discourse to refer to radical left-wing movements from the 1960s onwards. ... A planned economy is an economic system in which decisions about the production, allocation and consumption of goods and services are planned ahead of time, usually in a centralized fashion, though some proposed systems favour decentralized planning. ... Historical materialism is the methodological approach to the study of society, economics and history which was first articulated by Karl Marx (1818-1883), although Marx himself never used the term. ... Work in philosophy which is strongly influenced by Marxist theory, or which is written by Marxists, can be called Marxist philosophy. ... Anti-communism is an ideology of opposition to communist organization, government and ideology. ...

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The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy InternatsionalCommunist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the "war communism" period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight "by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie and for the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the State." The Comintern was founded after the dissolving of the Second International in 1916, following the 1915 Zimmerwald Conference in which Lenin lead the "Zimmerwald Left" against those whom supported the "national union" governments in war with each others. The new International thus represented a response to the latter's failure to form a unified coalition against the First World War, which the founders of the Third Internationalists regarded as a bourgeois imperialist war and which the whole of the anti-militarist socialist movement had been completely opposed to until the beginning of the war itself. This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... War communism or wartime communism (1917-1921) was the harsh economic policy adopted by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War with an aim to keep towns and the Red Army supplied with weapons and food in the conditions when all normal economical mechanisms and relations were being destroyed by... (Russian: Влади́мир И́льич Ле́нин, Vladimir Ilič Lenin; IPA:; born Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov; April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Communist revolutionary of Russia, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the main theorist of what has come to be called... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the All... The phrase Second International has two meanings: For the international association of socialist parties of the late 19th century, see Second International (politics) and a successor organization, the Socialist International For one of the Merriam-Webster dictionaries of American English, see Websters New International Dictionary, Second Edition This is... The Zimmerwald Conference was held in Zimmerwald, Switzerland, from September 5 through September 8, 1915. ... National governments or national unity governments are broad coalition governments consisting of all parties (or all major parties) in the legislature and are often formed during times of war or national emergency. ... Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total of dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... Imperialism is the policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics and/or economy of other countries. ... Pacifism is opposition to the practice of war. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ...


The Comintern held seven World Congresses, the first in March 1919 and the last in 1935, until it was officially dissolved in May 1943. In 1938 the Trotskyists, opposed to the Soviet Union which they qualified as a "degenerated workers' state", created the Fourth International. Groups coming from the tradition of Left Communism today recognize only the first two congresses, and groups coming out of the Trtoskyist movement recognize the decisions of the first four only. Communist parties of the Stalinist or Maoist persuasion recognize all seven congresses. At the start of World War II, the Comintern supported a policy of pacifism and non-intervention, arguing that this was an imperialist war between various national ruling classes, much like World War I had been. In fact, Stalin was instrumentalizing it, in accordance with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact signed with Germany in August 1939, a year after the Munich Agreement in which the Soviet Union hadn't been invited and during which Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland had been delived to Hitler by the French and British democratic regimes in a measure of "appeasement". However, when the Soviet Union itself was invaded on June 22, 1941, during Operation Barbarossa, the Comintern switched its position to one of active support for the Allies. The Comintern was subsequently officially dissolved on May 15, 1943. Its successor, the Cominform, was created in September 1947, following the Paris Conference on Marshall Aid in July 1947. The Cold War had officially began. 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... In Trotskyist political theory the term degenerated workers state has been used since the 1930s to describe the state of the Soviet Union after Stalins consolidation of power in or about 1924. ... The Fourth International has been the Trotskyist movements most important international organisation. ... Left Communism is a term describing a whole range of communist viewpoints which oppose the political ideas of the Bolsheviks from a position which is asserted to be more authentically Marxist and proletarian than the views held by the Communist International after its first two Congresses. ... A Communist party is a party which promotes Communism. ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system named after Josef Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛泽东思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng SÄ«xiÇŽng), is a variant of Marxism-Leninism derived from the teachings of the Chinese communist Mao Zedong. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ... The term ruling class refers to the ruling elite of a given society, even in democracies. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ... Parts of Czech lands with significant German speaking population (first half of 20th century) Sudetenland (German: Sudetenland; Czech: Sudety) was the name used from 1938–45 for the region inhabited mostly by Sudeten Germans (German: Sudetendeutsche, Czech: SudetÅ¡tí NÄ›mci) in the various places of Bohemia, Moravia, and parts... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Appeasement is a strategic maneuver, based on either pragmatism, fear of war, or moral conviction, that leads to the known acceptance of imposed conditions in lieu of armed resistance. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Supreme commander: Adolf Hitler Supreme commander: Josef Stalin Strength ~ 3. ... When spelt with a capital A, Allies usually denotes the countries supporting the Triple Entente who fought together against the Central Powers in World War I and against the Axis Powers in World War II. For more information, see the related articles: Allies of World War I and Allies of... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... The Cominform (from Communist Information Bureau) is the common name for what was officially referred to as the Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers Parties. It was the first official forum of the international communist movement since the dissolution of the Comintern, and confirmed the new realities after World... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... The Eiffel Tower, the international symbol of the city For other uses, see Paris (disambiguation). ... U.S. postage stamp issued 1997 honoring the 50th anniversary of the Marshall Plan. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... The Cold War was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between the global superpowers of the Soviet Union and the United States, supported by their military alliance partners. ...

Contents


Origins of the Communist International

From the First to the Second International

Further information: First Internationaland Second International

The origins of the Communist International are to be found in the split in the workers' movement that surfaced in 1914 with the beginning of the First World War, although divisions between revolutionary and reformist minded elements had been developing for some considerable time. The First International, founded in 1864, had split between the socialists and the anarchists whom preferred not to enter the political arena, in order to create a strong anarcho-syndicalist movement. Aka the "International Workingmen's Association", it thus let way to the Second International, founded in 1889. But tensions surfaced again in the new International. The International Workingmens Association, sometimes called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations which were based on the working class. ... The phrase Second International has two meanings: For the international association of socialist parties of the late 19th century, see Second International (politics) and a successor organization, the Socialist International For one of the Merriam-Webster dictionaries of American English, see Websters New International Dictionary, Second Edition This is... The labour movement (or labor movement) is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... The International Workingmens Association, sometimes called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations which were based on the working class. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Anarcho-syndicalist flag. ...


The question of the "socialist participation in a bourgeois government"

Further information: Section française de l'Internationale ouvrière

For example, as far back as 1899, reformist or right wing elements in the socialist movement had supported the entry of French independent socialist Millerand into Waldeck-Rousseau's republican cabinet (1899-1902), which included as Minister of War none other than the marquis de Galliffet, best known for his role during the repression of the 1871 Paris Commune. On the other hand, revolutionary or left wing elements were fiercely opposed to this development. In France, this was represented by the debate between Jules Guesde, whom opposed himself to socialist participation in a "bourgeois government", and Jean Jaurès, considered as one of the founder of social-democracy. Thus, Jules Guesde declared in 1899: The Section Française de lInternationale Ouvrière (SFIO), founded in 1905, was the French section of the Second International. ... Sfio, or Safe/Fast I/O, is an I/O library developed by AT&T Research, with several improvements over the ANSI C stdio library. ... Alexandre Millerand, French statesman Alexandre Millerand (February 10, 1859 - April 7, 1943 at Versailles, France) was a French socialist and politician. ... Pierre Marie René Ernest Waldeck-Rousseau (December 2, 1846 - August 20, 1904) was a French statesman. ... Republicanism is the idea of a nation being governed as a republic. ... Categories: French government | Stub ... Photo of the marquis de Galliffet by Nadar. ... Le Père Duchesne face to the statue of Napoleon I on top of the Vendome column: Eh ben ! bougre de canaille, on va donc te foutre en bas comme ta crapule de neveu !… (Here! savage rascal, we will put you down just as your crook of a nephew!… The... Jules Basile Guesde (November 11, 1845 - July 28, 1922) was a French socialist politician. ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... Jean Jaurès Jean Léon Jaurès—full name Auguste-Marie-Joseph-Jean-Léon Jaurès—(September 3, 1859 – July 31, 1914) was a French Socialist leader. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...

"Wherever the proletariat, organized in a class party- which is to say a party of revolution — can penetrate an elective assembly; wherever it can penetrate an enemy citadel, it has not only the right, but the obligation to make a breach and set up a socialist garrison in the capitalist fortress! But in those places where it penetrates not by the will of the workers, not by socialist force; there where it penetrates only with the consent, on the invitation, and consequently in the interests of the capitalist class, socialism should not enter." Jules Guesde's speech to the 1899 General Congress of French socialist organizations The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ...

Criticizing the belief "that by a portfolio granted to one of his own socialism has truly conquered power — when it’s really power that conquered him", Jules Guesde thought that "such a state of affairs, if we don’t quickly put an end to it, would bring on the irremediable bankruptcy of socialism. The organized workers considering themselves duped, some will lend an ear to propaganda by the deed.", thus fostering "anarchy". The same controversy arose the next year, when Guesde opposed himself to Jean Jaurès who advocated socialist participation to the bourgeois government, during a famous November 29, 1900 speech in Lille on the "Two Methods", held during several hours before 8,000 persons. Propaganda of the Deed or Propaganda by Deed was an anarchist doctrine that promoted the decisive action of individuals to inspire further action by others. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Jean Jaurès Jean Léon Jaurès—full name Auguste-Marie-Joseph-Jean-Léon Jaurès—(September 3, 1859 – July 31, 1914) was a French Socialist leader. ... New city flag Traditional coat of arms Motto: – Coordinates : , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Département Nord (59) Région Nord-Pas de Calais Mayor Martine Aubry (PS) (since 2001) Intercommunality Urban Community of Lille Métropole City (commune) Characteristics Land Area 39. ...


The revisionists

Also of importance was the literary controversy over the publication of Eduard Bernstein's Evolutionary Socialism, which espoused a reformist path to socialism and received powerful criticism from, among others, Karl Kautsky and the young Rosa Luxemburg, who criticized him as a revisionist. Eduard Bernstein Eduard Bernstein (January 6, 1850 - December 18, 1932) was a German social democratic theoretician and politician, member of the SPD, and founder of evolutionary socialism or reformism. ... Evolutionary socialism is a form of socialist theory which was originally developed by Eduard Bernstein. ... Reformism (also called revisionism or revisionist theory) is the belief that gradual changes in a society can ultimately change its fundamental structures. ... Karl Kautsky Karl Kautsky (October 18, 1854 - October 17, 1938) was a leading theoretician of social democracy. ... Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 – January 15, 1919, in Polish Róża Luksemburg) was a Polish-born German Marxist political theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. ... Revisionism is a word which has several meanings. ...


The aftermaths of the 1905 Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution of 1905 had the effect of radicalizing many socialist parties, as did a number of general strikes in pursuit of universal suffrage in Western European countries. At this point the Second or Socialist International appeared to be a united body that was growing at every election and in every advanced country. Karl Kautsky, aptly dubbed the Pope of Marxism, was at his most radical as the editor of the highly influential Die Neue Zeit (New Times), the theoretical journal of the massive Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) which was the flagship of the International. The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an empire-wide spasm of both anti-government and undirected violence. ... A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ... Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of suffrage to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, or social status. ... SPD redirects here. ...


However, by 1910, divisions were appearing in the left of Social Democracy (as the Marxists who dominated the International described themselves), and left-wing thinkers such as Rosa Luxemburg and the Dutch theoretician Anton Pannekoek were becoming ever more critical of Kautsky. From this point onwards then it is possible to speak of there being a reformist right, a centre and a revolutionary left within the International. Interestingly, from the point of view of later events, both the Menshevik and Bolshevik wings of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party were counted amongst the revolutionary left wing. The quarreling groups of Russian emigres were not held in high regard by the leaders of the International and were unknown to the general public. 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Anton Pannekoek Anton Pannekoek (January 2, 1873 – April 28, 1960) was a Dutch astronomer and Marxist theorist. ... Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ... Social Pyramid. Reads top to bottom - We rule you; We fool you; We shoot you; We eat for you; and finally; We work for all - We feed all The Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party, or RSDLP (Росси́йская Социа́л-Демократи́ческая Рабо́чая Па́ртия = РСДРП), also known as the Russian Social-Democratic Workers Party and the Russian Social-Democratic... Émigré is a French term that literally refers to a person who has migrated out, but often carries a connotation of politico-social self-exile. ...


The failure of the Second International confronted to World War I

World War I was to prove the issue which finally and irrevocably separated the revolutionary and reformist wings of the workers movement. The socialist movement had been historically antimilitarist and internationalist, and was therefore opposed to being used as "cannon fodder" for the "bourgeois" governments at war (in particular when the Triple Alliance gathered two empires, while the Triple Entente itself gathered the French Third Republic and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland with the Czar's Russia). Didn't The Communist Manifesto already state that "workers' do not have any fatherland", and exclaimed "Proletarians of all countries, unite!? Antimilitarism is a doctrine commonly found in the anarchist and socialist movement, which may be both characterized as internationalist movements. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Triple Alliance (Dreibund) was the treaty by which Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy pledged (May 20, 1882) to support each other militarily in the event of an attack against any of them by two or more great powers. ... European military alliances in 1915. ... A map of France under the Third Republic, featuring colonies. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right)1 Capital London Head of State King or Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Head of Government Prime Minister Parliament House of Commons, House of Lords This article is about the historical state called the... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... The Communist Manifesto (German: ) was first published on February 21, 1848, and is one of the worlds most influential political tracts. ... Defense of the homeland is a commonplace of military patriotism: The statue in the École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... The political slogan Workers of the world, unite!, one of the most famous rallying cries of socialism, comes from Karl Marx and Friedrich Engelss Communist Manifesto. ...


However, despite massive majorities voting in favor of resolutions that stated the Socialist International would call upon the international working class to resist war should it be declared, within hours of the declaration of war almost all the socialist parties of the combatant states had announced their support for their own countries - the only exceptions being the socialist parties of the Balkans, Russia and tiny minorities in other countries. To Lenin's surprise, even the German SPD voted the war credits. Finally, the assassination of French socialist Jean Jaurès on July 31, 1914, killed the last hope of peace, by taking out one of the only leader who possessed enough influence on the international socialist movement to block it from aligning itself on national policies and supporting National Union governments. The socialist parties of the neutral countries for the most part continued to argue for neutrality and against total opposition to the war. Lenin, on the other hand, organized the "Zimmerwald Left" opposed to the "imperialist war" during the 1915 Zimmerwald Conference, and published the pamphlet Socialism and War, in which he called all socialists who collaborated with their national governments "Social-Chauvinists" (socialist in their words but chauvinist in their deeds). The International was being divided between a revolutionary left, a reformist right and a centre wavering between each pole. Lenin also condemned much of the centre, which often opposed the war but refused to break party discipline and therefore voted war credits, as social-pacifists. This latter term was aimed in particular at Ramsay MacDonald (leader of the Independent Labour Party in Britain) who did in fact oppose the war on grounds of pacifism but did nothing to resist it. Discredited by its passivity towards world events, the Second International was henceforth dissolved in the middle of the war, in 1916, its internationalist ideals having obviously been defeated by the nationalist ideology in force in each country. In 1917, Lenin published the April Theses, which openly supported a "revolutionary defeatism": the Bolsheviks pronounced themselves in favour of the defeat of Imperial Russia in the war which would permit them to pass to the stage of a revolutionnary insurrection. SPD redirects here. ... Sfio, or Safe/Fast I/O, is an I/O library developed by AT&T Research, with several improvements over the ANSI C stdio library. ... Jean Jaurès Jean Léon Jaurès—full name Auguste-Marie-Joseph-Jean-Léon Jaurès—(September 3, 1859 – July 31, 1914) was a French Socialist leader. ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... National governments or national unity governments are broad coalition governments consisting of all parties (or all major parties) in the legislature and are often formed during times of war or national emergency. ... Neutral means balanced between two or more opposites. ... Imperialism is a policy of extending control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires. ... The Zimmerwald Conference was held in Zimmerwald, Switzerland, from September 5 through September 8, 1915. ... A pamphlet is an unbound booklet (that is, without a hard cover or binding). ... Aggressive or fanatical patriotism, particularly during time of war, in support of ones own nation (eg. ... Party discipline is the ability of a political party to get its members to support the policies of the party leadership. ... James Ramsay MacDonald (12 October 1866–9 November 1937) was a British politician and twice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The Independent Labour Party (ILP) was a former political party in the United Kingdom. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is an ideology that holds that (ethnically or culturally defined) nations are the fundamental units for human social life, and makes certain cultural and political claims based upon that belief; in particular, the claim that the nation is the only legitimate... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... The Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin returned to the capital of Russia, Petrograd, on April 3, 1917, just over a month following the February Revolution which had brought about the establishment of the liberal Provisional Government. ... Insurrection could refer to: * in a general sense, it means Rebellion * it is also a title of a Star Trek film, see Star Trek: Insurrection ...


The foundation of the Comintern

The Comintern was thus founded in these conditions in March 1919 by the Russian Bolsheviks, whom adopted the name "Communists". Lenin then sent his Twenty-one Conditions (which included democratic centralism) to all socialist parties, which splitted on the basis of the adhesion or not to the new International. The French SFIO ("French Section of the Second International") thus splitted in the 1920 Tours Congress, leading to the creation of the new French Communist Party (called "French Section of the Communist International" - SFIC); the Communist Party of Spain was created in 1920, the Italian Communist Party was created in 1921, the Belgian Communist Party in September 1921, etc; For a party to join the Comintern, it had to accept 21 conditions. ... Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties, and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist policy inside a political party. ... Sfio, or Safe/Fast I/O, is an I/O library developed by AT&T Research, with several improvements over the ANSI C stdio library. ... The French Communist Party (French: Parti communiste français or PCF) is a political party in France which advocates the principles of communism. ... PCE symbol The Communist Party of Spain (Partido Comunista de España or PCE) is the third largest political party of Spain. ... The Partito Comunista Italiano (PCI) or Italian Communist Party emerged as Partito Comunista dItalia or Communist Party of Italy from a secession by the Leninist comunisti puri tendency from the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) during that bodys congress on 21 January 1921 at Livorno. ... Communist Party of Belgium (in Flemish: Kommunistische Partij van België, in French: Parti Communiste de Belgique) was a political party in Belgium. ...


A central policy of the Comintern was that Communist parties should be established across the world to aid the international proletarian revolution. They also shared the idea of democratic centralism, which essentially boils down to the principle that all revolutions must be based on "grass roots" efforts, but the Comintern could intervene as necessary. It was organized by Lenin, whom had already displayed his strategic aims in What Is to Be Done? (1902), in an attempt to make of the new International the "General Staff of the World Revolution" (in the Comintern Electronic Archives' words [1]). World revolution is a Marxist concept of a violent overthrow of capitalism that would take place in all countries, although not necessarily simultaneously. ... Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties, and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist policy inside a political party. ... A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, as differentiated from tactics or immediate actions with resources at hand. ... What Is to Be Done? (Russian: ) was a political pamphlet, written by Vladimir Lenin at the end of 1901 and early 1902. ... A General Staff is a group of professional military officers who act in a staff or administrative role under the command of a general officer. ... World revolution is a Marxist concept of a violent overthrow of capitalism that would take place in all countries, although not necessarily simultaneously. ...


The following parties and movements were invited to the First Congress of the Communist International in March 1919 :

Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York. Tatlin's Tower can be seen in the back.
Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York. Tatlin's Tower can be seen in the back.
The Comintern membership card of Karl Kilbom
The Comintern membership card of Karl Kilbom

Image File history File links Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City. ... Image File history File links Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Big Apple, The Capital of the World[1], Gotham Location Location in the state of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area    - City 1,214. ... Model of the Monument to the Third International Tatlin’s Tower, or the Monument to the Third International, was a grand monumental building envisioned and blueprinted by the Russian artist and architect Vladimir Tatlin, but never built. ... Image File history File linksMetadata KilbomKominternKard. ... Image File history File linksMetadata KilbomKominternKard. ... Karl Kilbom (1885 – 1961) was a Swedish Communist politician. ... This article is about the Spartacist League which existed in post-First World War Germany. ... The Communist Party of Austria (de: Kommunistische Partei Österreichs, or KPÖ) is a communist party from Austria. ... The Hungarian Communist Party (in Hungarian: Magyar Kommunista Párt or Kommunisták Magyarországi Pártja) was founded on November 24, 1918, and was in power in Hungary briefly from 1918 to 1919 under Bela Kun and the Hungarian Soviet Republic. ... la Kun B la Kun (February 20, 1886 - 1939?) was a Hungarian Communist who ruled Hungary for a brief time in 1919. ... The Hungarian Soviet Republic was the political regime in Hungary from March 21, 1919 until the beginning of August of the same year, and it is the second Communist (or soviet) government in world history, after the one in Russia (1917). ... The Communist Party of Finland (Finnish: Suomen kommunistinen puolue, Swedish: Finlands kommunistiska parti, abbreviated SKP) is a former political party endorsing communism in Finland. ... This article is about the 1918-1938 Communist Party of Poland. ... Communist Party of Estonia (in Estonian: Eestimaa Kommunistlik Partei, in Russian: Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Estonii; EKP) was a political party in Estonia. ... Communist Party of Lithuania (Lithuanian: ) - communist party in Lithuania, established in early October 1918. ... The Communist Party of Belarus (Belarusian: Камуністы́чная па́ртыя Белару́сі) is a political party in Belarus. ... Categories: Politics stubs | Communist parties | Ukrainian politics | Ukrainian political parties ... The Left Party (Vänsterpartiet) is a political party in Sweden. ... The Norwegian Labour Party (Det norske Arbeiderparti, Arbeiderpartiet or DNA) is a left-wing political party in Norway. ... The Communist party of the Netherlands (CPN, in Dutch Communistische Partij Nederland) was a communist party of the Netherlands. ... The Workers Party of Belgium (WPB), Partij van de Arbeid van België (PVDA) (in Dutch) or Parti du Travail de Belgique (PTB) (in French) is a Belgian communist party. ... Communist Party of Belgium (in Flemish: Kommunistische Partij van België, in French: Parti Communiste de Belgique) was a political party in Belgium. ... Sfio, or Safe/Fast I/O, is an I/O library developed by AT&T Research, with several improvements over the ANSI C stdio library. ... The Social Democratic Party of Switzerland (also rendered as Socialist Party of Switzerland, in German: Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz (SPS), French Parti socialiste suisse (PSS), Italian Partito Socialista Svizzero, Romansh Partida Socialdemocrata de la Svizra. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero in a meeting in San Sebastián The Spanish Socialist Workers Party, commonly abbreviated by its Spanish initials, PSOE (Partido Socialista Obrero Español), is a major party in Spain and the second oldest, exceeded only by the Partido Carlista, founded in 1833. ... The Socialist Party (Portuguese: Partido Socialista, pron. ... The British Socialist Party was a socialist party founded in Britain in 1911. ... The Socialist Labour Party was a socialist political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. At its peak in 1923 the organization claimed some 100,000 members in good standing, and could marshal the support of perhaps 300,000 workers. ... The Socialist Labor Party of America (SLP) is the oldest socialist political party in the United States and the second oldest socialist party in the world. ... Election poster for Eugene V. Debs, Socialist Party of America candidate for President, 1904 The Socialist Party of America was a socialist political party in the United States, the historic American member party of the Socialist International. ... The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. At its peak in 1923 the organization claimed some 100,000 members in good standing, and could marshal the support of perhaps 300,000 workers. ... The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. At its peak in 1923 the organization claimed some 100,000 members in good standing, and could marshal the support of perhaps 300,000 workers. ... Tokyo ) , literally eastern capital, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and includes the highly urbanized central area formerly known as the city of Tokyo which is the heart of the Greater Tokyo Area. ... Yokohama City Hall Mayor Hiroshi Nakada Address 〒231-0017 Yokohama-shi, Naka-ku, Minato-cho 1-1 Phone number 045-671-2121 Official website: Yokohama City Yokohama (Japanese: 横浜市; -shi) is the capital city of Kanagawa Prefecture in Japan. ... CYI pin Communist Youth International was the youth wing of the Communist International. ... Willi Münzenberg (August 14, 1889–October 21, 1940) was a leading propagandist for the KPD (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, Communist Party of Germany) in the Weimar Era. ...

The First Four World Congresses of the Communist International

The first Chairman of the Comintern's Executive Committee was Grigory Zinoviev, from 1919 to 1926. Marxist philosopher Georg Lukacs' History and Class Consciousness, published in 1923 following his involvement in Bela Kun's Hungarian Soviet Republic, was condemned on charges of revisionism, along with Karl Korsch's Marxism and Philosophy, during the Vth Comintern Congress in July 1924, by Grigory Zinoviev. The same year Stalin upheld the thesis of "socialism in one country", detailed by Nikolai Bukharin in his brochure Can We Build Socialism in One Country in the Absence of the Victory of the West-European Proletariat? (April 1925). The position was finalized as the state policy after Stalin's January 1926 article On the Issues of Leninism; following the failures of the Spartacist uprising in Germany and of the Hungarian Soviet Republic and the reflux of all revolutionary movements in Europe (including in Italy, where the fascist squadristi broke the strikes and quickly assumed power following the 1922 March on Rome), the perspective of a world revolution was dismissed. Zinoviev was dismissed in 1926 after falling out of favor with Stalin, who already held considerable power by this time). Nikolai Bukharin then led the Comintern for two years, until 1928 when he too fell out with Stalin. Bulgarian communist leader Georgi Dimitrov headed the Comintern in 1934 and presided until its dissolution. Grigory Zinoviev Grigory Yevseevich Zinoviev (Григо́рий Евсе́евич Зино́вьев, alternative transliteration Grigorii Ovseyevish Zinoviev, real name Ovsel Gershon Aronov Radomyslsky (Радомысльский), also known as Hirsch Apfelbaum, primary revolutionary pseudonym Grigory, privately Grisha), (September 23 [September 11, Old Style], 1883 - August 25, 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Communist politician. ... See also Marxian economics Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory designs work in philosophy which is strongly influenced by Karl Marxs materialist approach to theory or which is written by Marxists. ... Georg Lukács (April 13, 1885 - June 4, 1971) was a Hegelian and Marxist philosopher and literary critic. ... la Kun B la Kun (February 20, 1886 - 1939?) was a Hungarian Communist who ruled Hungary for a brief time in 1919. ... The Hungarian Soviet Republic was the political regime in Hungary from March 21, 1919 until the beginning of August of the same year, and it is the second Communist (or soviet) government in world history, after the one in Russia (1917). ... Karl Korsch (1886 - 1961) was born in Todstedt, near Hamburg, to the family of a middle-ranking bank official. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Socialism in One Country was a thesis put forward by Joseph Stalin in 1924 and further supported by Bukharin that given the catastrophic failures of all communist revolutions in Europe from 1917-1921 except their own, rather than relying on the idea that an underdeveloped and agrarian country like Russia... Nikolai Bukharin Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (Russian: ), (October 9 [O.S. September 27] 1888 – March 13, 1938) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and intellectual, and later a Soviet politician. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article is about the Spartacist League which existed in post-First World War Germany. ... Italian fascism (IPA; in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... The Blackshirts (Italian: camicie nere) were Fascist paramilitary groups in Italy during the period immediately following World War I and until the end of World War II. Inspired by Garibaldis Redshirts, the Blackshirts were organized by Benito Mussolini due to his disgust with the corruption and apathy of the... For the movie by Dino Risi, see March on Rome (film) The March on Rome was the name given to the coup détat by which Benito Mussolini came to power in Italy in late October 1922. ... World revolution is a Marxist concept of a violent overthrow of capitalism that would take place in all countries, although not necessarily simultaneously. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... Nikolai Bukharin Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (Russian: ), (October 9 [O.S. September 27] 1888 – March 13, 1938) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and intellectual, and later a Soviet politician. ... Georgi Dimitrov Georgi Mikhailov Dimitrov (Георги Михайлов Димитров, also known as Георгий Михайлович Димитров- Georgiy Mikhailovich Dimitrov) (June 18, 1882, Kovachevtsi, Pernik Province - July 2, 1949, Moscow) was a Bulgarian Communist leader. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


From the Fifth to the Seventh World Congress

Several international organizations sponsored by the Comintern:

Profintern, or the Red International of Labour Unions, was an international body established with the aim of co-ordinating Communist activities within trade unions. ... Red Peasant International, generally called by its Russian abbreviation Krestintern, was an international peasants organization formed by the Communist International in October 1923. ... International Red Aid (in Spanish, Socorro Rojo Internacional or SRI) was a Spanish Soviet organization affiliated with the Comintern, making its first appearance in Spain as a charity organization during the workers’ revolt of October 1934 in Asturias. ... CYI pin Communist Youth International was the youth wing of the Communist International. ...

From the Last Congress to Dissolution

Scene from the Seventh and last Comintern Congress, 1935

The last Congress of the Comintern was held in 1935 and officially endorsed the Popular Front against fascism. This policy argued that Communist Parties should seek to form a Popular Front with all parties that opposed fascism and not limit themselves to forming a United Front with those parties based in the working class. There was no significant opposition to this policy within any of the national sections of the Comintern; in France and Spain in particular, it would have momentous consequences with Léon Blum's 1936 election, which led to the Popular Front government. Image File history File links VII_congress_Comintern_(1935). ... Image File history File links VII_congress_Comintern_(1935). ... Popular Fronts comprise broad coalitions of political and other groups, often made up of oppositioners or left wingers, and often united against particularly stringent circumstances. ... In Leninist bogus, a united front is a coalition of Clinton likeleft-wing working class forces which put forward a common set of demands and share a common plan of action, but which do not subordinate themselves to the front, retaining their abilities for independent political action and continuing to... Léon Blum Léon Blum (9 April 1872 - 30 March 1950), was the Prime Minister of France three times: from 1936 to 1937, for one month in 1938, and from December 1946 to January 1947. ... The Popular Front was an alliance of left-wing political parties (the Communists, the Socialists and the Radicals), which was in government in France from 1936 to 1938. ...


As the Seventh World Congress officially repudiated the revolutionary overthrow of capitalism as the purpose of the Comintern, Leon Trotsky was led to state that it was the death of the Comintern as a revolutionary International - and therefore a New International needed to be built. Trotsky also argued that the Stalinist parties were now to be considered reformist parties, similar to the social democratic parties (but also playing a role as border guards for the Russian state). The Stalin purges of 1930s affected Comintern activists living in the USSR. Fritz Platten died in a labor camp; the leaders of the Indian, Korean, Mexican, Iranian and Turkish Communist parties were executed. The only German communist leaders to survive were Pieck and Ulbricht. Out of 11 Mongolian Communist Party leaders, only Choibalsan survived. A great number of German communists were handed over to Hitler. Leopold Trepper has recalled these days: In house, where the party activists of all the countries were living, no-one slept until 3 o'clock in the morning.[..] Exactly 3 o'clock the car lights began to be seen [...]. we stayed near the window and waited [to find out], where the car stopped. (Radzinski, Stalin, 1997) (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... Lenin and Fritz Platten in 1919. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Leopold Trepper (February 23, 1904-1982) was an organizer of the Soviet spy ring Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) prior to and during World War II. Leopold Trepper was born to a Jewish family on February 23, 1904, in Nowy Targ, Poland (part of Austria-Hungary in that time). ...


As a result, in 1938 the Fourth International was founded in opposition to the Comintern. The communists of the Fourth International believed that the Third International had become thoroughly bureaucratized and Stalinized, and was no longer capable of regenerating itself into a proper revolutionary organization. In particular, they saw the calamitous defeat of the communist movement in Germany (at the hands of the National Socialists) as evidence that the Comintern was effectively irrelevant and fully under Stalin's control. 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Fourth International has been the Trotskyist movements most important international organisation. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ...


At the start of World War II, the Comintern supported a policy of pacifism and non-intervention, arguing that this was an imperialist war between various national ruling classes, much like World War I had been. However, when the Soviet Union itself was invaded on 22 June 1941, the Comintern switched its position to one of active support for the Allies. Nevertheless, a document dated 11 July 1941 making a strategic assessment for the United States War Department entitled Military Intelligence Estimates Prepared by G-2 (p. 1341) states "The Comintern through the Soviet Regime is striving for a world revolution in the interests of Communism." [2] Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ... Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total of dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... When spelt with a capital A, Allies usually denotes the countries supporting the Triple Entente who fought together against the Central Powers in World War I and against the Axis Powers in World War II. For more information, see the related articles: Allies of World War I and Allies of... The United States Department of War was the military department of the United States governments executive branch from 1789 until 1949, when it became part of the United States Department of Defense. ... World revolution is a Marxist concept of a violent overthrow of capitalism that would take place in all countries, although not necessarily simultaneously. ...


The Comintern was officially dissolved on May 15, 1943, by Stalin. Membership of the Comintern gave national parties the reputation of being Soviet stooges. By abolishing the Comintern, Stalin hoped to alleviate this problem and facilitate the route to power of European communist parties after the end of the war. Usually, it is asserted that he wanted his World War II Allies (particularly Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Winston Churchill) to believe that the USSR was no longer pursuing a policy of trying to foment revolution. [Robert Service, Stalin. A biography. (Macmillan - London, 2004), pp 444-445] May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... When spelt with a capital A, Allies usually denotes the countries supporting the Triple Entente who fought together against the Central Powers in World War I and against the Axis Powers in World War II. For more information, see the related articles: Allies of World War I and Allies of... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ...


Alleged Independence

Although the Comintern was an officially “independent” organization, it was, in fact, a part of the Soviet State apparatus. Lenin described the Comintern’s directives in a speech at the Third Communist International

"In order to placate the deaf-mutes, proclaim the fictional separation of our government ... from the Comintern, declaring this agency to be an independent political group. The deaf-mutes will believe it.
"Express a desire for the immediate resumption of diplomatic relations with capitalist countries on the basis of complete non-interference in their internal affairs. Again, the deaf-mutes will believe it. They will even be delighted and fling wide-open their doors through which the emissaries of the Comintern and Party Intelligence agencies will quickly infiltrate into these countries disguised as our diplomatic, cultural, and trade representatives.
(Stalin : The First In-depth Biography Based on Explosive New Documents from Russia's Secret Archives, 1997, p. 205, Edvard Radzinsky) ; (The Lufkin News, King Features Syndicate, Inc., 31 July 1962, p. 4, as quoted by the Freeman Report, 30 Sept. 1973, p. 8). [3].)
* Please note that from antiquity (as noted in the Code of Hammurabi) until recent (and more enlightened) times [4], the terms "deaf-mute" and "deaf and dumb" were analogous to "idiot."

The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) is a Washington, D.C.-based foreign policy think tank. ... An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi The Code of Hammurabi (also known as the Codex Hammurabi and Hammurabis Code), created ca. ... Deaf-mute was a historic reference made by hearing people to identify a person who was deaf and did not know how to speak. ...

After the Comintern

Main article: Cominform

In September 1947, following the June 1947 Paris Conference on Marshall Aid, Stalin gathered the socialist parties and set up the Cominform, or Communist Information Bureau, as a substitute of the Comintern. It was a network made up of the Communist parties of Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, France, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Romania, the Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia (led by Tito, it was expelled in June 1948). The Cominform was dissolved in 1956, following Stalin's 1953 death and the XXth Congress of the CPSU. The Cominform (from Communist Information Bureau) is the common name for what was officially referred to as the Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers Parties. It was the first official forum of the international communist movement since the dissolution of the Comintern, and confirmed the new realities after World... U.S. postage stamp issued 1997 honoring the 50th anniversary of the Marshall Plan. ... In modern usage, a communist party is a political party which promotes communism, the sociopolitical philosophy based on Marxism. ... SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Cyrillic script SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Latin script SKJ flag in Albanian SKJ flag in Hungarian SKJ flag in Italian SKJ flag in Macedonian SKJ flag in Slovenian The Communist Party of Yugoslavia (after 1952 the League of Communists of Yugoslavia) was... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ... The 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was held during February 14—February 26, 1956. ...


While the pro-Moscow Communist parties of the world no longer had a formal international organisation, they still looked to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, or CPSU, for leadership, and had periodic meetings in Moscow. The most notable of these was in 1962 when the Sino-Soviet split became public for the first time. There was especially close coordination between the CPSU and the Communist Parties of the Warsaw Pact. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the All... Government Russia District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuri Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement among airlines about financial liability. ...


See also

// Existence of Orgburo The Orgburo existed from 1919 to 1952, until the 19th Congress, when the Orgburo was abolished and its functions were transferred to the enlarged Secretariat. ... Image File history File links Lenin_-_The_Third,_Communist_International. ... Model of the Monument to the Third International Tatlin’s Tower, or the Monument to the Third International, was a grand monumental building envisioned and blueprinted by the Russian artist and architect Vladimir Tatlin, but never built. ... List of delegates at the 2nd Comintern congress, Moscow, 1920. ... The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ... This is a list of socialist, communist, and anarchist internationals. ... There are, at present, a number of communist parties active in various countries across the world, and a number who used to be active. ... The Comintern had, at the first Congress, voting delegates from the following groups: Communist Party of Armenia Central Bureaus Azerbaijani Section Communist Party of Bulgaria Socialist Workers Party of China Communist Party of Czechoslovakia Communist Party of German Austria Communist Party of Finland Communist Party of France Zimmerwald Left... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants Second Spanish Republic Foreign volunteers Nationalist Spain Fascist Italy Nazi Germany Commanders Manuel Azaña Francisco Largo Caballero Juan Negrín Francisco Franco The Spanish Civil War, which lasted from July 18, 1936 to April 1, 1939, was a conflict in which the incumbent Second Spanish Republic and political... The International Working Union of Socialist Parties (also known as 2½ International or the Vienna International) was an international organization for cooperation of socialists. ... Austromarxism was the fairly left-wing ideology persued by the Social Democratic Workers Party of Austria during the late decades of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and the Austrian First Republic (1918-1934). ...

External links

  • [5] Comintern Archives (in English)
  • [6] Comintern Archives (in Russian)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Comintern - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2779 words)
The Comintern held seven World Congresses, the first in March 1919 and the last in 1935, until it was officially dissolved in May 1943.
A central policy of the Comintern was that Communist parties should be established across the world to aid the international proletarian revolution.
The Comintern was officially dissolved on May 15, 1943, by Stalin.
Comintern - Wikipedia (323 words)
De Comintern (Communistische of Derde Internationale; soms gespeld als Komintern) was een wereldwijd samenwerkingsverband van communistische partijen, onder aanvoering van de Communistische Partij van de Sovjet-Unie (CPSU).
Het centrale punt van het beleid van de Comintern was, dat over de gehele wereld Communistische partijen moesten worden opgericht om de internationale proletarische revolutie te steunen, zowel als het idee van democratisch centralisme, hetgeen sterke controle van de Communistische partij in de kern betekende.
De politiek van de Comintern was niet revisionistisch gericht, maar streefde met alle dienstige middelen naar de oprichting van de werelddictatuur van het proletariaat, met de volledige opheffing van alle klassen.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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