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Encyclopedia > Comfort women
Comfort women
Japanese name
Kanji 慰安婦
Rōmaji ianfu
Alternate Japanese name
Kanji 従軍慰安婦
Rōmaji jūgun-ianfu
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 慰安婦
Simplified Chinese 慰安妇
Hanyu Pinyin Wèiān Fù
Wade-Giles Wei-An Fu
Korean name
Hangul 위안부
Hanja 慰安婦
Revised Romanization wianbu
McCune-Reischauer wianbu
Alternate Korean name
Hangul 일본군 성노예
Hanja 日本軍 性奴隸
Revised Romanization ilbongun seongnoe
McCune-Reischauer ilbongun songnoe

Comfort women is a euphemism for women forced into prostitution and sexual slavery for Japanese military brothels during World War II.[1][2] Around 50,000 - 200,000 are estimated to have been procured, but there is still some disagreement about exact numbers. Historians and researchers have stated that the majority were from Korea and China, but women from the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Taiwan, the Dutch East Indies, Indonesia, and other Japanese-occupied territories were also used in "comfort stations". Stations were located in Japan, China, the Philippines, Indonesia, then Malaya, Thailand, then Burma, then New Guinea, Hong Kong, Macau, and what was then French Indochina.[3] Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... The romanization of Japanese or rōmaji ) ( ) is the use of the Latin alphabet to write the Japanese language. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... The romanization of Japanese or rōmaji ) ( ) is the use of the Latin alphabet to write the Japanese language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Jamo redirects here. ... Korean writing systems Hangul Hanja Hyangchal Gugyeol Idu Mixed script Korean romanization Revised Romanization of Korean McCune-Reischauer Yale Romanization Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... Korean writing systems Hangul Hanja Hyangchal Gugyeol Idu Mixed script Korean romanization Revised Romanization of Korean McCune-Reischauer Yale Romanization The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ... Jamo redirects here. ... Korean writing systems Hangul Hanja Hyangchal Gugyeol Idu Mixed script Korean romanization Revised Romanization of Korean McCune-Reischauer Yale Romanization Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... Korean writing systems Hangul Hanja Hyangchal Gugyeol Idu Mixed script Korean romanization Revised Romanization of Korean McCune-Reischauer Yale Romanization The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ... A euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or less offensive expression in place of one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener;[1] or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... Whore redirects here. ... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution single-owner sexual slavery ritual slavery, sometimes associated with traditional religious practices slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French...


Young women from countries under Japanese imperial domination were reportedly abducted from their homes against their will. In some cases, women were also recruited with offers to work in military canteens and factories and subsequently forced to sexual service.[4][5][6] It has been documented that the Japanese military itself recruited women by force.[7]


The size and nature of sexual slavery by the Japanese military during World War II is still being actively debated, especially in Japan.


Many military brothels were run by private agents and supervised by the Japanese Army. Some Japanese historians, using the testimony of ex-comfort women, have argued that the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy were either directly or indirectly involved in coercing, deceiving, luring, and sometimes kidnapping young women throughout Japan's Asian colonies and occupied territories.[8] The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ... Poster of Manchukuo promoting harmony between Japanese, Han Chinese and Manchu. ...

Rangoon, Burma. August 8, 1945. A young ethnic Chinese woman who was in one of the Imperial Japanese Army's "comfort battalions" is interviewed by an Allied officer.
Rangoon, Burma. August 8, 1945. A young ethnic Chinese woman who was in one of the Imperial Japanese Army's "comfort battalions" is interviewed by an Allied officer.

Contents

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (662x659, 70 KB) Date: 8 August 1945 Description: A Chinese girl from one of the Japanese Armys comfort battalions awaits interrogation at a camp in Rangoon Source: IWMCollections IWM Photo No. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (662x659, 70 KB) Date: 8 August 1945 Description: A Chinese girl from one of the Japanese Armys comfort battalions awaits interrogation at a camp in Rangoon Source: IWMCollections IWM Photo No. ... Yangôn, formerly Rangoon, population 4,504,000 (2001), is the capital of Myanmar. ... Anthem: Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw , Largest city Yangon (Rangoon) Official languages Burmese Recognised regional languages Jingpho, Shan, Karen, Mon, Rakhine Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Senior General Than Shwe  -  Vice Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Vice-Senior General... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Overseas Chinese (華僑 in pinyin: huáqiáo, or 華胞 huábāo, or 僑胞 qiáobāo) are ethnic Chinese who live outside of Hong Kong, Taiwan. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

Establishment of the Comfort Women System

Japanese military prostitution

Given the well-organized and open nature of prostitution in Japan, it was seen as logical that there should be organized prostitution to serve the Japanese Armed Forces.[9] Japanese authorities hoped that by providing easily accessible prostitutes, the morale and ultimately the military effectiveness of Japanese soldiers would be improved. Also, by institutionalizing brothels and placing them under official scrutiny, the government hoped to control the spread of STDs. Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), also known as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), are diseases that are commonly transmitted between partners through some form of sexual activity, most commonly vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. ...


In spite of the analysis made by the author George Hicks mentioned in the preceding paragraph, military correspondence of Japanese Imperial Army shows that the aim of facilitating comfort stations was prevention of rape crimes committed by Japanese army personnel and thus preventing rise of hostility among people in occupied areas.[10]


Recruitment

Fig.1. Recruitment advertising for Comfort women in newspapers in Korea.(Right: Keijō nippō, July 26, 1944) "Huge Recruitment of Comfort Women, Age: 17-30. Place of Employment." but many women did not know what is the work of comfort women. Many women knew their work as factory workers or nurses, and did not know that they were being pressed into sexual slavery.
Fig.1. Recruitment advertising for Comfort women in newspapers in Korea.
(Right: Keijō nippō, July 26, 1944) "Huge Recruitment of Comfort Women, Age: 17-30. Place of Employment." but many women did not know what is the work of comfort women. Many women knew their work as factory workers or nurses, and did not know that they were being pressed into sexual slavery. [11]

The first "comfort station" was established in the Japanese concession in Shanghai in 1932. Earlier comfort women were Japanese prostitutes who volunteered for such service. However, as Japan continued military expansion, the military found itself short of Japanese volunteers, and turned to the local population to coerce women into serving into these stations.[12] Many women responded to calls for work as factory workers or nurses, and did not know that they were being pressed into sexual slavery.[11] Image File history File links COMFORTAdd.GIF‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Comfort women Talk:Comfort women ... Image File history File links COMFORTAdd.GIF‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Comfort women Talk:Comfort women ...


In the early stages of the war, Japanese authorities recruited prostitutes through conventional means. Middlemen advertised in newspapers circulating in Japan and the Japanese colonies of Korea, Taiwan, Manchukuo, and mainland China. However, these sources soon dried up, especially from Japan.[13] This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... ...


On April 17, 2007, Yoshiaki Yoshimi and Hirofumi Hayashi announced the discovery, in the archives of the Tokyo Trials, of seven official documents suggesting that Imperial military forces, such as the Tokeitai (naval secret police), forced women whose fathers attacked the Kempei Tai (Japanese military police), to work in front line brothels in China, Indochina and Indonesia. These documents were initially made public at the war crimes trial. In one of these, a lieutenant is quoted as confessing to having organized a brothel and having used it himself. Another source refers to Tokeitai members having arrested women on the streets, and after enforced medical examinations, putting them in brothels.[14] is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Professor of modern Japanese history at the Chuo University in Tokyo, Yoshimi is a founder member of the Center for Research and Documentation on Japans war responsibility. ... Hirofumi Hayashi ) is a historian and is currently a professor of politics at the Kanto Gakuin University. ... The Tokeitai (Naval Secret Police) was the Imperial Japanese Navys police equivalent to the Imperial Japanese Armys Kempeitai military police service. ... Kempeitai (憲兵隊, Law Soldier Regiment) was the military police of the Imperial Japanese Army. ...


On 12 May 2007, journalist Taichiro Kaijimura announced the discovery of 30 Dutch government documents submitted to the Tokyo tribunal as evidence of a forced massed prostitution incident in 1944 in Magelang.[15] is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Magelang is the largest town in the Kedu Plain between Mount Merbabu and Mount Sumbing in Central Java, Indonesia. ...


The Ministry of Foreign Affairs resisted further issuance of travel visas for Japanese prostitutes, feeling it tarnished the image of the Japanese Empire.[16] The military turned to acquiring comfort women outside mainland Japan, especially from Korea and occupied China. Many women were tricked or defrauded into joining the military brothels.[17] The US Army Force Office report of interview with 20 comfort women in Burma found that the girls were induced by the offer of plenty of money, an opportunity to pay off the family debts, and on the basis of these false representations many girls enlisted for overseas duty and were rewarded with advance of a few hundred yen.[18]


In urban areas, conventional advertising through middlemen was used alongside kidnapping. However, along the front lines, especially in the countryside where middlemen were rare, the military often directly demanded that local leaders procure women for the brothels. This situation became worse as the war progressed. Under the strain of the war effort, the military became unable to provide enough supplies to Japanese units; in response, the units made up the difference by demanding or looting supplies from the locals. Moreover, when the locals, especially Chinese, were considered hostile, Japanese soldiers carried out the "Three Alls Policy", which included indiscriminately kidnapping and raping local civilians.[19][20][21] Sankō sakusen (Japanese: 三光作戦, sankō sakusen; Chinese: 三光政策, Sānguāng Zhèngcè; literally The Three Nothings Strategy/Policy) was a Japanese scorched earth policy adopted in China during World War II. Although it literally means three nothings, in this case the word nothing means nothing left. Thus, the term is more...


South Korean government designated Bae Jeong-ja as pro-Japan collaborator (chinilpa) in September 2007 for recruiting comfort women.[22][23] Chinilpa (친일파, 親日派, literally people friendly to Japan) or Ilpa (일파, 日派) is a Korean slur for pro-Japanese Koreans, including but not limited to the pro-Japanese activists and collaborators as well as those who worked for the better relationship with Japan during the periods of Korean Empire and Korea under Japanese rule...


Number of comfort women

Lack of official documentation has made estimates of the total number of comfort women difficult, as vast amounts of material pertaining to matters related to war crimes and the war responsibility of the nation's highest leaders were deleted on the orders of the Japanese government.[24] Historians have arrived at various estimates by looking at surviving documentation which indicate the ratio of the number of soldiers in a particular area to the number of women, as well as looking at replacement rates of the women.[25] Historian Yoshiaki Yoshimi, who conducted the first academic study on the topic which brought the issue out into the open, estimated the number to be between 50,000 and 200,000.[10] Professor of modern Japanese history at the Chuo University in Tokyo, Yoshimi is a founder member of the Center for Research and Documentation on Japans war responsibility. ...


Based on these estimates, most international media sources quote about 200,000 young women were recruited or kidnapped by soldiers to serve in Japanese military brothels. The BBC quotes "200,000 to 300,000" and the International Commission of Jurists quotes "estimates of historians of 100,000 to 200,000 women."[26]


Country of origin

Internationally, it is generally thought that most of the women were from Korea and China.[27][28] Others came from the Philippines, Taiwan, Dutch East Indies, and other Japanese-occupied countries and regions.[29] Some Dutch women, captured in Dutch colonies in Asia, were also forced into sexual slavery.[30][31] The Japanese occupation of Indonesia refers to the period between 1942 and 1945, during World War II, when the Empire of Japan ruled Indonesia. ... The Dutch (Ethnonym: Nederlanders meaning Lowlanders) are the dominant ethnic group[1] of the Netherlands[2]. They are usually seen as a Germanic people. ... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution single-owner sexual slavery ritual slavery, sometimes associated with traditional religious practices slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is...


According to Kono Statement in 1993, the origin of those comfort women who were transferred to the war areas, excluding those from Japan, those from the Korean Peninsula accounted for a large part.[32]


According to Kanto Gakuin University professor Hirofumi Hayashi, the majority of the women were from Japan, Korea, and China.[29] Kanto Gakuin University is a private university located in Yokohama, Japan. ... Hirofumi Hayashi ) is a historian and is currently a professor of politics at the Kanto Gakuin University. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ...


To date, only one Japanese woman has published her testimony. This was done in 1971, when a former "comfort woman" forced to work for showa soldiers in Taiwan, published her memoirs under the pseudonym of Suzuko Shirota.[33]


Treatment of comfort women

According to Unit 731 soldier Yasuji Kaneko[34] "The women cried out, but it didn't matter to us whether the women lived or died. We were the emperor's soldiers. Whether in military brothels or in the villages, we raped without reluctance."[35] Beatings and physical torture were said to be not uncommon.[36] Body disposal at Unit 731 Unit 731 was a covert biological warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried... Yasuji Kaneko , born 1920) was a soldier of the Imperial Japanese Army. ...


Ten Dutch women were taken by force from prison camps in Java by officers of the Japanese Imperial Army to become forced sex slaves in February 1944. They were systematically beaten and raped day and night in a so called "Comfort Station".[36][8] As a victim of the incident, Jan Ruff-O'Hearn testified to a U.S. House of Representatives committee, "Many stories have been told about the horrors, brutalities, suffering and starvation of Dutch women in Japanese prison camps. But one story was never told, the most shameful story of the worst human rights abuse committed by the Japanese during World War II: The story of the “Comfort Women”, the jugun ianfu, and how these women were forcibly seized against their will, to provide sexual services for the Japanese Imperial Army. In the so-called “Comfort Station” I was systematically beaten and raped day and night. Even the Japanese doctor raped me each time he visited the brothel to examine us for venereal disease."[36][8] Although they were returned to the prison camps within three months upon protest of the Dutch prisoners against the Imperial Army, the Japanese officers were not punished by Japanese authorities until the end of the war.[37] After the end of the war 11 Japanese officers were declared guilty with one sentenced to death by the Batavia War Criminal Court.[37] It decided that the case was not crime organized by the Army and that the ones who raped violated the Army’s order to hire only voluntary women.[37]


Some researchers have found documents giving instructions not to treat comfort women violently.[38] However, some victims from East Timor testified they were forced when they were not old enough to have started menstruating and repeatedly raped by Japanese soldiers.[39]


Hank Nelson, emeritus professor at the Australian National University’s Asia Pacific Research Division has written about the brothels run by the Japanese military in Rabaul, Papua New Guinea during WWII. He quotes from the diary of Gordon Thomas, a POW in Rabaul. Thomas writes that the women working at the brothels “most likely served 25 to 35 men a day” and that they were “victims of the yellow slave trade.”[40] The Australian National University, or ANU, is a public university located in Canberra, Australia. ... For the volcanic caldera within which Rabaul lies, see Rabaul caldera. ...


Nelson also quotes from Kentaro Igusa, a Japanese naval surgeon who was stationed in Rabaul. Igusa wrote in his memoirs that the women continued to work through infection and severe discomfort, though they “cried and begged for help.”[40]


Evidence

After its defeat the Japanese military destroyed many documents for fear of war crimes prosecution.[41] There is hard evidence proving official orders from the Japanese Ministry of War to destroy evidence.[42]


Historians have searched for evidence of the Army and Navy's coercion, and some written proof has been discovered, such as documents found in 2007 by Yoshiaki Yoshimi and Hirofumi Hayashi.[43] The surviving sex slaves wanted an apology from the Japanese government. Abe Hiroshi, the prime minister at the time, stated that there is no evidence that the Japanese government instituted a brutal sex slave industry. His statement was proved incorrect in 2006. Professor of modern Japanese history at the Chuo University in Tokyo, Yoshimi is a founder member of the Center for Research and Documentation on Japans war responsibility. ...


History of the controversy

Disputed testimony of an ex-soldier

In 1983, Seiji Yoshida published Watashino sensō hanzai - Chōsenjin Kyōsei Renkō (My War Crimes: The Impressment of Koreans), in which the author confesses to forcibly procuring women from Jeju Island in Korea under the direct order from the Japanese military. In 1991, Asahi Shimbun, one of the major newspapers of Japan, ran a series on comfort women for a year. This is often regarded as the trigger of the on-going controversy over comfort women in Japan. In this series the Asahi Shimbun repeatedly published excerpts of his book. Consequently, it was regarded as evidence of "forced comfort women" and cited in the U.N. report by Dr. Radhika Coomaraswamy. Seiji Yoshida (吉田清治) is a Japanese writer. ... Jeju is the largest island and smallest province in South Korea, and the name of islands largest city and provincial capital (see Jeju City). ... Asahi-OSAKA office Asahi is a common name in Japan, for other uses see Asahi. ... Radhika Coomaraswamy was appointed by then United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan as Under-Secretary-General, Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict in April 2006. ...


But some people doubted Yoshida's "confession" because he was alone in admitting to such crimes. When Prof. Ikuhiko Hata revisited the villages in South Korea where Yoshida claimed he had abducted many women, nobody confirmed Yoshida's confession and the situation was contradictory to his confession. When Hata questioned Yoshida on this matter, the latter admitted that he had taken artistic licence in respect to the places mentioned.[citation needed] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Initial government response and litigation

Initially the Japanese government denied any official connection to the wartime brothels; in June 1990, the Japanese government declared that all brothels were run by private contractors.


In 1990, the Korean Council for Women Drafted for Military Sexual Slavery filed suit, demanding compensation. Several surviving comfort women also independently filed suit in the Tokyo District Court. The court rejected these claims on grounds such as statute of limitations, the immunity of the State at the time of the act concerned, and non-subjectivity of the individual of international law.[44] For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... District courts are a category of courts which exists in several nations. ...


Kono statement

However, in 1991, the historian Yoshiaki Yoshimi discovered incriminating documents in the archives of Japan's Defense Agency. According to Yoshimi they indicated that the military was directly involved in running the brothels, for example by selecting the recruiting agents.[45] The Asahi Shimbun, a major Japanese national daily, published these findings as a front-page article "Japanese Army abducted comfort women" on 11 January 1992. This caused a sensation and forced the government, represented by Chief Cabinet Secretary, Koichi Kato, to acknowledge some of the facts the same day. On January 17, 1992, Prime minister Kiichi Miyazawa presented formal apologies for the suffering of the victims during a trip to South Korea. Professor of modern Japanese history at the Chuo University in Tokyo, Yoshimi is a founder member of the Center for Research and Documentation on Japans war responsibility. ... The Japan Defense Agency ) is an agency of the Cabinet Office in the Cabinet of Japan. ... Asahi-OSAKA office Asahi is a common name in Japan, for other uses see Asahi. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Kōichi Katō is the name of two Japanese politicians. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Kiichi Miyazawa , October 8, 1919–June 28, 2007) was a Japanese politician and the 78th Prime Minister from November 5, 1991 to August 9, 1993. ...


After some government studies into the matter, Yohei Kono, the Chief Cabinet Secretary of the Japanese government, issued a statement on 4 August 1993. By this statement the Japanese government recognized that "Comfort stations were operated in response to the request of the military of the day", that "The Japanese military was directly or indirectly involved in the establishment and management of the comfort stations and the transfer of the women", "The recruitment of the comfort women was conducted mainly by private recruiters who acted in response to the request of the military. The Government study has revealed that in many cases they were recruited against their own will through coaxing and coercion". The government of Japan "sincerely apologize[d] and [expressed its] remorse to all those, irrespective of place of origin, who suffered immeasurable pain and incurable psychological wounds". In the statement, the government of Japan expressed its "firm determination never to repeat the same mistake and that they would engrave such issue through the study and teaching of history".[32] Yohei Kono (河野洋平, Kōno Yōhei, born January 15, 1937) is a Japanese politician. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


Although this statement gave the pretense of being an apology, it was very carefully worded, thus admitting an unspecified role in the military brothels, yet rejecting legal responsibility for them. Japan continues to contend the brothels were not a "system" and not a war crime nor crime against humanity.[46]


Asia Women's Fund

In 1995, Japan set up an "Asia Women's Fund" for atonement in the form of material compensation and to provide each surviving comfort woman with a signed apology from the then prime minister Tomiichi Murayama, stating "As Prime Minister of Japan, I thus extend anew my most sincere apologies and remorse to all the women who underwent immeasurable and painful experiences and suffered incurable physical and psychological wounds as comfort women."[47] The fund is funded by private donations and not government money, and has been criticized as a way to avoid admitting government abuse.[48][35] But because of the unofficial nature of the fund, many comfort women have rejected these payments and continue to seek an official apology and compensation.[49] Tomiichi Murayama Tomiichi Murayama (村山 富市 Murayama Tomiichi, born March 3, 1924) was the 81st Prime Minister of Japan from June 30, 1994 to January 11, 1996 and was replaced by Ryutaro Hashimoto. ...


United Nations Human Rights Commission

On June 22, 1998, Gay J. McDougall, Special Rapporteur to the United Nations Human Rights Commission, released Contemporary Forms of Slavery[50], a report based on prior UN investigation by Linda Chavez documenting systematic rape, sexual slavery and slavery-like practices in wartime in general but which was mainly aimed at bringing wider attention to the deep harm to human rights caused by Japan's comfort women program during World War II. The report detailed the official Japanese government stance as well as the UN's own legal position. MacDougall was awarded a MacArthur Fellows Program "genius" grant the year after her analysis. is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... United Nations Commission on Human Rights - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article is about the conservative activist and former unionist. ... The MacArthur Fellows Program or MacArthur Fellowship (sometimes nicknamed the genius grant) is an award given by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation each year to typically 20 to 40 citizens or residents of the U.S., of any age and working in any field, who show exceptional...


Guilt and liability

The 1998 UN report listed their findings regarding Japan's guilt and liability:

  • The system of comfort women used by the Japanese government during WWII falls under the international definition of slavery at the time, and slavery (sexual or otherwise) was illegal at the time. The 1926 Slavery Convention embodies one such definition. International prohibition of slavery was included in the Tokyo Charter which was used to make the International Military Tribunal for the Far East.[50]
  • Rape (including forced or coerced prostitution) was a war crime at the time; regardless of whether prostitution was widespread during World War II.[50]
  • Enslavement and other inhumane acts committed by the Japanese government can be considered “crimes against humanity.” In crimes against humanity, the nationality of the victim is irrelevant thus, (it doesn’t matter if the Japanese government was committing crimes against its enemies’ citizens or its own) it is liable for these offenses.[50]
  • The Japanese government is liable for crimes against humanity because of the considerable scale on which these crimes were committed.[50]
  • Arguments that the enslaving and raping of comfort women was perfectly legal at the time is similar to an argument that was used and refuted at the Nuremberg Trials.[50]

1926 Slavery Convention - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trials, the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal or simply as the Tribunal, was convened to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for three types of crimes: Class A (crimes against peace), Class B (war crimes... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ...

Official position of the Japanese government

The 1998 UN report stated their understanding of Japan's legal position regarding compensation:


"Until the early 1990s, the Japanese government denied the extent of its involvement in the creation of comfort stations and the abuses committed against women (comfort women). The Japanese government has made various apologies since the early 1990s. One very notable apology was made by Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama in July 1995 in which he specifically mentions the Japanese military’s involvement in crimes against comfort women. Though it has seemingly apologized repeatedly for these offenses, the Japanese government denies legal liability for the creation and maintenance of the system of “comfort stations” and comfort women used during World War II. The Japanese government has set up an Asia Women’s Fund which conveys Japan’s apologies for crimes committed against women during World War II through direct donations from the Japanese public. Despite this, according to the Japanese government, individual comfort women don’t deserve compensation."[50] Tomiichi Murayama Tomiichi Murayama (村山 富市 Murayama Tomiichi, born March 3, 1924) was the 81st Prime Minister of Japan from June 30, 1994 to January 11, 1996 and was replaced by Ryutaro Hashimoto. ... Alternate Japanese name Chinese name Korean name Alternate Korean name Comfort women is a euphemism for women forced into prostitution and sexual slavery for Japanese military brothels during World War II.[1][2] Around 50,000 - 200,000 are estimated to have been procured, but there is still some disagreement...


Abe controversy

On 2 March 2007, the issue was raised again by Japanese prime minister Shinzo Abe, when he denied that the Japanese military had forced women into sexual slavery during World War II in an orchestrated way. He stated, "The fact is, there is no evidence to prove there was coercion." Before he spoke, a group of Liberal Democratic Party lawmakers also sought to revise Yohei Kono's 1993 apology to former comfort women.[dead link] [51][48] Abe's statement provoked a negative reaction from Asian and Western countries. The New York Times editorial said, "These were not commercial brothels. Force, explicit and implicit, was used in recruiting these women."[52] On 26 March 2007 Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe expressed his regrets for the violations of human rights with regard to comfort women.[citation needed] According to Kyodo news, Abe's step back and announcement that he should stand after all to Yohei Kono's 1993 statement was made after firm warning by U.S. ambassador Thomas Schieffer.[53]-1... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Shinzo Abe , ; born 21 September 1954) is the current Prime Minister of Japan, elected by a special session of the National Diet on 26 September 2006. ... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution single-owner sexual slavery ritual slavery, sometimes associated with traditional religious practices slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is... This section needs to be updated. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Yohei Kono (河野洋平, Kōno Yōhei, born January 15, 1937) is a Japanese politician. ...


Following Abe's declarations, former education minister Nariaki Nakayama declared he was proud that the Liberal Democratic Party had succeeded in getting references to "wartime sex slaves" struck from most authorized history texts for junior high schools. "Our campaign worked, and people outside government also started raising their voices." [54], He also declared that he agreed with an e-mail sent to him saying that the "victimized women in Asia should be proud of being comfort women".[55] This section needs to be updated. ...


The use of the term

Taiwan's English-language newspaper Taipei Times says that the first exposure of the use of Korean comfort women can be found in Japanese writer Tamura Taijiro's 1947 novel A Prostitute's Story.[56] The Taipei Times is one of the three English-language newspapers in Taiwan, the other two being the Taiwan News and the China Post. ...


Japanese newspaper Yomiuri Shimbun stated that commfort women were not treated as "paramilitary personnel", unlike military nurses.[57] The article says, during the war, Comfort women were not called military comfort women (従軍慰安婦 jūgun-ianfu?) and the use of the term spread in the post-war period.[57] The term military comfort women is said to have been used by Japanese writer Kakō Senda (1924-2000) in his book titled Jūgun Ianfu (military comfort women ) published in 1973.[57] Yomiuri-TOKYO Office Yomiuri-Osaka Office Yomiuri YC The Yomiuri Shimbun (読売新聞 Yomiuri Shinbun) is a Japanese newspaper published in Tokyo, Osaka, Fukuoka, and other major Japanese cities. ...


Senda’s book became a best seller.[58] Thereafter, the usage of jugun ianfu prevailed, and the term jugun ianfu (comfort women serving in the war), would later become contentious, came to have a wide circulation. [58]


U.S. Congressional resolution

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

In 2007, Mike Honda of the United States House of Representatives proposed House Resolution 121 which stated that Japan should formally acknowledge, apologize, and accept historical responsibility in a clear and unequivocal manner, refute any claims that the issue of comfort women never occurred, and educate current and future generations "about this horrible crime while following the recommendations of the international community with respect to the 'comfort women'."[59] Honda has stated that "the purpose of this resolution is not to bash or humiliate Japan."[60] However, the Japanese embassy in the U.S. stated that the Resolution was erroneous in terms of the facts and that it would be harmful to the friendship between the US and Japan.[61] Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Michael Makoto Mike Honda (Japanese: 本田 誠 born June 27, 1941) is an American Democratic politician. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... United States House of Representatives House Resolution 121 is a Resolution about comfort women which Mike Honda intoduced to the American House of Representatives in 2007. ...


On July 30, 2007, the resolution passed through the House of Representatives after half an hour of debate in which there was no opposition voiced.[62] Honda was quoted on the floor as saying, "We must teach future generations that we cannot allow this to continue to happen. I have always believed that reconciliation is the first step in the healing process."[62] is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Dutch Parliament resolution

The lower house of the Dutch parliament passed a motion unanimously on November 20, 2007, urging Japan to financially compensate the women forced into sex slavery during World War II. is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


"This should send a strong and clear signal to the Japanese government and the Japanese people, that so many years after World War II, people in the Netherlands still want the Japanese to recognize the war crimes of the past and to recognize the victims," said van Baalen, who tabled the motion. "It is a matter still taken seriously in the Netherlands," he said. [63] [64]


Canadian Lower House resolution

Canada's lower house unanimously approved a draft motion on November 28, 2007 that urges the Japanese government to make a "formal and sincere apology" to women who were forced by the Japanese military to provide sex for soldiers during World War II.


The text of the motion said the Canadian government should call on the Japanese government "to take full responsibility for the involvement of the Japanese Imperial Forces in the system of forced prostitution, including through a formal and sincere apology expressed in the Diet to all of those who were victims; and to continue to address with those affected in a spirit of reconciliation."


It also said, "Some Japanese public officials have recently expressed a regrettable desire to dilute or rescind the 1993 statement by Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono on the 'comfort women,' which expressed the (Japanese) Government's sincere apologies and remorse for their ordeal."


The motion, though nonbinding, also said the Canadian government should call on Japan to abandon any statement which devalues the expression of regret from the Kono statement and to clearly and publicly refute any claims that the sexual enslavement and trafficking of the "comfort women" for the Imperial Japanese Army never occurred.[65][66]


European Parliament resolution

Following a campaign by Amnesty International to press the EU on making a statement about the issue, on 13 December 2007 the European Parliament in Strasbourg passed a resolution calling for the Japanese government to formally acknowledge its historical responsibility over the Comfort Women issue, as well as apologize and compensate victims. Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... For other uses, see Strasburg. ...


The motion was submitted by Jean Lambert, a Green member of the European Parliament, and was voted through by 54 Member of the European Parliament's. The resolution, while acknowledging past statements by the Japanese government, noted that "some Japanese officials have recently expressed a regrettable desire to dilute or rescind those statements" and called for the Japanese government to "formally acknowledge, apologize and accept historical and legal responsibility, in a clear and unequivocal manner". The resolution also called for the Japanese government to remove legal obstacles to compensation for the victims, and to take steps to educate people about these events. [67] [68][69][70] The Media embedded Processor (MeP) is a configurable 32-bit processor design from Toshiba Semiconductor for embedded media processing applications. ...


Revisionists and other deniers

The main opposition to the mainstream ideas about comfort women is perhaps the view held by Ikuhiko Hata and other revisionist historians. They question the credibility of certain evidence used to prove the existence and scope of various war crimes committed by Japan including the abuse of comfort women. These Japanese historians argue that there is no evidence to prove the Japanese military's direct involvement in coercion of the women. In their view, there was violent treatment of comfort women by private agents, which would make the Japanese Military only responsible for insufficient supervision.[citation needed] A comic book, On Taiwan by Japanese author Yoshinori Kobayashi, depicts kimono-clad women lining up to sign up for duty before a Japanese soldier. Kobayashi's book contains an interview with Taiwanese industrialist Shi Wen-long who stated that no women were forced to serve, and that they worked in more hygienic conditions compared to regular prostitutes because the use of condoms was mandatory.[71]. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In Parson Weems Fable (1939) Grant Wood takes a sly poke at a traditional hagiographical account of George Washington Historical revisionism has both a legitimate academic use and a pejorative meaning. ... Yoshinori Kobayashi (Penname: 小林 よしのり, Real name: 小林 善範; Kobayashi Yoshinori, born in Fukuoka, Japan, August 31, 1953) is a bestselling Japanese conservative author and manga artist. ...


Hata estimates the number of comfort women to be more likely between 10,000 and 20,000 (in contrast to 60,000 to 300,000 estimated by other historians).[10] Hata writes that none of the comfort women were forcibly recruited.[72]


The proportion of countries of origin of the women is also in dispute.


One argument revisionists use[who?] to oppose the mainstream conclusions about the abuse of comfort women is to question the credibility of testimony given by former comfort women. Some Japanese politicians have argued that the former comfort women's testimony is inconsistent and unreliable; making it invalid.[73]


Some groups in Japan have protested the mainstream ideas about comfort women being broadcast in mass media. This resulted in the NHK controversy in early 2001. What was supposed to be coverage of the Women’s International War Crimes Tribunal on Japan’s Military Sexual Slavery was extremely edited and an interview with Hata was inserted at the last minute to appease the right-wing groups that complained to NHK.[74] NHK Broadcasting Center in Shibuya, Tokyo NHK (, Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai), or the Japan Broadcasting Corporation, is Japans public broadcaster. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


See also

This article lists and summarizes War Crimes committed since the Hague Convention of 1907. ... Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism. ... // 29 September 1972. ... Anti-Japanese sentiment refers to the view of the Japanese people or of the Japanese nation with suspicion or hostility. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Anti-Japanese sentiment. ... Anti-Japanese sentiment in Korea is complex and multi-faceted. ... For other uses, see Human trafficking (disambiguation). ... The House of Dolls is a 1955 novel by Ka-tzetnik 135633. ... The Recreation and Amusement Association (RAA, 特殊慰安施設協会), or more literally Special Comfort Facility Association, was the official euphemism for the prostitution centers arranged for the U.S. armed forces in Occupied Japan after World War II. The RAA was created on August 28, 1945 by the Japanese Home Ministry to contain... Historical revisionism is the attempt to change commonly held ideas about the past. ... United States House of Representatives House Resolution 121 is a Resolution about comfort women which Mike Honda intoduced to the American House of Representatives in 2007. ... Maria Rosa Luna Henson, (photo attributed to PCIJ)[1]. Maria Rosa Luna Henson or Lola Rosa (Grandma Rosa) (1927- 1997) was the first Filipina to tell the world of her story as a comfort woman for the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II. In 1992 when Henson was 65...

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ http://members.iinet.net.au/~gduncan/massacres_pacific.html
  2. ^ "Comfort-Women.org FAQ", Comfort-women.org, 2004. Retrieved on 2007-10-11. [dead link – history]
  3. ^ FACTBOX-Disputes over Japan's wartime "comfort women" continue, Reuters, March 5, 2007, <http://uk.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUKSP21646220070305>. Retrieved on 20 May 2008 
  4. ^ Yoshimi, Yoshiaki [1995] (2000). Comfort Women. Sexual Slavery in the Japanese Military During World War II, translation Suzanne O'Brien, Asia Perspectives, New York: Columbia University Press, 100-101, 105-106, 110-111. ISBN 0-231-12033-8. 
    Fackler, Martin. "No Apology for Sex Slavery, Japan’s Prime Minister Says", The New York Times, 2007-03-06. Retrieved on 2007-03-23. 
  5. ^ "Abe questions sex slave 'coercion'", BBC News, 2007-03-02. Retrieved on 2007-03-23. 
  6. ^ "Japan party probes sex slave use", BBC News, 2007-03-08. Retrieved on 2007-03-23. 
  7. ^ Minister van Buitenlandse zaken [Minister of Foreign Affairs] (January 24, 1994). "Gedwongen prostitutie van Nederlandse vrouwen in voormalig Nederlands-Indië [Enforced prostitution of Dutch women in the former Dutch East Indies]". Handelingen Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal [Hansard Dutch Lower House] 23607 (1): 6-9, 11, 13-14. ISSN 0921-7371. Lay summary – Nationaal Archief [Dutch National Archive] (Dutch)' (2007-03-27). 
  8. ^ a b c Onishi, Norimitsu. "Denial Reopens Wounds of Japan's Ex-Sex Slaves", The New York Times, 2007-03-08. Retrieved on 2007-03-23. 
  9. ^ George Hicks, "The Comfort Women". Allen & Unwin ISBN 1863737278
  10. ^ a b c The "Comfort Women" Issue and the Asian Women's Fund, Asian Women's Fund, pp. 10, <http://www.awf.or.jp/woman/pdf/ianhu_ei.pdf> 
  11. ^ a b Comfort Women by Dottie Horn. Pak (her surname) was about 17, living in Hamun, Korea, when local Korean officials, acting on orders from the Japanese, began recruiting women for factory work. Someone from Pak's house had to go. In April of 1942, turned Pak and other young women over to the Japanese, who took them into China, not into factories[1] deceived
  12. ^ Richard H. Mitchell, The American Historical Review, Vol. 102, No. 2 (Apr., 1997), pp. 503
  13. ^ Yoshimi, Yoshiaki [1995] (2000). Comfort Women. Sexual Slavery in the Japanese Military During World War II, translation Suzanne O'Brien, Asia Perspectives, New York: Columbia University Press, 100-101, 105-106, 110-111. ISBN 0-231-12033-8. 
    Hicks, George [1995] (1997). The Comfort Women. Japans Brutal Regime of Enforced Prostitution in the Second World War. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 66-67, 119, 131, 142-143. ISBN 0-393-31694-7. 
    Minister van Buitenlandse zaken [Minister of Foreign Affairs] (January 24, 1994). "Gedwongen prostitutie van Nederlandse vrouwen in voormalig Nederlands-Indië [Enforced prostitution of Dutch women in the former Dutch East Indies]". Handelingen Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal [Hansard Dutch Lower House] 23607 (1): 6-9, 11, 13-14. ISSN 0921-7371. Lay summary – Nationaal Archief [Dutch National Archive] (Dutch)' (2007-03-27). 
  14. ^ Reiji Yoshida. "Evidence documenting sex-slave coercion revealed", Japan Times, April 18, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-08-29. 
  15. ^ "Files: Females forced into sexual servitude in wartime Indonesia", Japan Times, 12 May 2007. Retrieved on 2007-08-29. 
  16. ^ Yoshimi, Yoshiaki [1995] (2000). Comfort Women. Sexual Slavery in the Japanese Military During World War II, translation Suzanne O'Brien, Asia Perspectives, New York: Columbia University Press, 82-83. ISBN 0-231-12033-8. 
    Hicks, George [1995] (1997). The Comfort Women. Japans Brutal Regime of Enforced Prostitution in the Second World War. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 223-228. ISBN 0-393-31694-7. 
  17. ^ Yoshimi, Yoshiaki [1995] (2000). Comfort Women. Sexual Slavery in the Japanese Military During World War II, translation Suzanne O'Brien, Asia Perspectives, New York: Columbia University Press, 101-105, 113, 116-117. ISBN 0-231-12033-8. 
    Hicks, George [1995] (1997). The Comfort Women. Japans Brutal Regime of Enforced Prostitution in the Second World War. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 13, 50, 52-54, 69-71, 113, 115, 142, 145-146, 148. ISBN 0-393-31694-7. 
    Minister van Buitenlandse zaken [Minister of Foreign Affairs] (January 24, 1994). Gedwongen prostitutie van Nederlandse vrouwen in voormalig Nederlands-Indië [Enforced prostitution of Dutch women in the former Dutch East Indies]. Handelingen Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal [Hansard Dutch Lower House] 23607 (1): 8-9, 14. ISSN 0921-7371. Lay summary – Nationaal Archief [Dutch National Archive] (Dutch)' (2007-03-27). 
    International Military Tribunal for the Far East (1948-11-01). Judgment International Military Tribunal for the Far East (HTML). Hyperwar, a hypertext history of the Second World War p. 1135. Hyperwar Foundation. Retrieved on April 23, 2007.
  18. ^ Report No. 49: Japanese POW Interrogation on Prostitution. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  19. ^ Fujiwara, Akira (藤原彰) The Three Alls Policy and the Northern Chinese Regional Army (「三光作戦」と北支那方面軍), Kikan sensô sekinin kenkyû 20, 1998
  20. ^ Himeta, Mitsuyoshi (姫田光義) Concerning the Three Alls Strategy/Three Alls Policy By the Japanese Forces (日本軍による『三光政策・三光作戦をめぐって』), Iwanami Bukkuretto, 1996
  21. ^ Bix, Herbert P. Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, HarperCollins, 2000. ISBN 0-06-019314-X
  22. ^ Bae Ji-sook, "202 Pro-Japanese Collaborators Disclosed", The Korea Times, 09-17-2007.
  23. ^ (Japanese) "宋秉畯ら第2期親日反民族行為者202人を選定", JoongAng Ilbo, 2007.09.17. "日本軍慰安婦を募集したことで悪名高いベ・ジョンジャ"
  24. ^ Burning of Confidential Documents by Japanese Government, case no.43, serial 2, International Prosecution Section vol. 8;
    International Military Tribunal for the Far East (1948-11-01). Judgment International Military Tribunal for the Far East (HTML). Hyperwar, a hypertext history of the Second World War p. 1135. Hyperwar Foundation. Retrieved on April 23, 2007. “When it became apparent that Japan would be forced to surrender, an organized effort was made to burn or otherwise destroy all documents and other evidence of ill-treatment of prisoners of war and civilian internees. The Japanese Minister of War issued an order on 14 August 1945 to all Army headquarters that confidential documents should be destroyed by fire immediately. On the same day, the Commandant of the Kempetai sent out instructions to the various Kempetai Headquarters detailing the methods of burning large quantities of documents efficiently.”
    Yoshimi, Yoshiaki [1995] (2000). Comfort Women. Sexual Slavery in the Japanese Military During World War II, translation Suzanne O'Brien, Asia Perspectives, New York: http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cup Columbia University Press], 91. ISBN 0-231-12033-8. “[...] , the actual number of comfort women remains unclear because the Japanese army incinerated many crucial documents right after the defeat for fear of war crimes prosecution, [...]” 
    Herbert Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, 2001, ISBN 006019314X, p.528;
    Drea, Edward; et al. [2006] (2006). Researching Japanese War Crimes Records. Introductory Essays (pdf), Washington DC: Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group, 9. ISBN 1-880875-28-4. Retrieved on 2007-08-06. “Between the announcement of a ceasefire on August 15, 1945, and the arrival of small advance parties of American troops in Japan on August 28, Japanese military and civil authorities systematically destroyed military, naval, and government archives, much of which was from the period 1942–1945. Imperial General Headquarters in Tokyo dispatched enciphered messages to field commands throughout the Pacific and East Asia ordering units to burn incriminating evidence of war crimes, especially offenses against prisoners of war. The director of Japan’s Military History Archives of the National Institute for Defense Studies estimated in 2003 that as much as 70 percent of the army’s wartime records were burned or otherwise destroyed.” 
  25. ^ Nakamura, Akemi. "Were they teen-rape slaves or paid pros?", The Japan Times, 2007-03-20. Retrieved on 2007-03-23. 
  26. ^ "Japan court rules against 'comfort women'", Reuters, 2001-03-29. Retrieved on 2007-03-23. 
  27. ^ * BBC article "An estimated 200,000 to 300,000 women across Asia, predominantly Korean and Chinese, are believed to have been forced to work as sex slaves in Japanese military brothels"
    • Mainichi Daily News article "Historians say thousands of women -- as many as 200,000 by some accounts -- mostly from Korea, China and Japan worked in the Japanese military brothels"
    • University of Carolina publication: "A majority of the 80,000 to 200,000 comfort women were from Korea, though others were recruited or recruited from China, the Philippines, Burma, and Indonesia. Some Japanese women who worked as prostitutes before the war also became comfort women."
    • A Public Betrayed "Approximately 80 percent of the sex slaves were Korean;"
    • Japan Policy Research Institute publication "Estimates of the number of comfort women range between 50,000 and 200,000. It is believed that most were Korean."
  28. ^ However, according to Kanto Gakuin University professor Hirofumi Hayashi, the majority of the women were from Japan, Korea, and China. Japan's Responsibility Toward Comfort Women Survivors History News Network ZNet Chuo University professor Yoshiaki Yoshimi states there were about 2,000 centers where as many as 200,000 Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Filipino, Taiwanese, Burmese, Indonesian, Dutch and Australian women were interned. See Yoshimi, Comfort Women: Sexual Slavery in the Japanese Military during World War II, Columbia University press, 2002. Nihon University professor Ikuhiko Hata estimated the number of women working in the licensed pleasure quarter was fewer than 20,000. They were 40% Japanese, 20% Koreans, 10% Chinese, with others making up the remaining 30%. 200,000 might be an overestimation because the total number of government-regulated prostitutes was 170,000 in Japan during the WW2. See Hata, Ikuhiko, Ianfu to senjo no sei (Comfort women and the sex in the battlefield) Shinchosha, ISBN 4106005654 (in Japanese)
  29. ^ a b Soh, Sarah. "Japan's Responsibility Toward Comfort Women Survivors", Japan Policy Research Institute, 2001-05-01. Retrieved on 2007-03-23. 
  30. ^ Comfort Women Were 'Raped': U.S. Ambassador to Japan
  31. ^ Abe ignores evidence, say Australia's 'comfort women'
  32. ^ a b Statement by the Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono on the result of the study on the issue of "comfort women" (1993-08-04). Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  33. ^ Associated Press. "Memoir of comfort woman tells of 'hell for women'", China Daily, 6 July 2007. Retrieved on 2007-08-29. 
  34. ^ 731部隊「コレラ作戦」 (Japanese). Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  35. ^ a b Tabuchi, Hiroko. "Japan's Abe: No Proof of WWII Sex Slaves", The Washington Post, 2007-03-01. Retrieved on 2007-03-23. 
  36. ^ a b c Statement of Jan Ruff O’Herne AO, Subcommittee on Asia, Pacific and the Global Environment, Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  37. ^ a b c 日本占領下インドネシアにおける慰安婦 (Japanese). Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  38. ^ nishimura-voice.up.seesaa.net (JPG Image)
  39. ^ Keiji Hirano. "East Timor former sex slaves start speaking out", Japan Times, April 28, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-08-29. 
  40. ^ a b Hank Nelson. The Consolation Unit: Comfort Women at Rabaul (pdf) (English). The Australian National University. Retrieved on 2007-11-26.
  41. ^ Yoshimi, Yoshiaki [1995] (2000). Comfort Women. Sexual Slavery in the Japanese Military During World War II, translation Suzanne O'Brien, Asia Perspectives, New York: Columbia University Press, 91. ISBN 0-231-12033-8. 
  42. ^ International Military Tribunal for the Far East (1948-11-01). Judgment International Military Tribunal for the Far East (HTML). Hyperwar, a hypertext history of the Second World War 1135-1136. Hyperwar Foundation. Retrieved on April 23, 2007.
  43. ^ Evidence documenting sex-slave coercion revealed
  44. ^ Lawsuits against the Government of Japan filed by the survivors in Japanese Courts. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  45. ^ Yoshimi, ibid.
  46. ^ History of Comfort Women by the Washington Coalition for Comfort Women Issues. Retrieved on 2008-05-28.
  47. ^ Letter from Prime Minister to the former comfort women, since 1996. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  48. ^ a b "Ex - Japanese PM Denies Setting Up Brothel", The Associated Press, 2007-03-23. Retrieved on 2007-03-23. 
  49. ^ Honda, Mike. Honda Testifies in Support of Comfort Women. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  50. ^ a b c d e f g Gay J. McDougall. Report of the Special Rapporteur on systematic rape (HTML). Retrieved on 2007-11-12.
  51. ^ "Don't misinterpret comfort women issue", The Yomiuri Shimbun, 2007-03-07. Retrieved on 2007-03-23. 
  52. ^ "No Comfort", The New York Times, 2007-03-06. Retrieved on 2007-03-23. 
  53. ^ U.S. got Abe to drop denial over sex slaves
  54. ^ Template:Vitation
  55. ^ 'Comfort women' distortion stirs indignation, July 13, 2005, <http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-07/13/content_459772.htm>. Retrieved on 20 May 2008 
  56. ^ WWII sex slaves want Japan to wake up, by Irene Lin, TAIPEI TIMES, December 18, 2000
  57. ^ a b c "Comfort station originated in govt-regulated 'civilian prostitution'", The Daily Yomiuri, 30 March 2007, pp. 15. Retrieved on 2008-06-14. (English) 
  58. ^ a b The Horrible History of the "Comfort Women" and the Fight to Suppress Their Story, History News Network
  59. ^ H. Res. 121: Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives that the Government of Japan should formally.... Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  60. ^ ""Comfort Women" Resolution Likely to Pass U.S. Congress", The Chosun Ilbo, 2007-02-02. Retrieved on 2007-03-30. 
  61. ^ us.emb-japan.go.jp
  62. ^ a b Epstein, Edward. "House wants Japan apology", San Francisco Chronicle, 2007-07-31. Retrieved on 2007-08-01. 
  63. ^ Xinhua News
  64. ^ MPs Moved to Tears by Comfort Women - Embassy - Newspaper Online
  65. ^ Wire Reports. Canada urges Japan to apologize to WWII sex slaves (html) (English). Japan Today News. japantoday.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-28.
  66. ^ AFP: Canada MPs demand Japan apologize to WWII 'comfort women'
  67. ^ European Parliament speaks out on sexual slavery during WWII
  68. ^ Kyodo News - Story
  69. ^ theparliament.com - EU passes resolution on Japanese-enslaved ‘comfort women’
  70. ^ Europees Parlement - Actueel - Persdienst - Info - Human rights: Chad, women's rights in Saudi Arabia, Japan's wartime sex slaves
  71. ^ Cartoon of Wartime 'Comfort Women' Irks Taiwan. The New York Times (March 2, 2001).
  72. ^ Ikuhiko Hata. No Organized or Forced Recruitment: Misconceptions about Comfort Women and the Japanese Military (pdf) (English) on pg.16 of 17. Retrieved on 2007-11-10. “None of them was forcibly recruited.”
  73. ^ The Facts (jpg) (English). Retrieved on 2007-11-02. “Their testimonies have undergone dramatic changes...”
  74. ^ Lisa Yoneyama (winter 2002). NHK's Censorship of Japanese Crimes Against Humanity (English). Harvard Asia Quarterly. Retrieved on 2007-11-02. “However, the second night’s programming on January 30 was heavily censored through deletion, interpolations, alterations, dismemberment and even fabrication. This segment was originally supposed to cover the “Women’s International War Crimes Tribunal on Japan’s Military Sexual Slavery” that had been held in Tokyo in December 2000.”

Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... -1... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Korea Times is the oldest of three English-language newspapers published daily in South Korea, along with The Korea Herald and JoongAng Ilbo. ... The Joong Ang Ilbo is one of the Big Three Newspapers in Korea, the so-called Cho-Joong-Dong (after the first words of the Chosun Ilbo and Dong-a Ilbo. ... Professor of modern Japanese history at the Chuo University in Tokyo, Yoshimi is a founder member of the Center for Research and Documentation on Japans war responsibility. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kanto Gakuin University is a private university located in Yokohama, Japan. ... Hirofumi Hayashi ) is a historian and is currently a professor of politics at the Kanto Gakuin University. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Professor of modern Japanese history at the Chuo University in Tokyo, Yoshimi is a founder member of the Center for Research and Documentation on Japans war responsibility. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Yomiuri-TOKYO Office Yomiuri-Osaka Office Yomiuri YC The Yomiuri Shimbun (読売新聞 Yomiuri Shinbun) is a Japanese newspaper published in Tokyo, Osaka, Fukuoka, and other major Japanese cities. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Other references

  • Barbara Drinck, Chung-noh Gross Forced Prostitution in Times of War and Peace, Kleine Verlag, 2007. ISBN-13: 978-3-89370-436-1.
  • Tanaka, Yuki Japan's Comfort Women: Sexual Slavery and Prostitution During World War II and the US Occupation, London, Routledge: 2002. ISBN 0-415-19401-6.
  • Yoshimi, Yoshiaki Comfort Women: Sexual Slavery in the Japanese Military During World War II, Columbia University Press, 2001. (mentioned RAA too) ISBN 0-231-12032-X.
  • Molasky, Michael S. American Occupation of Japan and Okinawa, Routledge, 1999. ISBN 0-415-19194-7, ISBN 0-415-26044-2.
  • D. Kim-Gibson, Silence Broken: Korean Comfort Women, 1999. ISBN 0-931209-88-9.
  • Hicks, George L. The Comfort Women: Japan's Brutal Regime of Enforced Prostitution in the Second World War, 1997. ISBN 0-393-31694-7.
  • Schellstede, Sangmie Choi. Comfort Women Speak: Testimony by Sex Slaves of the Japanese Military, 2000. ISBN 0-8419-1413-3.
  • Wakabayashi, Bob Tadashii "Comfort Women: Beyond Litigious Feminism"
  • Nora Okja Keller "Comfort Woman", London, Penguin: 1998. ISBN 0-14-026335-7.
  • Maria Rosa Henson "Comfort woman: Slave of destiny", Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism: 1996. ISBN 9718686118.

Maria Rosa Luna Henson, (photo attributed to PCIJ)[1]. Maria Rosa Luna Henson or Lola Rosa (Grandma Rosa) (1927- 1997) was the first Filipina to tell the world of her story as a comfort woman for the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II. In 1992 when Henson was 65...

Web

Find more about Comfort women on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
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Learning resources
  • Asian Women's Fund web site
  • Comfort-Women.org
  • Korea Dutch Indies Sex Slavery Translation Project
  • 121 Coalition
  • "The Victims" (from the South Korean Ministry of Gender and Family Equality)
  • Japanese Military Sex Slaves{{citation broken|date=2008-05-31}, CBS Report featuring Mike Honda and Nariaki Nakayama's infamous comment comparing "comfort houses"} and cafeterias
  • Japan forced women to work as sex slaves during World War II
  • Photo gallery at the Seoul Times.
  • A Public Betrayed - How the Japanese Media Betrays its Own People
  • Comfort Women (Web page) (English). Australian War Memorial (2006). Retrieved on 2008-01-06. - describes the experience of Jan O’Herne in Java
  • Coop, Stephanie (December 23, 2006). Sex slave exhibition exposes darkness in East Timor (Newspaper article). The Japan Times. Retrieved on 2006-12-23.
  • Nakamura, Akemi; Ikuhiko Hata (denies that sex slavery existed) & Yoshiaki Yoshimi (vocally supports the position that sexual slavery occurred) (March 20, 2007). Comfort Women: Were they teen-rape slaves or paid pros?. The Japan Times. Retrieved on 2006-03-23.
  • Friends of “Comfort Women” Australia (FCWA) - not-for-profit organisation focusing on the plight of the Japanese military “Comfort Women” of World War II.
  • Mourning, song about comfort women composed by Mu Ting Zhang and directed by Po En Lee

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Michael Makoto Mike Honda (Japanese: 本田 誠 born June 27, 1941) is an American Democratic politician. ... The Australian War Memorial is Australias national memorial to the members of all its armed forces and supporting organisations who have died or participated in the wars of the Commonwealth of Australia. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Japan Times is one of the few independent English language newspapers published in Japan: it mainly competes with English editions of the major dailies, such as the Daily Yomiuri and the International Herald Tribune/Asahi Shimbun. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Academic research

  • The Comfort Women project
  • Hayashi Hirofumi's papers on comfort women
  • Responsibility Toward Comfort Women Survivors: Japan Policy Research Institute Working Paper 77.
  • Japan's Comfort Women, Theirs and Ours: Book review, Japan Policy Research Institute Critique 9:2.
  • Journal of Asian American Studies 6:1, Feb 2003, issue on American studies of comfort women, Kandice Chuh, ed.
  • No Organized or Forced Recruitment: Misconceptions about Comfort Women and the Japanese Military: Critical study on comfort women problem.

The Japan Policy Research Institute (JPRI) is a non-profit organization organized under §501(c)(3) of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code that was founded in 1994 by Chalmers Johnson and Steven C. Clemons in order to promote public education about Japan, its then growing significance in world affairs...

Japanese official statements

  • Statement by Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama on the occasion of the establishment of the "Asian Women's Fund" (1995, Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs)
  • Letter from Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi to the former comfort women (2001, Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs)

United States historical documents

  • House Concurrent Resolution 226 (June 23, 2003, 108th United States Congress), introduced by Rep. Lane Evans (Illinois 17), referred to House Committee on International Relations; not passed.
  • Japanese Comfort Women (1944, United States Office of War Information)

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Comfort Women used as sex slaves during World War II (2841 words)
However, in terms of the numbers of women raped, there was at least one other wartime event which involved more women: the rape of German, Polish and even Russian women by Russian soldiers during the final months of World War II in Europe.
Approximately 80 to 90% of the "comfort women" came from Korea which was occupied by the Japanese military at the time.
As of 2002, most of the comfort women are now in their 70's or early 80's.
Comfort women - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2230 words)
Estimates of the number of comfort women during the war range from 80,000 to 200,000, with testimony by surviving comfort women suggesting a number at the higher end of the scale.
Many women reported having their uteruses rot from the diseases acquired from being raped by thousands of men over several years, at times requiring surgical removal.
The popular conception of "comfort women" outside Japan is that all comfort women were kidnapped by Japanese soldiers to serve as sex slaves under direct order from the Japanese government.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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