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Encyclopedia > Comet Halley
1P/Halley
Comet
(List of comets)
Comet Halley image taken by ESA's Giotto mission. Several bright jets of gas and dust are visible.
Comet Halley as taken with the Halley Multicolor Camera on the ESA Giotto mission. The nucleus is sunlit from the left, and several bright jets of gas and dust are visible.
Discovery
Discoverer prehistoric;
Named after Edmond Halley
Discovery date 1758 (first predicted perihelion)
Alternate
designations
Halley's Comet, 1P (see perihelia)
Orbital elements A
Epoch 2449400.5 (February 17, 1994)
Eccentricity (e) 0.967
Semi-major axis (a) 17.8 AU
Perihelion (q) 0.586 AU
Aphelion (Q) 35.1 AU
Orbital period (P) 75.3 a
Inclination (i) 162.3°
Last perihelion date February 9, 1986
Next est. perihelion date July 28, 2061 [1]

Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley, more generally known as Halley's Comet after Edmond Halley, is a comet that can be seen every 75-76 years. It is the most famous of all periodic comets, even though in every century many comets appear brighter and more spectacular. Halley's comet last appeared in the inner Solar System in 1986, and will next appear in mid 2061. Comet Hale-Bopp For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ... Non-periodic comets are seen only once. ... Halleys Comet as taken with the Halley Multicolor Camera on the ESA Giotto mission. ... The European Space Agency (ESA), established in 1975, is an inter-governmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, currently with 17 member states. ... In this artists concept, Giotto points its white high-gain antenna dish towards earth with the ring of solar cells facing the sun. ... The provisional designation of comets and asteroids are similar to each other: they both follow a pattern set in 1925 by the Minor Planet Center of the IAU. Historical designations At first, astronomers strove to assign symbols to the minor planets: 1 Ceres a stylized sickle 2 Pallas a lozenge... In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time for which celestial coordinates or orbital elements are specified. ... February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... In astrodynamics, under standard assumptions any orbit must be of conic section shape. ... The semi-major axis of an ellipse In geometry, the term semi-major axis (also semimajor axis) is used to describe the dimensions of ellipses and hyperbolae. ... The astronomical unit (AU or au or a. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... In astronomy, a Julian year is a unit of time defined as exactly 365. ... Inclination in general is the angle between a reference plane and another plane or axis of direction. ... February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 28 is the 209th day (210th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 156 days remaining. ... (Redirected from 2061) Millennia: 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium - 4th millennium Centuries: 20th century - 21st century - 22nd century Decades: 2010s 2020s 2030s 2040s 2050s - 2060s - 2070s 2080s 2090s Years: 2060 2061 2062 2063 2064 2065 2066 2067 2068 2069 The Decade as a Whole This decade is expected to be called... Portrait of Edmond Halley painted around 1687 by Thomas Murray (Royal Society, London) Portrait of Edmond Halley Bust of Edmond Halley in the Museum of the Royal Greenwich Observatory Edmond Halley (sometimes Edmund, November 8, 1656 – January 14, 1742) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist. ... Comet Hale-Bopp For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale): The Sun, the eight planets, the asteroid belt, the dwarf planet Pluto, and a comet. ...


The most standard pronunciation of "Halley" — and the pronunciation that the astronomer himself probably used — is [hæli] (IPA), to rhyme with "valley". The once-standard alternate pronunciation [heɪli] (to rhyme with "Bailey") led to rock and roll singer Bill Haley naming his band Bill Haley and the Comets. The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Ercole de Roberti: Concert, c. ... Bill Haley, with his band, the Comets, was one of the first rock and roll acts to tour the United Kingdom. ... The original members of Bill Haley and His Comets, c. ...

Contents


Edmond Halley's study

Halley's Comet was the first to be recognized as periodic. Having perceived that the observed characteristics of the comet of 1682 were nearly the same as those of two comets which had appeared in 1531 (observed by Petrus Apianus) and 1607 (observed by Johannes Kepler in Prague), Halley concluded that all three comets were in fact the same object returning every 76 years (a period that has since been amended to every 75–76 years). After a rough estimate of the perturbations the comet would sustain from the attraction of the planets, he predicted its return for 1757. Halley's prediction of the comet's return proved to be correct, although it was not seen until 25 December 1758 by Johann Georg Palitzsch, a German farmer and amateur astronomer, and did not pass through its perihelion until March 1759; the attraction of Jupiter and Saturn having caused a retardation of 618 days, as was computed by a team of three French mathematicians, Alexis Clairault, Joseph Lalande, and Nicole-Reine Lepaute, previous to its return. Halley did not live to see the comet's return, having died in 1742. Apianus on an 18th century engraving Petrus Apianus (April 16, 1495 – April 21, 1552; also known as Peter Apian) was a German humanist, famous for his works in mathematics, astronomy and cartography. ... Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630), a key figure in the scientific revolution, was a German mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, and an early writer of science fiction stories. ... Prague (Czech: Praha (IPA: ), see also other names) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. ... 1758 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Johann Georg Palitzsch Johann Georg Palitzsch (June 11, 1723 – February 21, 1788) was a German astronomer. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 70 kPa Hydrogen ~86% Helium ~14% Methane 0. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 140 kPa Hydrogen >93% Helium >5% Methane 0. ... Alexis Claude Clairault (or Clairaut) (May 3, 1713 – May 17, 1765) was a French mathematician. ... Joseph Jérôme Lefrançais de Lalande (July 11, 1732 – April 4, 1807) was a French astronomer. ... Nicole-Reine Étable de la Brière Lepaute (1723-1788) was a French astronomer. ...


Notable appearances

Halley's calculations enabled the comet's earlier appearances to be found in the historical record.


Early appearances

A Babylonian tablet recording the appearance of Halley's comet in 164 BC.
A Babylonian tablet recording the appearance of Halley's comet in 164 BC.
The comet's appearance in 1066 was recorded on the Bayeux Tapestry. ISTI MIRANT STELLA means "These ones are wondering at the star".
The comet's appearance in 1066 was recorded on the Bayeux Tapestry. ISTI MIRANT STELLA means "These ones are wondering at the star".
  • 240 BC and earlier: Historical records show that Chinese astronomers observed the comet's appearance in 240 BC and possibly as early as 2467 BC. Habitual observations and calculations of appearances after 240 BC are recorded by Chinese, Japanese, Babylonian and Islamic astronomers.
  • 12 BC: Some theologians have suggested that the comet's appearance in 12 BC might explain the Biblical story of the Star of Bethlehem.
  • 66 AD: In the Talmud, it is mentioned that "There is a star which appears once in seventy years that makes the captains of the ships err" (Horioth, chap. III). It probably refers to the AD 66 perihelion.
  • 837: In this year, it is calculated that Comet Halley may have passed as close as 0.03 AU (3.2 million miles) from Earth, by far its closest approach. Its tail may have stretched 90 degrees across the sky.[2]
  • 1066: The comet was seen in England and thought to be a bad omen: later that year Harold II of England died at the Battle of Hastings. It is shown on the Bayeux Tapestry, and the accounts which have been preserved represent it as having then appeared to be four times the size of Venus, and to have shone with a light equal to a quarter of that of the Moon. Having first seen it as a young boy in 989, Eilmer of Malmesbury declared prophetically in 1066: "You've come, have you?...You've come, you source of tears to many mothers. It is long since I saw you; but as I see you now you are much more terrible, for I see you brandishing the downfall of my country" (William of Malmesbury, Deeds of the English Kings, Ch. 225, ISBN 0-19-820678-X).
  • 1301: The artist Giotto di Bondone could have observed the comet and his depiction of the Star of Bethlehem in the Nativity in the Arena Chapel cycle completed in 1305 is a candidate for an early depiction.
  • 1456: The comet passed very close to the Earth; its tail extended over 60° of the heavens and took the form of a sabre. According to one story, first appearing in a posthumous biography in 1475 and later embellished and popularized by Pierre-Simon Laplace, Pope Callixtus III excommunicated the 1456 apparition of Halley's Comet, believing it to be an ill omen for the Christian defenders of Belgrade, who were at that time being besieged by the armies of the Ottoman Empire. However, no known primary source supports the authenticity of this account.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (912x1470, 215 KB) Summary A Babylonian tablet recording Halleys comet during an appearance in 164 BC. Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (912x1470, 215 KB) Summary A Babylonian tablet recording Halleys comet during an appearance in 164 BC. Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Image File history File links Tapestry_of_bayeux10. ... Image File history File links Tapestry_of_bayeux10. ... The Bayeux Tapestry (French: Tapisserie de Bayeux) is a 50 cm by 70 m (20 in by 230 ft) long embroidered cloth which depicts scenes commemorating the Battle of Hastings in 1066, with annotations in Latin. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... The sky over Bethlehem at the time of Jesus. ... The first page of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... The astronomical unit (AU or au or a. ... Earth (often referred to as the Earth, or the earth) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth largest. ... A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually symbolized °, is a measurement of plane angle, representing 1/360 of a full rotation. ... Name Harold Godwinson Lived c. ... // Opinions/Editorials What is the guideline on using op-ed articles (in blog form or not) as secondary sources? As primary? Specifically, Im wondering if its acceptable to cite opinion pages to support facts in a Wikipedia article, except in restating the opinion. ... The Bayeux Tapestry (French: Tapisserie de Bayeux) is a 50 cm by 70 m (20 in by 230 ft) long embroidered cloth which depicts scenes commemorating the Battle of Hastings in 1066, with annotations in Latin. ... (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ... Bulk composition of the moons mantle and crust estimated, weight percent Oxygen 42. ... Stained glass window showing Eilmer, installed in Malmesbury Abbey in 1920 in memory of Rev. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... William of Malmesbury (c. ... Statue of Giotto di Bondone, close to the Uffizi. ... Nativity is the general time and place of a persons birth and early years. ... The Cappella degli Scrovegni in Padua (also known as the Arena Chapel) is regarded as one of the masterpieces of Western Art. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Calistus and Calixtus III redirect here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Comet Halley as taken with the Halley Multicolor Camera on the ESA Giotto mission. ... Belgrade (Serbian: Београд/Beograd ) is the capital and largest city of Republic of Serbia. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah...

Recent history

The most recent appearances have been in 1835, 1910 and 1986. Halley will next return in 2061.


1835

American satirist and writer Mark Twain was born on November 30, 1835; exactly two weeks after the comet's perihelion. In his biography, he said, "I came in with Halley's comet in 1835. It's coming again next year (1910), and I expect to go out with it. It will be the greatest disappointment of my life if I don't go out with Halley's comet. The Almighty has said no doubt, 'Now here are these two unaccountable freaks; they came in together, they must go out together.' " Twain died on April 21, 1910, the day following the comet's subsequent perihelion.[3][4] The 1986 fantasy film The Adventures of Mark Twain is inspired by this. Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American humorist, novelist, writer, and lecturer. ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Superb example of claymation. ...


1910

The April 1910 approach was notable for several reasons: it was the first approach of which photographs exist, and the comet made a relatively close approach, making it a spectacular sight. Indeed, on May 18th, the comet transited the Sun's disk, and the Earth actually passed through its tail. At the time, the comet's tail was thought to contain poisonous cyanogen and gas. The popular media picked up this fact and, despite the pleas of astronomers, wove sensational tales of mass cyanide poisoning engulfing the planet. In reality, the gas is so diffuse that the world suffered no ill-effects from the passage through the tail. May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... Deimos transits the Sun, as seen by Mars Rover Opportunity on March 4, 2004 The word transit has two meanings in astronomy: A transit is the astronomical event that occurs when one celestial body appears to move across the face of another celestial body, as seen by an observer at... Cyanogen is a chemical compound (CN)2. ...


Many people who claim to remember seeing the 1910 apparition are in fact remembering a different comet, the Great Daylight Comet of 1910, which surpassed Halley in brilliance and was actually visible in broad daylight for a short time about four months before Halley made its appearance. The Great Daylight Comet of 1910 was a great comet which upstaged the much-anticipated appearance of Halleys Comet in the same year. ...


Another person whose life coincided with arrivals of Halley's comet was French author Jean Genet; born in 1910, he died in 1986. Jean Genet (December 19, 1910 - April 15, 1986), was a prominent, sometimes infamous, French writer and later political activist. ...


1986

Comet Halley in 1986
Comet Halley in 1986

The 1986 approach was the least favourable for Earth observers of all recorded passages of the comet throughout history: the comet did not achieve the spectacular brightness of some previous approaches, and with increased light pollution from urbanization, many people never saw the comet at all. Further, the comet appeared brightest when it was almost invisible from the northern hemisphere in March and April, prompting many amateur astronomers to travel to the southern hemisphere for a glimpse of the interloper. However, the development of space travel allowed scientists the opportunity to study a comet at close quarters, and several probes were launched to do so. Most spectacularly, the Giotto space probe, launched by the European Space Agency, made a close pass of the comet's nucleus. Other probes included the Soviet Union/France joint projects Vega 1 and Vega 2, and two Japanese probes, Suisei and Sakigake. The probes were unofficially known as the Halley Armada. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1254x961, 487 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Comet Halley ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1254x961, 487 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Comet Halley ... This photo of New York City shows excessive sky glow, one form of light pollution, partly caused by many unshielded lights. ... In this artists concept, Giotto points its white high-gain antenna dish towards earth with the ring of solar cells facing the sun. ... The European Space Agency (ESA), established in 1975, is an inter-governmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, currently with 17 member states. ... The Vega mission was a Venus mission which also took advantage of the appearance of Comet Halley in 1986. ... The Vega mission was a Venus mission which also took advantage of the appearance of Comet Halley in 1986. ... Suisei (the Japanese name meaning `Comet) was launched on August 18, 1985 into heliocentric orbit to fly by Comet P/Halley. ... Spacecraft Sakigake Sakigake (MS-T5), was Japans first interplanetary spacecraft and was lauched January 7, 1985 from Kagoshima Space Center. ... The Halley Armada is a group of space probes sent to examine Comet Halley during its 1986 sojourn through the inner solar system. ...


It was Stephen Edberg (the serving as the Coordinator for Amateur Observations at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Charles Morris who were the first to observe Comet Halley with the naked eye in its 1986 apparition. NASA logo Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2005-09-01, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... The JPL complex in Pasadena, Ca. ...


The comet was also observed from space by the International Cometary Explorer, which was in a solar orbit at the time. Originally International Sun-Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE-3), it was renamed and retooled after it was freed from its L1 Lagrangian point location to observe comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner. The International Cometary Explorer (ICE) spacecraft was originally known as International Sun/Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE-3) satellite, launched August 12, 1978. ... A contour plot of the effective potential of a two-body system (the Sun and Earth here), showing the five Lagrange points. ... Comet Giacobini-Zinner was discovered by Michel Giacobini (Nice, France) in Aquarius on December 20, 1900. ...


Two Space Shuttle missions--the ill-fated STS-51-L and STS-61-E--were scheduled to observe Comet Halley from low Earth orbit. 61-E, which would have been flown by Columbia in March 1986, would have carried the ASTRO-1 platform to study the comet, among other things. The Challenger disaster thwarted all such plans. ASTRO-1 would not fly until late 1990 on STS-35. [5] The Space Shuttle Columbia seconds after engine ignition, 1981 (NASA). ... An iconic image of the accident. ... A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit in which objects such as satellites are below intermediate circular orbit (ICO) and far below geostationary orbit, but typically around 350 - 1400 km above the Earths surface. ... Crew Vance D. Brand (4), Commander Guy S. Gardner (2), Pilot Jeffrey A. Hoffman (2), Mission Specialist 1 John M. Lounge (3), Mission Specialist 2 Robert A. Parker (2), Mission Specialist 3 Samuel T. Durrance (1), Payload Specialist 1 Ronald A. Parise (1), Payload Specialist 2 Mission parameters Mass: Orbiter...


The Soviet Union's Salyut 7 space station was unoccupied during Halley's 1986 visit, and Mir, though launched during the visit, did not receive its first crew until later. Salyut 7 was launched on April 19, 1982, the last of the Salyut space station program. ... Meanings of MIR: Mail-in rebate Medical Inspection Room - the place for sick parade in most British and Commonwealth militaries and many NGOs. ...


Dates of perihelia

Comet Halley returned or will return to perihelion on the following dates. It is usually visible to the unaided eye for a few months around perihelion. This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ...

  • 240 BC (1P/-239 K1)
  • late 164 BC (1P/-163 U1)
  • August 87 BC (1P/-86 Q1)
  • October 12 BC (1P/-11 Q1)
  • January AD 66 (1P/66 B1)
  • March 141 (1P/141 F1)
  • May 218 (1P/218 H1)
  • April 295 (1P/295 J1)
  • February 374 (1P/374 E1)
  • June 451 (1P/451 L1)
  • September 530 (1P/530 Q1)
  • March 607 (1P/607 H1)
  • October 684 (1P/684 R1)
  • May 760 (1P/760 K1)
  • February 837 (1P/837 F1)
  • July 912 (1P/912 J1)

The above table sets out the dates of perihelia and the astronomical designation for various apparitions of Halley's Comet. For example, "9 February 1986 (1P/1982 U1, 1986 III, 1982i" indicates that for the perihelion on 9 February 1986, Halley's Comet was the first period comet known (designated 1P) and this apparition was the first seen in "half-month" U (the first half of November) in 1982 (giving 1P/1982 U1); it was the third comet past perihelion in 1986 (1986 III); and it was the ninth comet spotted in 1982 (provisional designation 1982i). Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 245 BC 244 BC 243 BC 242 BC 241 BC - 240 BC - 239 BC 238 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 169 BC 168 BC 167 BC 166 BC 165 BC - 164 BC - 163 BC 162 BC 161... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 92 BC 91 BC 90 BC 89 BC 88 BC - 87 BC - 86 BC 85 BC 84... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 17 BC 16 BC 15 BC 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC... Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ... Events By place Roman Empire September 22 – Emperor Nero creates the legion I Italica Jewish revolt against the Roman Empire. ... Events Construction of the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina in Rome. ... Events May 16 - Heliogabalus is acclaimed as Roman Emperor. ... Events Roman Empire Diocletian beseiges Achilleus in Egypt, capturing him. ... Events 4 May: Spearthrower Owl becomes emperor of Teotihuacan. ... Events April 7 - The Huns sack Metz June 20 - Attila, king of the Huns is defeated at Troyes by Aëtius in the Battle of Chalons. ... Events September 22 - Pope Boniface II is elected to succeed Pope Felix IV December 15 - Justinian selects a second commission to excerpt and codify the writings of the jurists on Roman Law. ... To suck the phallus or penis of another. ... Events Wu Ze Tian took power in China. ... Events Maya civilization city of Dos Pilas is abandoned. ... Events Pietro Tradonico elected Doge of Venice. ... Events Orso II Participazio becomes Doge of Venice Patriarch Nicholas I Mysticus becomes patriarch of Constantinople Births November 23 - Otto I the Great Holy Roman Emperor (+ 973) Abd-ar-rahman III - prince of the Umayyad dynasty Deaths Oleg of Kiev Categories: 912 ... For the video game developers, see 989 Studios. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... Events Pope Lucius II is succeeded by Pope Eugene III Nur ad-Din ascends to power in Syria Construction begins on Notre-Dame dChartres in Chartres, France Korean historian Kim Pusik compiled the historical text Samguk Sagi. ... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1170s 1180s 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s 1260s 1270s Years: 1217 1218 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 See also: 1222 state leaders Events Foundation of the University of Padua Completion of the Cistercian convent in Alcobaca... Events February 7 - Edward of Caernarvon (later King Edward II of England) becomes the first Prince of Wales End of the reign of Emperor Go-Fushimi, emperor of Japan Emperor Go-Nijō ascends to the throne of Japan Dante was sent into Exile in Florence. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... // Events July 7 - Joan of Arc acquitted (but she had already been executed). ... Events January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake-- thousands die October 1 - Battle of Kappel - The forces of Zürich are defeated by the Catholic cantons. ... (Redirected from 27 October) October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... Events January 20 - Tidal wave swept along the Bristol Channel, killing 2000 people. ... (Redirected from 15 September) September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... Events March 11 – Chelsea hospital for soldiers is founded in England May 6 - Louis XIV of France moves his court to Versailles. ... 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February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Provisional designation of in astronomy is the naming convention applied to astronomical objects immediately following their discovery. ...


Halley's Comet in media

  • Arthur C. Clarke's novel 2061: Odyssey Three (1987) includes a detailed description of a manned mission to Halley's Comet.
  • In Heart of the Comet (1986), a novel by Gregory Benford and David Brin, a multinational team colonizes Halley's Comet, building a habitat within the ice.
  • In an episode of Futurama, entitled "A Taste Of Freedom", it is mentioned that Earth once fought a war "to take back Halley's Comet". Comet Halley has also been mined for water ice in the series.
  • In the computer game Shadow of the Comet, the passing of the Comet, combined with a special vantage point, is the only time (presumably) certain entities can be summoned.
  • The jazz fusion band Phish wrote a song entitled "Halley's Comet", which they performed over 50 times during their 21 year career. A formal studio release of the song was never issued, although it is available on some of their Live Phish releases.
  • Mary Chapin Carpenter also had a song about the comet, "Halley Came To Jackson" off her 1990 "Shooting Straight in the Dark" album.
  • The Doctor Who serial Attack of the Cybermen features the titular villains planning to devastate Earth by steering the comet into the planet.
  • The Australian band Drops Of Light released the song "Halleys Comet" in 1986 written by Vincent Ruello. Ruello was blessed with having had a major television station produce the video using authorised film footage from the Giotto space craft. The song was the first hit for the band and was released through PG Records Melbourne.
  • On the Nickelodeon TV series Hey Arnold!, Arnold and Gerald urge the city to turn off the lights so they can see the comet.
  • In the Simpsons episode Bart the Mother, the family is waiting for eggs to hatch, when Homer says: "This is the most exciting thing I've seen since Halley's comet collided with the moon!" (which of course never happened)

Sir Arthur C. Clarke Sir Arthur Charles Clarke (born December 16, 1917) is a British author and inventor, most famous for his science-fiction novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, and for collaborating with director Stanley Kubrick on the film of the same name. ... 2061: Odyssey Three (1987) is a science fiction novel by Arthur C. Clarke, and is the third book in the Space Odyssey series. ... Heart of the Comet is a novel by David Brin and Gregory Benford, published in 1986. ... Gregory Benford (born January 30, 1941) is a science fiction author and physicist who is on the faculty of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of California, Irvine. ... A recent picture of David Brin. ... Futurama is an animated American cartoon series created by Matt Groening (creator of The Simpsons) and David X. Cohen (also a writer for The Simpsons). ... Shadow of the Comet (later repackaged as Call of Cthulhu: Shadow of the Comet) is a computer game in the adventure game genre. ... Phish was an American rock band noted for jamming and improvisation. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Doctor Who is a long-running British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC about a mysterious time-travelling adventurer known only as The Doctor, who explores time and space with his companions, fighting evil. ... Attack of the Cybermen is a serial in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, which was first broadcast in two weekly parts from January 5 - January 12, 1985. ... Drops Of Light are an Australian band who released the song Halleys Comet in 1986. ... Nickelodeon may refer to: Nickelodeon (TV channel), a cable TV network primarily for children and pre-teens in the United States Nickelodeon Australia Nickelodeon Asia Nickelodeon Latin America a subsidiary of MTV Networks Nickelodeon Scandinavia Nickelodeon Magazine, published by the Nickelodeon (TV Channel) Nickelodeon UK, a satellite/cable TV station... Hey Arnold! was an American animated television series that new episodes ran on Nickelodeon from October 7, 1996 through June 8, 2004. ... Bart the Mother is the third episode of the 10th season of The Simpsons, originally aired on September 27th, 1998. ...

External links


(comet navigator) | 1P/Halley | Next periodic comet | ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Comet Halley - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1587 words)
Comet Halley as taken with the Halley Multicolor Camera on the ESA Giotto mission.
The 1986 approach was the least favourable for Earth observers of all recorded passages of the comet throughout history: the comet did not achieve the spectacular brightness of some previous approaches, and with increased light pollution from urbanization, many people never saw the comet at all.
Further, the comet appeared brightest when it was almost invisible from the northern hemisphere in March and April, prompting many amateur astronomers to travel to the southern hemisphere for a glimpse of the interloper.
Halley's Comet (2117 words)
Halley’s Comet was first depicted in the Nuremburg Chronicle of AD 684, when it was first sighted by the Chinese (and the Japanese, for the first time) on 6 September 684 in the western sky, but had disappeared by 9 October, having reached perihelion on 2 October.
Halley was last at perihelion on 9 February 1986 at 0640 hr GMT, at 15° 35’ Aquarius, 75.81 years after the last, and was at close approach to Earth on 27 November 1985 and 11 April 1986.
Halley’s Comet is thought to persuade people to remove the physical excuses and hypochondria they use to avoid undesirable things, and teaches an organic holism, creating renewed vitality.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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