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Encyclopedia > Comic book
The Doom comic.

A comic book -- or comic for short -- is a magazine or book containing sequential art. Although the term implies otherwise, the subject matter in comic books is not necessarily humorous; in fact, it is often serious and action-oriented. Comic books are so called because some of the earliest comic books were simply collections of comic strips (most of which were humorous) that had originally been printed in newspapers. The commercial success of these collections led to work being created specifically for the comic book form, which fostered specific conventions such as splash pages. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ... ... Comics vocabulary consists of many different techniques and images which a comic book artist employs in order to convey a narrative within the medium of comics. ...


Long-form comic books, generally with hardcover or trade-paper binding are sometimes said to be "graphic novels," but the term's definition is vague. Comic books are examples of an indigenous American art form[1][2] though prototypical examples of the form exist.


American comic books have become closely associated with the superhero tradition. In the United Kingdom, the term comic book is used to refer to American comic books by their readers and collectors, while the general populace would likely consider a comic book a hardcover book collecting comics stories.[3][4] The analogous term in the UK is a comic, short for comic paper or comic magazine. Australia published their first comic book before the U.S. in 1931 with kookaburra Previously Australia copied the British comic papers, they later experimented with the landscape format which almost became standard. An American comic book is a small magazine originating in the United States containing a narrative in the comics form. ... For other uses, see Superhero (disambiguation). ... Comic Collectors are people who collect comics or comic books (terms with considerable overlap). ... Cover to 27 December 1884 edition of Ally Slopers Half Holiday A British comic is a periodical published in the United Kingdom which contains comic strips. ...

Contents

American comics

Main article: American comic book

Since the introduction of the modern comic book format in the 1934 with Famous Funnies, the United States has been the leading producer, with only the British comic and Japanese manga as close competitors in terms of quantity of titles. The majority of all comic books in the U.S. are marketed to young adult readers, though they also produce titles for young children as well as adult audiences. An American comic book is a small magazine originating in the United States containing a narrative in the comics form. ... Famous Funnies is an American publication of the 1930s that represents what popular culture historians consider the first true American comic book, following seminal precursors. ... Cover to 27 December 1884 edition of Ally Slopers Half Holiday A British comic is a periodical published in the United Kingdom which contains comic strips. ... This article is about the comics created in Japan. ...


The history of the comic book in the U.S. is divided into several ages or historical eras: The Platinum Age, The Golden Age, The Silver Age, The Bronze Age, and The Modern Age. The exact boundaries of these eras, the terms for which originated in fandom press, is a debatable point among comic book historians. . ... Superman, catalyst of the Golden Age: Superman #14 (Feb. ... Showcase #4 (Oct. ... Amazing Spider-Man #122, July 1973, The death of the Green Goblin, cover art by John Romita, Sr. ... The Modern Age of Comic Books is an informal name for the period in the history of mainstream American comic books generally considered to last from the mid-1980s until present day. ... Fandom (from the noun fan and the affix -dom, as in kingdom, dukedom, etc. ... For other uses, see Publishing (disambiguation). ...


The Golden Age is generally thought as lasting from the introduction of the character Superman in 1938 until the early 1950s. During this time, comic books enjoyed considerable popularity; the archetype of the superhero was invented and defined, and many of the most popular superheroes were created. The Platinum Age refers to any material produced prior to this. While comics as an art form could theoretically extend as far back in history as sequential cave paintings, comic books are dependent on printing, and the starting point for them in book form is generally considered to be the tabloid-sized The Funnies begun in 1929, or the smaller-sized Funnies on Parade begun in 1933. Both of these were simply reprints of newspaper strips. Superman is a fictional character and comic book superhero , originally created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian artist Joe Shuster and published by DC Comics. ... Comics (or, less commonly, sequential art) is a form of visual art consisting of images which are commonly combined with text, often in the form of speech balloons or image captions. ... This article is about the newspaper size. ...


The Silver Age of Comic Books is generally considered to date from the first successful revival of the dormant superhero form — the debut of the Patrick Auliso Flash in Showcase #4 (September-October 1956) — and last through the early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as the Fantastic Four and Spider-Man. There is less agreement on the beginnings of the Bronze and Modern ages. Some suggest that the Bronze Age is still taking place. Starting points that have been suggested for the Bronze Age of comics are Conan #1 (October 1970), Green Lantern/Green Arrow #76 (April 1970) or Amazing Spider-Man #96 (May 1971) (the non-Comics Code issue). The start of the Modern Age (occasionally referred to as the Iron Age) has even more potential starting points, but is generally agreed to be the publication of Alan Moore's Watchmen by DC Comics in 1986. The Flash redirects here. ... Showcase has been the title of several anthology series published by DC Comics. ... This article is about the comic book company. ... Naturalism is a movement in theater, film, and literature that seeks to replicate a believable everyday reality, as opposed to such movements as Romanticism or Surrealism, in which subjects may receive highly symbolic, idealistic, or even supernatural treatment. ... This article is about the superheroes. ... Spider-Man swinging around his hometown, New York City. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... The Green Lantern redirects here. ... This article is about the first Green Arrow, Oliver Queen. ... The Amazing Spider-Man is the title of both a comic book published by Marvel Comics and a daily newspaper comic strip. ... The Comics Code Authority (CCA) is an organization founded in 1954 to act as a de facto censor for American comic books. ... For other persons named Alan Moore, see Alan Moore (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Watchman. ...


Comics published after World War II in 1945 are sometimes referred to as being from the Atomic Age (referring to the dropping of the atomic bomb), while titles published after November 1961 are sometimes referred to as being from the Marvel Age (referring to the advent of Marvel Comics). However, these eras are referred to far less frequently than the aforementioned eras. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... This article is about the comic book company. ...


Notable events in the history of the American comic book include the psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent, which prompted the Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books. In response to this attention from both the government and the media, the US comic book industry created the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the Comics Code. Dr. Fredric Wertham (March 20, 1895 – November 18, 1981) was a German-American psychiatrist and crusading author who protested the purportedly harmful effects of mass media—comic books in particular—on the development of children. ... First U.S. printing, 1954 First U.K. printing, 1954 Seduction of the Innocent was a book by Dr. Fredric Wertham, published in 1954, that warned that comic books were a bad form of popular literature and a serious cause of juvenile delinquency. ... The Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency was convened during the early 1950s to investigate the influence on youth by violence and sex in mass media and, in particular, comic books. ... The seal of the Comics Code Authority, which appears on the covers of approved comic books. ... The Comics Code Authority (CCA) is an organization founded in 1954 to act as a de facto censor for American comic books. ...


Japanese comics

Main article: Manga

The first comic books in Japan appeared during the eighteenth century. These were woodblock-printed booklets containing short stories, drawn from folk tales, legends, and historical accounts, told in a simple visual-verbal idiom. Known as "red books" (akahon), "black books" (kurobon), and "blue books" (aohon), these were written primarily for less literate readers. However, with the publication in 1775 of Koikawa Harumachi's comic book Master Flashgold's Splendiferous Dream (Kinkin sensei eiga no yume), an adult form of comic book was born, which required greater literacy and cultural sophistication. This was known as the kibyōshi. Published in thousands (possibly tens of thousands) of copies, the kibyōshi may have been the earliest fully realized comic book for adults in world literary history. Approximately 2000 titles remain extant. This article is about the comics created in Japan. ... Kibyōshi ) is a genre of Japanese picture book (Kusazoushi )) produced during the middle of the Edo period. ...


Modern comic books in Japan developed from a mixture of these earlier comic books and woodblock prints ukiyo-e with Western styles of drawing. They took their current form shortly after World War II. They are usually published in black and white, except for the covers, which are usually printed in four colors, although occasionally, the first few pages may also be printed in full color. The term manga means "random (or whimsical) pictures", and first came into common usage in the late eighteenth century with the publication of such works as Santō Kyōden's picturebook "Shiji no yukikai" (四時交加?) (1798) and Aikawa Minwa’s "Comic Sketches of a Hundred Women" (1798). View of Mount Fuji from Numazu, part of the Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō series by Hiroshige, published 1850 Ukiyo-e ), pictures of the floating world, is a genre of Japanese woodblock prints (or woodcuts) and paintings produced between the 17th and the 20th centuries, featuring motifs of... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Cover of the Komon gawa (小紋訝話; Elegant chats on fabric design), 1790 Santō Kyōden , September 13, 1761 Edo–October 27, 1816) was a poet, writer and artist in the Edo period. ...


Development of this form occurred as a result of Japan's attempts to modernize itself, a desire awakened by trade with the United States. Western artists were brought over to teach their students such concepts as line, form, and color, things which had not been regarded as conceptually important in ukiyo-e, as the idea behind the picture was of paramount importance. Manga at this time was referred to as Ponchi-e (Punch-picture) and, like its British counterpart Punch magazine, mainly depicted humour and political satire in short one- or four-picture format. Punch was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire published from 1841 to 1992 and from 1996 to 2002. ...


This form was further developed by Dr. Osamu Tezuka, widely acknowledged to be the father of narrative manga. Tezuka was inspired to become a comic artist upon seeing an animation war propaganda film, titled Momotarou Uminokaihei. Tezuka introduced episodic storytelling and character development in comic format, in which each story is part of larger story arc. The only text in Tezuka's comics was the characters' dialogue and this further lent his comics a cinematic quality. Inspired by the work of Walt Disney, Tezuka also adopted a style of drawing facial features in which a character's eyes, nose, and mouth are drawn in an extremely exaggerated manner. This style created immediately recognizable expressions using very few lines, and the simplicity of this style allowed Tezuka to be prolific. Tezuka’s work generated new interest in the ukiyo-e tradition, in which the image is a representation of an idea, rather than a depiction of reality. Tezuka redirects here. ... Animation refers to the process in which each frame of a film or movie is produced individually, whether generated as a computer graphic, or by photographing a drawn image, or by repeatedly making small changes to a model (see claymation and stop motion), and then photographing the result. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... The database did not find the text of a page that it should have found, named Momotaros Divine Sea Warriors. If it is a recently changed page, trying again in a minute or two will usually work. ... For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ... This article refers to the sight organ. ... For other uses, see Nose (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mouth (disambiguation). ...


Though a close equivalent to the American comic book, manga has historically held a more important place in Japanese culture than comics have in American culture. Manga is widely respected as both an art form and as a form of popular literature many manga become TV shows or shorter movies. Similar to its American counterpart, some manga has been criticized for its sexuality and violence, although in the absence of official or even industry restrictions on content, artists have been free to create manga for every age group and for every topic. An American comic book is a small magazine originating in the United States containing a narrative in the comics form. ... TV redirects here. ...


Manga magazines often run several series concurrently, with approximately 20 to 40 pages allocated to each series per issue. These magazines are also known as "anthologies", or colloquially, "phone books". They are usually printed on low-quality newsprint and range from 200 to more than 850 pages each. Manga magazines also contain one-shot comics and a variety of four-panel yonkoma (equivalent to comic strips). Manga series may continue for many years if they are successful, with stories often collected and reprinted in book-sized volumes called tankōbon, the equivalent of the American trade paperbacks. These volumes use higher-quality paper and are useful to readers who want to be brought up to date with a series, or to readers who find the cost of the weekly or monthly publications to be prohibitive. Deluxe versions are printed, as commemorative or collectible editions. Conversely, old manga titles are also reprinted using lower-quality paper and sold for 100 ¥ (approximately $1 USD) each. In the American comic book industry, the term one-shot is used to denote a pilot comic or a stand-alone story created to last as one issue. ... Yonkoma manga (4コマ漫画, four cell manga), or 4-koma for short, is a Japanese comic strip format which consists of gags within four cells. ... This article is about the comic strip, the sequential art form as published in newspapers and on the Internet. ... Tankōbon ) is the Japanese term for a compilation volume of a particular series (such as a manga or a novel series, magazine articles, essays, craft patterns, etc. ... In comics, a trade paperback (TPB or simply trade) specifically refers to a collection of stories originally published in comic books reprinted in book format, usually capturing one story arc from a single title or a series of stories with a connected story arc or common theme from one or... Japanese 10 yen coin (obverse) showing Phoenix Hall of Byodoin Yen is the currency used in Japan. ...


Manga titles are primarily classified by the age and sex of their intended audience. In particular, books and magazines sold to boys (shōnen) and girls (shōjo) have distinctive cover art and are placed on different shelves in most bookstores. Shōnen or shounen (å°‘å¹´) is a Japanese word usually translated as young boy, although it is commonly used to refer to males of up to high-school age as well. ... Shōjo or shoujo (少女 lit. ...


European comics

Main article: Franco-Belgian comics

France and Belgium are two countries that have a long tradition in comics and comic books, where they are called BDs (an abbreviation of Bande Dessinée) in French and strips in Dutch. Belgian comic books originally written in Dutch are influenced by the Francophone "Franco-Belgian" comics, but have their own distinct style. Tintin, one of the most famous Belgian comics Franco-Belgian comics are comics written in Belgium and France. ... Tintin, one of the most famous Belgian comics Franco-Belgian comics are comics written in Belgium and France. ...


La bande dessinée is derived from the original description of the art form as drawn strips (the phrase is literally translated as the drawn strip), analogous to the sequence of images in a film strip. As in its English equivalent, the word "bande" can be applied to both film and comics. It is not insignificant that the French term contains no indication of subject matter, unlike the American terms "comics" and "funnies", which imply an art form not to be taken seriously. The distinction of comics as le neuvième art (literally, "the ninth art") is prevalent in French scholarship on the form, as is the concept of comics criticism and scholarship itself. Relative to the respective size of their populations, the innumerable authors in France and Belgium publish a high volume of comic books. In North America, the more serious Franco-Belgian comics are often seen as equivalent to graphic novels, but whether they are long or short, bound or in magazine format, in Europe there is no need for a more sophisticated term, as the art's name does not itself imply something frivolous. This article is about motion pictures. ... North American redirects here. ... Trade paperback of Will Eisners A Contract with God (1978), often mistakenly cited as the first graphic novel. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


In France, most comics are published at the behest of the author, who works within a self-appointed time frame, and it is common for readers to wait six months or as long as two years between installments. Most books are first published as a hard cover book, typically with 48, 56 or 64 pages.


British comics

Originally the same size as a usual comic book in the United States, although lacking the glossy cover, the British comic has adopted a magazine size, with The Beano and The Dandy the last to adopt this size in the 1980s. Although generally referred to as a comic, it can also be referred to as a comic magazine, and has also been known historically as a comic paper. Some comics, such as Judge Dredd and other 2000 AD titles, have been published in a tabloid form known. A British comic is a periodical published in the United Kingdom that contains comic strips. ... This March 2007 does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... // The Dandy is a British childrens comic published by D. C. Thomson & Co. ... For the 1995 film, see Judge Dredd (film). ... Cover of the first issue of 2000 AD, 26 February 1977. ... This article is about the newspaper size. ...


Although Ally Sloper's Half Holiday (1884), the first comic published in Britain, was marketed at adults, publishers quickly targeted a younger market, which has led to most publications being for children and created an association in the public's mind of comics being somewhat juvenile. Ally Slopers Half Holiday is a British comic, first published on 3 May 1884. ...


Popular titles within the UK have included The Beano, The Dandy, The Eagle, 2000 AD and Viz. Underground comics and "small press" titles have also been published within the United Kingdom, notably Oz and Escape Magazine. This March 2007 does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... // The Dandy is a British childrens comic published by D. C. Thomson & Co. ... From masthead for Eagle comic, logo by Berthold Wolpe, 1953 The Eagle was a British weekly comic, which ran in two main incarnations over the period of 1950 to 1994 (with accompanying annuals). ... Cover of the first issue of 2000 AD, 26 February 1977. ... Cover of Viz (issue 57) Viz is a popular British adult comic magazine that has been running since 1979. ... A small number of British small press comics for sale at the Caption convention, 2005 British small press comics is a term used to describe comic books self-published by cartoonists and comic book creators within the UK. It also serves to describe the loose community of creators, publishers and... Oz Number 3 Oz was a satirical humour magazine first published between 1963–69 in Sydney, Australia and, in its second and more famous incarnation, from 1967 to 1973 in London, England. ... The cover to Escape Magazine issue 3. ...


The content of Action, another title aimed at children and launched in the mid 1970s, became the subject of discussion in the House of Commons. Although this was on a smaller scale to such similar investigations in the United States, it also led to a moderation of content published within comics. Such moderation was never formalized to the extent of a creation of any code, and nor was it particularly lasting. The cover of Action#1. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin...


The UK has also established a healthy market in the reprinting and repackaging of material, notably material originated within the United States. The lack of reliable supplies of American comic books led to a variety of black and white reprints, including Marvel's monster comics of the 1950s, Fawcett's Captain Marvel, and other characters such as Sheena, Mandrake the Magician, and the Phantom. Several reprint companies were involved in repackaging American material for the British market, notably the importer and distributor Thorpe & Porter. American comic books are typically small magazines containing fictional stories in the artistic medium of comics. ... This article is about the DC Comics character. ... Sheena, Queen of the Jungle #18 (Winter 1952-53). ... Mandrake the Magician is a U.S. comic strip created in 1934 by Lee Falk (also creator of The Phantom) and mainly appearing in syndication in newspapers. ... For other uses, see Phantom. ...


Marvel Comics established a UK office in 1972. DC Comics and Dark Horse Comics also opened offices in the 1990s. The repackaging of European material has been less frequent, although the Tintin and Asterix serials have been successfully translated and repackaged in soft cover books. DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Adventures of Tintin (French: ) is a series of Belgian comic books created by Belgian artist Hergé, the pen name of Georges Remi (1907–1983). ... This article is about the comic book series. ...


At Christmas time, publishers repackage and commission material for comic annuals, printed and bound as hardcover A4-size books. A famous example of the British comic annual is Rupert. DC Thomson also repackage The Broons and Oor Wullie strips in softcover A4-size books for the holiday season. For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... An annual publication, more often called simply an annual, is a book or a magazine, comic book or comic strip published yearly. ... ISO 216 specifies international standard (ISO) paper sizes, used in most countries in the world today. ... Rupert Bear Mary Tourtel, the author, lived in Ivy Lane, Canterbury towards the end of her life Rupert Bear is a cartoon character created by the English artist Mary Tourtel and who first appeared in the Daily Express on November 8, 1920. ... D. C. Thomson & Co. ... The Broons is a comic strip within The Sunday Post newspaper, which is published by D. C. Thomson & Co. ... Oor Wullie cover Oor Wullie is a comic strip, set in Scotland, in the D. C. Thomson & Co. ... ISO 216 specifies international standard (ISO) paper sizes, used in most countries in the world today. ...


Italian comics

Main article: Italian comics

In Italy, comics (known in Italian as fumetti) made their debut as humorous strips at the end of the nineteenth century, and later evolved in adventure stories inspired by those coming from the US. After World War II, however, artists like Hugo Pratt and Guido Crepax exposed Italian comics to an international audience. "Author" comics contain often strong erotic contents. Best sellers remain popular comic books Diabolik or the Bonelli line, namely Tex Willer or Dylan Dog. Italian comics are comics made in Italy. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Hugo Eugenio Pratt (June 15, 1927 – August 20, 1995) was an Italian comic book creator who combined his strong storytelling talent with extensive historical research on Corto Maltese and his other series. ... Guido Crepax (born Guido Crepas, Milan, July 15, 1933 - July 31, 2003) was an Italian comics artist, who deeply influenced the European adult comics world in the second half of 20th century. ... Diabolik portrayed on a newspaper announcing his radio adaptation. ... Sergio Bonelli Editore is a publishing house of Italian comics. ... Tex Willer is a Italian comics series featuring the character of the same name, created by writer Gian Luigi Bonelli and illustrator Aurelio Galleppini, and first published in Italy on September 30, 1948. ... A Dylan Dog cover. ...


Mainstream comics are usually published on a monthly basis, in a black and white digest size format, with approximately 100 to 132 pages. Collections of classic material for the most famous characters, usually with more than 200 pages, are also common. Author comics are published in the French BD format, with an example being Pratt's Corto Maltese. Corto Maltese (Corto Maltese Venetsiassa is the title of the Finnish translation of Fable of Venice. ...


Italian cartoonists are influenced greatly by comics from other countries, including France, Belgium, Spain, and Argentina. Italy is also famous for being one of the foremost producers of Walt Disney comic stories outside the US. Donald Duck's superhero alter ego, Paperinik, known in English as Superduck, was created in Italy. For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ... Paperinik (also known as Duck Avenger, Superduck, PK, Superdonald and Phantom Duck) is a fictional comic book superhero, Donald Ducks alter ego. ...


Irish comics

The comic scene in Ireland began in the late 1990s with a few xeroxed humor titles appearing. The first professionally produced and distributed comic was MBLEH! by Bob Byrne. Byrne has remained the figurehead of Irish comics and continues to publish titles, most notably Mister Amperduke.[citation needed]


Other European comics

See also: Polish comics

Although Switzerland has made relatively few contributions to European comics, it is noteworthy that many scholars point to a Francophone Swiss, Rodolphe Töpffer, as the true father of comics. However, this assertion is still controversial, with critics noting that Töpffer's work is not necessarily connected to the creation of the artform as it is now known in the region. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Rodolphe Töpffer (January 31, 1799 - June 8, 1846) was a Swiss teacher, author, painter, cartoonist, and caricature artist. ...


Modern trends in US comics

Underground comics

Main article: Underground comix

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a surge of underground comics occurred. These comics were published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, and most titles reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time. Many were notable for their uninhibited, often irreverent style; the frankness of their depictions of nudity, sex, profanity, and politics had not been seen in comics outside of their precursors, the pornographic and even more obscure "Tijuana bibles". Underground comics were almost never sold at newsstands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order. Mr. ... The term underground comics or comix describes the self-published or small press comic books that sprang up in the US in the late 1960s. ... Counterculture (also counter-culture) is a sociological word used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a cultural group, or subculture, that run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day,[1] the cultural equivalent of political opposition. ... Drug subcultures are examples of countercultures, primarily defined by recreational drug use. ... The cover of a typical Tijuana bible. ... A head shop is a retail outlet specializing in paraphernalia related to consumption of cannabis, other recreational drugs, and New Age herbs, as well as generally selling counterculture art, magazines, music, clothing, and home decor. ... Mail order is a term which describes the buying of goods or services by mail delivery. ...


The underground comics movement is often considered to have started with Zap Comix #1 (1968) by cartoonist Robert Crumb, a former greeting-card artist from Cleveland living in San Francisco. Crumb later created the characters Fritz the Cat and Mr. Natural, and published Gilbert Shelton's The Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers. Zap Comix is among the best-known of the underground comics that emerged as part of the youth counterculture of the late 1960s. ... Cartoonist Jack Elrod at work. ... Robert Dennis Crumb (born August 30, 1943), often credited simply as R. Crumb, is an American artist and illustrator recognized for the distinctive style of his drawings and his critical, satirical, subversive view of the American mainstream. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... Robert Crumbs Fritz the Cat. ... Mr Natural Mr. ... Gilbert Shelton (born May 31, 1940, Houston, Texas) is an American cartoonist and underground comics artist. ... The Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers, 1st issue, 1971, by Gilbert Shelton The Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers are a trio of underground comic strip characters created by the U.S. artist Gilbert Shelton. ...


Alternative comics

Main article: Alternative comics

The rise of comic book specialty stores in the late 1970s created a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics". Two of the first were the anthology series Star Reach, published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974 to 1979, and Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and was adapted into a film in 2005. Some independent comics continued in the tradition of underground comics, though their content was generally less explicit, and others resembled the output of mainstream publishers in format and genre but were published by smaller artist-owned companies or by single artists. A few (notably RAW) were experimental attempts to bring comics closer to the status of fine art. For the publisher Alternative Comics, see Alternative Comics (publisher). ... For the publisher Alternative Comics, see Alternative Comics (publisher). ... Star Reach (also spelled Star*Reach) was a science fiction and fantasy comics anthology published by Mike Friedrich between 1978-1980. ... Mike Friedrich is an American comic book writer and publisher best known for his work at Marvel and DC Comics, and for publishing the anthology series Star*Reach one of the first independent comics. ... Harvey Pekar on the cover of American Splendor: Portrait of the Author in his Declining Years Harvey Pekar (pronounced /ar-vay pea-kar/) (born October 8, 1939 in Cleveland, Ohio) is a U.S. underground comic book writer. ... American Splendor #1 cover American Splendor is a series of autobiographical comic books and graphic novels written by Harvey Pekar and drawn by a variety of artists. ... Cover to RAW volume 1, number 1 (July 1980). ... Fine art refers to arts that are concerned with beauty or which appealed to taste (SOED 1991). ...


During the 1970s the "small press" culture grew and diversified. By the 1980s, several such independent publishers as Eclipse Comics, First Comics, and Fantagraphics were releasing a wide range of styles and formats from color superhero, detective and science fiction comic books to black-and-white magazine-format stories of Latin American magical realism. Eclipse Comics was an American comic book publisher, one of several influential indendent publishers during the 1980s. ... First Comics was an American publisher of comic books. ... Fantagraphics Books is an American publisher of alternative comics, underground comics, classic comic strip anthologies, magazines, and graphic novels located in the Maple Leaf neighborhood of Seattle, Washington. ... For other uses, see Superhero (disambiguation). ... Gumshoe redirects here. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Magic Realism (or Magical Realism) is an illustrative or literary technique in which the laws of cause and effect seem not quite to apply in otherwise real world situations. ...


A number of small publishers in the 1990s changed the format and distribution of their comics to more closely resemble non-comics publishing. The "minicomics" form, an extremely informal version of self-publishing, arose in the 1980s and became increasingly popular among artists in the 1990s, despite reaching an even more limited audience than the small press. A minicomic is a small, creator-published comic book, often photocopied and stapled or with a handmade binding. ...


Small publishers regularly releasing titles today include Avatar Comics, Raytoons, and Terminal Press, buoyed by such advances in printing technology as digital print on demand. Avatar Press company logo. ... Terminal Press logo Terminal Press is an Independent Comic Book Publisher based out of Long Beach, New York. ... Print on demand (POD), sometimes mistakenly referred to as publish on demand, is a printing technology employed by publishers in which new copies of a book (or other document) are not printed until after an order for them has been received. ...


Graphic novels

Main article: Graphic novel

The term "graphic novel" was first coined by Richard Kyle in 1964, mainly as an attempt to distinguish the newly translated works from Europe which were then being published from what Kyle perceived as the more juvenile subject matter that was so common in the United States. Trade paperback of Will Eisners A Contract with God (1978), often mistakenly cited as the first graphic novel. ...


The term was popularized when Will Eisner used it on the cover of the paperback edition of his work A Contract with God, and Other Tenement Stories in 1978. This was a more thematically mature work than many had come to expect from the comics medium, and the critical and commercial success of A Contract with God helped to bring the term in common usage. William Erwin Eisner (March 6, 1917 – January 3, 2005) was an acclaimed American comics writer, artist and entrepreneur. ... Cover A Contract with God is a graphic novel by Will Eisner, its full title being A Contract with God: and Other Tenement Stories. ... Comics (or, less commonly, sequential art) is a form of visual art consisting of images which are commonly combined with text, often in the form of speech balloons or image captions. ...


Warren Ellis, in his Come in Alone columns at ComicbookResources.com, suggested that the term "graphic novel" should include collected editions of serialized storylines. To differentiate these from original comic book publications, he proposed the term "original graphic novel." These terms are still used as first suggested, although "original graphic novel" is not a popular term, particularly because so few are produced. Collected editions are more popularly known by the publishing industry term "trade paperback." This article is about the comic book author. ... A trade paperback can refer to any book that is bound with a heavy paper cover that is generally cheaper than the hardcover but more expensive than the regular paperback version. ...


Rarest comic books

The rarest comic books in existence include copies of the unreleased Motion Picture Funnies Weekly #1 from 1939. Eight copies, plus one without a cover, were discovered in the estate of the deceased publisher in 1974. Planned premiere issue. ...


Before Fawcett Comics introduced Captain Marvel in Whiz Comics #2, there was an earlier ashcan edition featuring virtually the same story, with the notable exception that "Captain Marvel" was named "Captain Thunder." This issue was never distributed[5]. Whiz Comics #2, the first appearance of Captain Marvel, the companys most popular character. ... This article is about the DC Comics character. ... Whiz Comics was a monthly ongoing comic book anthology series, which was published by Fawcett Comics from February 1940 to June 1952. ... Captain Thunder, soon to be Captain Marvel, on the cover of the ashcan copy of Flash Comics #1, the most famous ashcan copy publication. ...


In June 1978, DC Comics cancelled several of its titles. For copyright purposes, the unpublished original art for these titles was photocopied, bound, and published as Cancelled Comics Cavalcade #1-2. Only 35 copies were made.[6] A small, much-used Xerox copier in a high school library. ... Cancelled Comics Cavalcade was a tongue-in-cheek publication reproduced in the offices of DC Comics in very limited quantity following the DC Implosion in 1978. ...


Misprints, promotional comic-dealer incentive printings, and similar issues with extremely low distribution are usually the most scarce. The rarest modern comic books include original press run of The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen #5, ordered by DC executive Paul Levitz to be recalled and pulped over the appearance of a vintage Victorian era advertisement for "Marvel Douche", which the publisher considered offensive.[7] For the film adaptation, see The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen (film). ... For the film adaptation, see The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen (film). ... Paul Levitz (born 21 October 1956) is an American comic book writer, editor and executive. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... A douche (IPA: ) is a device used to introduce a stream of water into the body for medical or hygienic reasons, or the stream of water itself. ...


See also

The term underground comics or comix describes the self-published or small press comic books that sprang up in the US in the late 1960s. ... For the publisher Alternative Comics, see Alternative Comics (publisher). ... The cover of a typical Tijuana bible. ... Webcomics, also known as online comics and internet comics, are comics that are available to read on the Internet. ... For other uses, see Cartoon (disambiguation). ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Comicon.Com: Hurricane Katrina Thoughts
  2. ^ http://www.disinfotainmenttoday.com/darenet/comicbook.htm
  3. ^ Perry, George; Aldridge, Alan (1989 reprint with introduction). The Penguin Book Of Comics. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-002802-1. 
  4. ^ Sabin, Roger (1993). Adult Comics An Introduction. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-04419-7. 
  5. ^ Captain Thunder! (fan site)
  6. ^ SilverBulletComics.com: It's BobRo the Answer Man (column by Bob Rozakis): "Cancelled Comics Cavalcade — Part 1
  7. ^ Comic Book Resources (May, 23, 2005): Living in the Gutters (column by Rich Johnston): sidebar "Alan's Previous Problems With DC" in column "Moore Slams V for Vendetta Movie, Pulls LoEG from DC Comics"

References

  • Kern, Adam L., Manga from the Floating World: Comic book Culture and the Kibyôshi of Edo Japan (Cambridge, M.A.: Harvard University Asia Center, 2006) ISBN 0-674-02266-1.
  • Inge, Thomas M., "Comics as culture". Journal of Popular Culture 12:631, 1979

External links


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