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Encyclopedia > Coma
Symptom/Sign: Coma
Classifications and external resources
ICD-10 R40.2
ICD-9 780.01

In medicine, a coma (from the Greek κῶμα koma, meaning deep sleep) is a profound state of unconsciousness. A comatose patient cannot be awakened, fails to respond normally to pain or light, does not have sleep-wake cycles, and does not take voluntary actions. Coma may result from a variety of conditions, including intoxication, metabolic abnormalities, central nervous system diseases, acute neurologic injuries such as stroke, and hypoxia. It may also be deliberately induced by pharmaceutical agents in order to preserve higher brain function following another form of brain trauma. A coma may also result from immense head trauma caused by something like a car accident or a series of very severe concussions. The underlying cause of the coma is bilateral damage to the Reticular formation of the midbrain, which is important in regulating sleep [1]. Coma has more than one meaning: In Science: In medicine, a coma refers to a particular state of unconsciousness. ... The term symptom (from the Greek meaning chance, mishap or casualty, itself derived from συμπιπτω meaning to fall upon or to happen to) has two similar meanings in the context of physical and mental health: Strictly, a symptom is a sensation or change in health function experienced by a patient. ... In medicine, a sign is a feature of disease as detected by the doctor during physical examination of a patient. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // R00-R99 - Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified (R00-R09) Symptoms and signs involving the circulatory and respiratory systems (R00) Abnormalities of heart beat (R000) Tachycardia, unspecified (R001) Bradycardia, unspecified (R002) Palpitations (R008) Other and unspecified abnormalities of heart beat (R01) Cardiac murmurs and other... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Unconsciousness is the absence of consciousness. ... ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalised hypoxia) or region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Head injury is a trauma to the head, that may or may not include injury to the brain (see also brain injury). ... In an accident resulting from excessive speed, this concrete truck rolled over into the front garden of a house. ... “Cerebral Concussion” redirects here. ... The reticular formation is a part of the brain which is involved in stereotypical actions, such as walking, sleeping, and lying down. ... In biological anatomy, the mesencephalon (or midbrain) is the middle of three vesicles that arise from the neural tube that forms the brain of developing animals. ...

Contents

Severity

The severity of coma impairment is categorized into several levels. Patients may or may not progress through these levels. In the first level, the brain responsiveness lessens, normal reflexes are lost, the patient no longer responds to pain and cannot hear.


Contrary to popular belief, a patient in a coma does not always lie still and quiet. They may move, talk, and perform other functions that may sometimes appear to be conscious acts but are not.[2]


Two scales of measurement often used in TBI diagnosis to determine the level of coma are the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and the Ranchos Los Amigos Scale (RLAS). The GCS is a simple 3 to 15-point scale (3 being the worst and 15 being that of a normal person) used by medical professionals to assess severity of neurologic trauma, and establish a prognosis. The RLAS is a more complex scale that has eight separate levels, and is often used in the first few weeks or months of coma while the patient is under closer observation, and when shifts between levels are more frequent. Traumatic brain injury (TBI), traumatic injuries to the brain, also called intracranial injury, or simply head injury, occurs when a sudden trauma causes brain damage. ... The Glasgow Coma Scale is a neurological scale which aims to give a reliable, objective way of recording the conscious state of a person, for initial as well as continuing assessment. ... == == {| class=wikitable |- Headline text |}{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |- | row 1, cell 1 | row 1, cell 2 | row 1, cell 3 |- | row 2, cell 1 | row 2, cell 2 | row 2, cell 3 |} == == The Rancho Los Amigos Scale (a. ...


Outcome

Outcomes range from recovery to death. Comas generally last a few days to a few weeks. They rarely last more than 2 to 5 weeks but some have lasted as long as several years. After this time, some patients gradually come out of the coma, some progress to a vegetative state, and others die. Some patients who have entered a vegetative state go on to regain a degree of awareness. Others remain in a vegetative state for years or even decades (the longest recorded period being 37 years). [3] For other uses, see Death (disambiguation), Dead (disambiguation), or Death (band). ... A persistent vegetative state (PVS) is a condition of patients with severe brain damage in whom coma has progressed to a state of wakefulness without detectable awareness. ...


The outcome for coma and vegetative state depends on the cause, location, severity and extent of neurological damage. A deeper coma alone does not necessarily mean a slimmer chance of recovery, because some people in deep coma recover well while others in a so-called milder coma sometimes fail to improve.


People may emerge from a coma with a combination of physical, intellectual and psychological difficulties that need special attention. Recovery usually occurs gradually — patients acquire more and more ability to respond. Some patients never progress beyond very basic responses, but many recover full awareness. Regaining consciousness is not instant: in the first days, patients are only awake for a few minutes, and duration of time awake gradually increases.


Predicted chances of recovery are variable owing to different techniques used to measure the extent of neurological damage. All the predictions are based on statistical rates with some level of chance for recovery present: a person with a low chance of recovery may still awaken. Time is the best general predictor of a chance of recovery: after 4 months of coma caused by brain damage, the chance of partial recovery is less than 15%, and the chance of full recovery is very low. [4][5] For Wikipedia statistics, see m:Statistics Statistics is the science and practice of developing human knowledge through the use of empirical data expressed in quantitative form. ... Brain damage or brain injury is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. ...


The most common cause of death for a person in a vegetative state is secondary infection such as pneumonia which can occur in patients who lie still for extended periods. An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ...


Occasionally people come out of coma after long periods of time. After 19 years in a minimally conscious state, Terry Wallis spontaneously began speaking and regained awareness of his surroundings. [6] A minimally conscious state (MCS) is a condition distinct from coma or the vegetative state, in which a patient exhibits deliberate, or cognitively mediated, behavior often enough, or consistently enough, for clinicians to be able to distinguish it from entirely unconscious, reflexive responses. ... Terry Wallis (born 1963 or 1964) is an American man living in Arkansas who on June 11, 2003 regained awareness after spending almost 20 years in a minimally conscious state. ...


A brain-damaged man, trapped in a comalike state for six years, was brought back to consciousness in 2003 by doctors who planted electrodes deep inside his brain. The method, called deep-brain electrical stimulation (DBS) successfully roused communication, complex movement and eating ability in the 38-year-old American man who suffered a traumatic brain injury. His injuries left him in a minimally conscious state (MCS), a condition akin to a coma but characterized by occasional, but brief, evidence of environmental and self-awareness that coma patients lack. [7] Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A minimally conscious state (MCS) is a condition distinct from coma or the vegetative state, in which a patient exhibits deliberate, or cognitively mediated, behavior often enough, or consistently enough, for clinicians to be able to distinguish it from entirely unconscious, reflexive responses. ...


See also

  • Persistent vegetative state (vegetative coma), deep coma without detectable awareness
  • Brain death (irreversible coma), irreversible end of all brain activity
  • Process Oriented Coma Work, for an approach to working with residual consciousness in comatose patients

A persistent vegetative state (PVS) is a condition of patients with severe brain damage in whom coma has progressed to a state of wakefulness without detectable awareness. ... Brain death is defined as a complete and irreversible cessation of brain activity. ...

References

Sources consulted
Endnotes
  1. ^ The Human Brain: an introduction to it's functional anatomy 5th ed by J Nolte chpt 11 pp262-290
  2. ^ BBC NEWS | Europe | Pole wakes up from 19-year coma
  3. ^ According to the Guinness Book of Records, the longest period spent in coma was by Elaine Esposito. She did not wake up after being anaesthetized for an appendectomy on August 6, 1941, at age 6. She died on November 25, 1978 at age 43 years 357 days, having been in a coma for 37 years 111 days.
  4. ^ Clinical predictors and neuropsychological outcome...[Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2004] - PubMed Result
  5. ^ brain injury .com | Coma traumatic brain injury - Brain Injury Coma
  6. ^ Mother stunned by coma victim's unexpected words - smh.com.au
  7. ^ "Electrodes stir man from six-year coma-like state", Cosmos Magazine, 02 August 2007. 

Suresh Joachim, minutes away from breaking the ironing world record at 55 hours and 5 minutes, at Shoppers World, Brampton. ... Elaine Esposito (December 3, 1934 - November 26, 1978) of Tarpon Springs, Florida, USA, holds the record for longest coma. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... An appendicectomy (or appendectomy) is the surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

External links

  • Waking coma patients with a sleeping pill
  • Brain Injury Fact Sheets - Information on coma, and many other effects of brain injury.
  • TBI Resource Guide Central source of information, services and products relating to brain injury, brain injury recovery, and post-acute rehabilitation.
The term symptom (from the Greek meaning chance, mishap or casualty, itself derived from συμπιπτω meaning to fall upon or to happen to) has two similar meanings in the context of physical and mental health: Strictly, a symptom is a sensation or change in health function experienced by a patient. ... In medicine, a sign is a feature of disease as detected by the doctor during physical examination of a patient. ... // R00-R99 - Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified (R00-R09) Symptoms and signs involving the circulatory and respiratory systems (R00) Abnormalities of heart beat (R000) Tachycardia, unspecified (R001) Bradycardia, unspecified (R002) Palpitations (R008) Other and unspecified abnormalities of heart beat (R01) Cardiac murmurs and other... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... The Respiratory System Among four-legged animals, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Bradycardia, as applied to adult medicine, is defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute, though it is seldom symptomatic until the rate drops below 50 beat/min. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Murmurs are abnormal heart sounds that are produced as a result of turbulent blood flow which is sufficient to produce audible noise. ... Gangrene is the necrosis and subsequent decay of body tissues caused by infection or thrombosis. ... For the plant referred to as nosebleed plant, see Yarrow. ... Hemoptysis (US English) or haemoptysis (International English) is the expectoration (coughing up) of blood or of blood-stained sputum from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs (e. ... Dyspnea (R06. ... Orthopnoea is breathing difficulty which occurs when lying flat. ... Stridor is a high pitched sound heard on inspiration that is indicative of airway obstruction. ... A wheeze is a continuous, coarse, whistling sound produced in the respiratory airways during breathing. ... Cheyne-Stokes respiration is an abnormality of the pattern of breathing. ... In medicine, hyperventilation (or hyperpnea) is the state of breathing faster or deeper (hyper) than necessary, and thereby reducing the carbon dioxide concentration of the blood below normal. ... Mouth breathing refers to the state of inhaling and exhaling through the mouth. ... For information on Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography, see Chromatography. ... Bradypnea refers to an abnormally slow breathing rate. ... In medicine, hypoventilation (also known as respiratory depression) occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo means below) to perform needed gas exchange. ... In medicine, chest pain is a symptom of a number of conditions and is generally considered a medical emergency, unless the patient is a known angina pectoris sufferer and the symptoms are familiar (appearing at exertion and resolving at rest, known as stable angina). When the chest pain is not... Suffocation redirects here, for the band, see Suffocation (band). ... Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is an inflammation of the pleura, the lining of the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs, which can cause painful respiration and other symptoms. ... Respiratory arrest is the cessation of the normal tidal flow of the lungs due to paralysis of the diaphragm, collapse of the lung or any number of respiratory failures. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bruit is the term for the unusal sound that blood makes when it rushes past an obstruction in an artery when the sound is observed with a stethoscope. ... A carotid bruit is a bruit or sound heard over the carotid artery area, usually by a nurse or physician during auscultation. ... Rales,crackles or crepitation, are the clicking, rattling, or crackling noises heard on auscultation of the lungs with a stethescope during inhalation. ... what was here was sick and improperly spelled. ... The human abdomen (from the Latin word meaning belly) is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax. ... Abdominal pain can be one of the symptoms associated with transient disorders or serious disease. ... The term acute abdomen refers to a sudden, severe pain in the abdomen that is less than 24 hours in duration. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Emesis redirects here. ... Dysphagia () is a medical term defined as difficulty swallowing. ... Flatulence is the presence of a mixture of gases known as flatus in the digestive tract of mammals expelled from the rectum. ... Abdominal distension (or Distended abdomen) can be a sign of many other conditions, including: diverticulitis lactose intolerance obstructed bowel premenstrual syndrome pregnancy weight gain See also Gastric distension Bloating External links University of Maryland MedlinePlus/NIH Category: ... Bloating is any abnormal general swelling, or increase in diameter of the abdominal area. ... Burping, also known as belching, ructus, or eructation involves the release of gas from the digestive tract (mainly esophagus and stomach) through the mouth. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... Fecal incontinence is the loss of regular control of the bowels. ... Encopresis is involuntary fecal soiling in children who have usually already been toilet trained. ... Hepatosplenomegaly is the simultaneous enlargement of both the liver (hepatomegaly) and the spleen (splenomegaly). ... Hepatomegaly is the condition of having an enlarged liver. ... Splenomegaly is an enlargement of the spleen, which usually lies in the left upper quadrant (LUQ) of the human abdomen. ... Look up jaundice in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Fecal occult blood is a term for blood present in the feces that is not visibly apparent. ... Halitosis, oral malodor (scientific term), breath odor, foul breath, fetor oris, fetor ex ore, or most commonly bad breath are terms used to describe noticeably unpleasant odors exhaled in breathing – whether the smell is from an oral source or not. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... The subcutis is the layer of tissue directly underlying the cutis. ... Hypoesthesia refers to a reduced sense of touch or sensation, or a partial loss of sensitivity to sensory stimuli. ... Paresthesia or paraesthesia (in British English) is a sensation of tingling, pricking, or numbness of a persons skin with no apparent long-term physical effect, more generally known as the feeling of pins and needles or of a limb being asleep (but not directly related to the phenomenon of... Hyperesthesia (or Hyperaesthesia) is a condition that involves an abnormal increase in sensitivity to stimuli of the senses. ... A rash is a change in skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture. ... Cyanosis refers to the bluish coloration of the skin due to the presence of deoxygenated hemoglobin in blood vessels near the skin surface. ... Pallor is a reduced amount of oxyhemoglobin in skin or mucous membrane, a pale color which can be caused by illness, emotional shock or stress, avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight, anaemia or genetics. ... For a person to flush is to become markedly red in the face and often other areas of the skin, from various physiological conditions. ... minor Petechia A petechia (IPA pronunciation: ), plural petechiae (IPA pronunciation: ) is a small red or purple spot on the body, caused by a minor hemorrhage (broken capillary blood vessels). ... Desquamation is the shedding of the outer layers of the skin. ... Induration (indoo rāshən, -dyoo-), a noun, means, in terms of pathology, (a) hardening of an area of the body as a reaction to inflammation, hyperemia, or neoplastic infiltration, or (b) an area or part of the body that has undergone such a reaction. ... Diaphoresis is excessive sweating commonly associated with shock and other medical emergency conditions. ... The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are cells called neurons. ... The musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system) is an organ system that gives animals the ability to physically move using the muscles and skeletal system. ... For the film see Tremors (film). ... A spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ, or a similarly sudden contraction of an orifice. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Twitching. ... Athetosis is a continuous stream of slow, sinuous, writhing movements, typically of the hands and feet. ... Persons suffering from peripheral neuropathy experience numbness and tingling in their hands and feet. ... For other uses, see Ataxia (disambiguation). ... Dysmetria (Greek: dificult to measure) is a symptom exhibited by patients after cerebellar injury. ... Dysdiadochokinesia is the medical term for an inability to perform rapid, alternating movements. ... Hypotonia is a condition of abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle), often involving reduced muscle strength. ... Diseases and other conditions that increase action potential frequency cause unwanted contraction of muscles. ... Meningism is the triad of nuchal rigidity, photophobia (intolerance of bright light) and headache. ... Hyperreflexia is defined as overactive or overresponsive reflexes. ... The urinary system is the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. ... Renal colic is a type of pain commonly caused by kidney stones. ... In medicine, specifically urology, dysuria refers to any difficulty in urination. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Urinary retention also known as ischuria is a lack of ability to urinate. ... Oliguria and anuria are the decreased or absent production of urine, respectively. ... Polyuria is the passage of a large volume of urine in a given period. ... Nocturia is the need to get up during the night in order to urinate, thus interrupting sleep. ... Extravasation of urine refers to the condition where an interruption of the urethra leads to a collection of urine in other cavities, such as the scrotum. ... Uremia is a toxic condition resulting from renal failure, when kidney function is compromised and urea, a waste product normally excreted in the urine, is retained in the blood. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... In psychology and common terminology, emotion is the language of a persons internal state of being, normally based in or tied to their internal (physical) and external (social) sensory feeling. ... Behavior or behaviour refers to the actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to the environment. ... Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components (Seligman, Walker & Rosenhan, 2001). ... Somnolence (or drowsiness) is a state of near-sleep, a strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods. ... For other uses, see Amnesia (disambiguation). ... Anterograde amnesia is a form of amnesia, or memory loss, in which new events are not transferred from short-term memory to long-term memory. ... Retrograde amnesia is a form of amnesia where someone will be unable to recall events that occurred before the onset of amnesia. ... // Pre-syncope is a sensation of feeling faint. ... For other uses, see Vertigo. ... Anosmia is the lack of olfaction, or a loss of the ability to smell. ... Ageusia (pronounced ay-GOO-see-uh) is the loss of taste functions of the tongue, particularly the inability to detect sweetness, sourness, bitterness, and saltiness. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Parageusia is the medical term for a bad taste in the mouth. ... Bold text This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The word voice can be used to refer to: Sound: The human voice. ... Speech disorders or speech impediments, as they are also called, are a type of communication disorders where normal speech is disrupted. ... Dysphasia should not be confused with the similarly pronounced dysphagia, which is a difficulty swallowing. ... For other uses, see Aphasia (disambiguation). ... Look up dysarthria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about developmental dyslexia. ... Alexia (from the Greek , privative, expressing negation, and = word) is an acquired type of sensory aphasia where damage to the brain causes a patient to lose the ability to read. ... Agnosia (a-gnosis, non-knowledge, or loss of knowledge) is a loss of ability to recognize objects, persons, sounds, shapes, or smells while the specific sense is not defective nor is there any significant memory loss[1][2]. It is usually associated with brain injury or neurological illness, particularly after... Apraxia is a neurological disorder characterized by loss of the ability to execute or carry out learned (familiar) movements, despite having the desire and the physical ability to perform the movements. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Dysgraphia (or agraphia) is a deficiency in the ability to write, regardless of the ability to read, not due to intellectual impairment. ... Speech disorders or speech impediments, as they are also called, are a type of communication disorders where normal speech is disrupted. ... Lisp may mean: Lisp programming language Lisp (speech) This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Aphasia is a loss or impairment of the ability to produce or comprehend language, due to brain damage. ... The term symptom (from the Greek meaning chance, mishap or casualty, itself derived from συμπιπτω meaning to fall upon or to happen to) has two similar meanings in the context of physical and mental health: Strictly, a symptom is a sensation or change in health function experienced by a patient. ... In medicine, a sign is a feature of disease as detected by the doctor during physical examination of a patient. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... In medicine, hyperpyrexia is an excessive and unusual elevation of body temperature above 107. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Chronic pain was originally defined as pain that has lasted 6 months or longer. ... Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort or uneasiness, an out of sorts feeling, often the first indication of an infection or other disease. ... Exhaustion redirects here. ... Asthenia (Greek: ασθένεια, lit. ... It has been suggested that Central Ischaemic Response be merged into this article or section. ... Vasovagal syncope is the most common cause of syncope, also known as fainting. ... A febrile seizure, also known as a fever fit or febrile convulsion is a generalized convulsion caused by elevated body temperature. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... Cardiogenic shock is based upon an inadequate circulation of blood due to primary failure of the ventricles of the heart to function effectively. ... Lymphadenopathy is a term meaning disease of the lymph nodes. ... This page is about the condition called edema. ... Peripheral edema ... Anasarca is a medical symptom characterised by widespread swelling of the skin due to effusion of fluid into the extracellular space. ... Primary hyperhidrosis is the condition characterized by abnormally increased perspiration, in excess of that required for regulation of body temperature. ... Sleep hyperhidrosis, more commonly known as the night sweats, is the occurrence of excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis) during sleep. ... The term Delayed milestone (or developmental delays) is used to describe the condition where a child does not reach one of these stages at the expected age. ... Failure to thrive is a medical term which denotes poor weight gain and physical growth failure over an extended period of time in infancy. ... People who are shorter have short stature. ... Idiopathic short stature (ISS) refers to extreme short stature that does not have a diagnostic explanation (idiopathic designates a condition that is unexplained or not understood) after an ordinary growth evaluation. ... Anorexia (deriving from the Greek α(ν)- (a(n)-, a prefix that denotes absence) + όρεξη (orexe) = appetite) is the decreased sensation of appetite. ... Polydipsia is a medical condition in which the patient ingests abnormally large amounts of fluids by mouth. ... Phagy or phagia is an ecological term that is used to identify particular nutritional systems. ... Xerostomia is the medical term for a dry mouth due to a lack of saliva. ... For other uses, see Clubbing (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Coma - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1099 words)
Comas can also be caused by focal lesions or strokes affecting only a small part of the brain and may be either supratentorial or infratentorial.
The difference between coma and stupor is that a patient with coma cannot give a suitable response to either noxious or verbal stimuli, whereas a patient in a stupor can give a crude response, such as screaming, to an unpleasant stimulus.
Coma is also to be distinguished from the persistent vegetative state which may follow it.
Coma - definition of Coma in Encyclopedia (734 words)
In medicine, a coma is a profound state of unconsciousness, which may result from a variety of conditions including intoxication (drug, alcohol or toxins), metabolic abnormalities (hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, etc.), central nervous system diseases, stroke, head trauma, seizures, and hypoxia.
The difference between coma and stupor is that a patient with coma cannot give a suitable response to either noxious or verbal stimuli, whereas a patient in a stupor can give a rough response (like screaming) to a noxious stimulus.
The outcome for coma and vegetative state depends on the cause and on the location, severity, and extent of neurological damage: outcomes range from recovery to death.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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