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Encyclopedia > Column

A column in architecture and structural engineering is a vertical structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below. Other compression members are often termed columns because of the similar stress conditions. Columns can be either compounded of parts or made as a single piece. Columns are frequently used to support beams or arches on which the upper parts of walls or ceilings rest. Column in architecture refers specifically to such a structural element that also has certain proportional and decorative features. A column might not support any major structure but be a decorative or triumphant feature with e.g a statue on top. In architecture, a column is a support structure. ... This article is about building architecture. ... Taipei 101, the worlds tallest building as of 2004. ... Physical compression is the result of the subjection of a material to compressive stress, resulting in reduction of volume. ... Columns Ionic column base A compression member is a general class of structural elements of which a column is the most common specific example. ... A statically determinate beam, bending under an evenly distributed load. ... A masonry arch 1. ...

Contents

History

In the architecture of ancient Egypt as early as 2600 BC the architect Imhotep made use of stone columns whose surface was carved to reflect the organic form of bundled reeds; in later Egyptian architecture faceted cylinders were also common. Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... (Redirected from 2600 BC) (27th century BC - 26th century BC - 25th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC – Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period. ... Statuette of Imhotep in the Louvre Another image of the same statue Imhotep (sometimes spelled Immutef, Im-hotep, or Ii-em-Hotep, Egyptian meaning the one who comes in peace) was an Egyptian polymath,[1] who served under the 3rd Dynasty king Djoser as chancellor to the pharaoh and high...


Some of the most elaborate columns in the ancient world were those of Persia especially the massive stone columns erected in Persepolis. They included double-bull structures in their capitals. The Hall of Hundred Columns at Persepolis, measuring 70 x 70 meters was built by the Achaemenid king Artaxerxes I (465-424). Many of the ancient Persian columns are standing. The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Persepolis aerial view. ... See Apadāna for the Pali texts. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Artaxerxes I was king of Persia from 464 BC to 424 BC. He belonged to the Achaemenid dynasty and was the successor of Xerxes I. He is mentioned in two books of the Bible, Ezra and Nehemiah. ...


The impost (or pier) is the topmost member of a column. The bottom-most part of the arch, called the springing, rests on the impost.

A column, one of eight, on Saint Peter's Basilica, Vatican City, Italy. This picture shows how massive columns can be.
A column, one of eight, on Saint Peter's Basilica, Vatican City, Italy. This picture shows how massive columns can be.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1712 × 2288 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1712 × 2288 pixel, file size: 2. ... Interior view, with the nave of the Cattedra in the back St. ...

Structure of columns

Columns vary in design. Some are produced out of single pieces of stone, usually by turning on a lathe-like apparatus. Single-piece columns are among the heaviest stones used in architecture. Other columns are created out of multiple sections of stone, mortared or dry-fit together. In many classical sites, sectioned columns were carved with a center hole or depression so that they could be pegged together, using stone or metal pins. More recently, columns have been constructed out of poured or precast concrete, or even brick, and then faced with stone veneer.


The design of most columns incorporates entasis (the inclusion of a slight outward curve in the sides) plus a reduction in diameter along the height of the column, so that the top is as little as 83% of the bottom diameter. This reduction mimics the parallax effects which the eye expects to see, and tends to make columns look taller and straighter than they are while entasis adds to that effect. schema of a Corinthian column In architecture, entasis is a design technique used to counteract a certain optical illusion. ...


Equilibrium, instability, and loads

These are composed of stacked segments and finished in the Corinthian style (Temple of Bel, Syria)
These are composed of stacked segments and finished in the Corinthian style (Temple of Bel, Syria)

As the axial load on a perfectly straight slender column with elastic material properties is increased in magnitude, this ideal column passes through three states: stable equilibrium, neutral equilibrium, and instability. The straight column under load is in stable equilibrium if a lateral force, applied between the two ends of the column, produces a small lateral deflection which disappears and the column returns to its straight form when the lateral force is removed. If the column load is gradually increased, a condition is reached in which the straight form of equilibrium becomes so-called neutral equilibrium, and a small lateral force will produce a deflection that does not disappear and the column remains in this slightly bent form when the lateral force is removed. The load at which neutral equilibrium of a column is reached is called the critical or buckling load. The state of instability is reached when a slight increase of the column load causes uncontrollably growing lateral deflections leading to complete collapse. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Corinthian order as used for the portico of the Pantheon, Rome provided a prominent model for Renaissance and later architects, through the medium of engravings. ... Roman ruins, 32 AD The Temple of Bel is an ancient stone ruin located in Palmyra, Syria. ... This article is about engineering. ...


For an axially loaded straight column with any end support conditions, the equation of static equilibrium, in the form of a differential equation, can be solved for the deflected shape and critical load of the column. With hinged, fixed or free end support conditions the deflected shape in neutral equilibrium of an initially straight column with uniform cross section throughout its length always follows a partial or composite sinusoidal curve shape, and the critical load is given by

f_{cr}equivfrac{pi^2textit{E}I_{min}}{{L}^2} (1)

where E = modulus of elasticity of the material, Imin = the minimal moment of inertia of the cross section, and L = actual length of the column between its two end supports. A variant of (1) is given by Mathematical meanings Especially in British/European usage, the modulus of a number is its absolute value. ...

f_{cr}equivfrac{pi^{2}E_T}{(frac{KL}{r})^{2}} (2)
Table showing values of K for structural columns of various end conditions (adapted from Manual of Steel Construction, 8th edition, American Institute of Steel Construction, Table C1.8.1)
Table showing values of K for structural columns of various end conditions (adapted from Manual of Steel Construction, 8th edition, American Institute of Steel Construction, Table C1.8.1)

where r = radius of gyration of [column]cross-section, K = ratio of the longest half sine wave to the actual column length, and KL = effective length (length of an equivalent hinged-hinged column). From Equation (2) it can be noted that the buckling strength of a column is inversely proportional to the square of its length. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (962 × 962 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Column ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (962 × 962 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Column ... Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS) is an AAA (authentication, authorization and accounting) protocol for applications such as network access or IP mobility. ... In mathematics, the trigonometric functions are functions of an angle, important when studying triangles and modeling periodic phenomena. ...


When the critical stress, Fcr (Fcr =Pcr/A, where A = cross-sectional area of the column), is greater than the proportional limit of the material, the column is experiencing inelastic buckling. Since at this stress the slope of the material's stress-strain curve, Et (called the tangent modulus), is smaller than that below the proportional limit, the critical load at inelastic buckling is reduced. More complex formulas and procedures apply for such cases, but in its simplest form the critical buckling load formula is given as Equation (3), For other uses, see tangent (disambiguation). ...

f_{cr}equiv{F_y}-frac{F^{2}_{y}}{4pi^{2}E}left(frac{KL}{r^2}right) (3)

where Et = tangent modulus at the stress Fcr


A column with a cross section that lacks symmetry may suffer torsional buckling (sudden twisting) before, or in combination with, lateral buckling. The presence of the twisting deformations renders both theoretical analyses and practical designs rather complex.


Eccentricity of the load, or imperfections such as initial crookedness, decreases column strength. If the axial load on the column is not concentric, that is, its line of action is not precisely coincident with the centroidal axis of the column, the column is characterized as eccentrically loaded. The eccentricity of the load, or an initial curvature, subjects the column to immediate bending. The increased stresses due to the combined axial-plus-flexural stresses result in a reduced load-carrying ability.


Extensions

When a column is too long to be built or transported in one piece, it has to be extended or spliced at the construction site. A reinforced concrete column is extended by having the steel reinforcing bars protrude a few inches or feet above the top of the concrete, then placing the next level of reinforcing bars to overlap, and pouring the concrete of the next level. A steel column is extended by welding or bolting splice plates on the flanges and webs or walls of the columns to provide a few inches or feet of load transfer from the upper to the lower column section. A timber column is usually extended by the use of a steel tube or wrapped-around sheet-metal plate bolted onto the two connecting timber sections.


Foundations

A column that carries the load down to a foundation must have means to transfer the load without overstressing the foundation material. Reinforced concrete and masonry columns are generally built directly on top of concrete foundations. A steel column, when seated on a concrete foundation, must have a base plate to spread the load over a larger area and thereby reduce the bearing pressure. The base plate is a thick rectangular steel plate usually welded to the bottom end of the column.


The Classical orders

Main article: Classical order

The Roman author Vitruvius, relying on the writings (now lost) of Greek authors, tells us that the ancient Greeks believed that their Doric order developed from techniques for building in wood in which the earlier smoothed tree trunk was replaced by a stone cylinder. This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 469 KB) Reggio Emilia Chiesa di San Prospero By me foto fatta da me 2005 --Paolo da Reggio 16:23, 1 Jun 2005 (UTC) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 469 KB) Reggio Emilia Chiesa di San Prospero By me foto fatta da me 2005 --Paolo da Reggio 16:23, 1 Jun 2005 (UTC) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... San Prospero is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Modena in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about 40 km northwest of Bologna and about 15 km northeast of Modena. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Reggio Emilia (RE) Mayor Graziano Delrio (from July 1, 2004) Elevation 58 m Area 231 km² Population  - Total 141,383  - Density 612/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Reggiani Dialing code 0522 Postal code 42100 Frazioni see list Patron San Prospero  - Day... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born ca. ...


Doric order

Main article: Doric order

The Doric order is the oldest and simplest of the classical orders. It is composed of a vertical cylinder that is wider at the bottom. It generally has neither a base nor a detailed capital. It is instead often topped with an inverted frustum of a shallow cone or a cylindrical band of carvings. It is often referred to as the masculine order because it is represented in the bottom level of the Colosseum and the Parthenon, and was therefore considered to be able to hold more weight. The height-to-thickness ratio is about 4:1. The shaft of a Doric Column is almost always fluted. The Doric order was one of the three orders or organizational systems of Ancient Greek or classical architecture; the other two canonic orders being the Ionic and the Corinthian. ... The Doric order was one of the three orders or organizational systems of Ancient Greek or classical architecture; the other two canonic orders being the Ionic and the Corinthian. ... A right circular cylinder An elliptic cylinder In mathematics, a cylinder is a quadric surface, with the following equation in Cartesian coordinates: This equation is for an elliptic cylinder, a generalization of the ordinary, circular cylinder (a = b). ... A capital of the Composite order In Western architecture, the capital (from the Latin caput, head) forms the crowning member of the column, which projects on each side as it rises, in order to support the abacus and unite the square form of the latter with the circular shaft. ... A frustum is the portion of a solid â€“ normally a cone or pyramid â€“ which lies between two parallel planes cutting the solid. ... The Colosseum by night: exterior view of the best-preserved section. ... The Parthenon east façade The Parthenon from the south. ...


Tuscan order

Main article: Tuscan order

The Tuscan order, also known as Roman Doric, is also a simple design, the base and capital both being series of cylindrical disks of alternating diameter. The shaft is almost never fluted. The proportions vary, but are generally similar to Doric columns. The Tuscan order in Andrea Palladio, Quattro Libri di Architettura, 1570 Among the classical orders of architecture, the Tuscan order is the newcomer, a stocky simplified variant of the Doric order that was introduced into the canon of classical architecture by Italian architectural theorists of the 16th century. ... The Tuscan order in Andrea Palladio, Quattro Libri di Architettura, 1570 Among the classical orders of architecture, the Tuscan order is the newcomer, a stocky simplified variant of the Doric order that was introduced into the canon of classical architecture by Italian architectural theorists of the 16th century. ...


Ionic order

Main article: Ionic order

The Ionic column is considerably more complex than the Doric or Tuscan. It usually has a base and the shaft is often fluted (it has grooves carved up its length). On the top is a capital in the characteristic shape of a scroll, called a volute, or scroll, at the four corners. The height-to-thickness ratio is around 6:1. Due to the more refined proportions and scroll capitals, the Ionic column is sometimes associated with academic buildings. Architects first real look at the Greek Ionic order: Julien David LeRoy, Les ruines plus beaux des monuments de la Grèce Paris, 1758 (Plate XX) Ionic order: 1 - entrablature, 2 - column, 3 - cornice, 4 - frieze, 5 - architrave or epistyle, 6 - capital (composed of abacus and volutes), 7 - shaft, 8... Architects first real look at the Greek Ionic order: Julien David LeRoy, Les ruines plus beaux des monuments de la Grèce Paris, 1758 (Plate XX) Ionic order: 1 - entrablature, 2 - column, 3 - cornice, 4 - frieze, 5 - architrave or epistyle, 6 - capital (composed of abacus and volutes), 7 - shaft, 8... A scroll is a roll of parchment, papyrus, or paper which has been written upon. ... A volute is a spiral scroll-like ornament such as that used on an Ionic capital. ...

Ionic capital
Ionic capital

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 492 KB) Work by Rama File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Column Category:Start-Class Classical Greece and Rome articles Category:Stub-Class Classical Greece and... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 492 KB) Work by Rama File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Column Category:Start-Class Classical Greece and Rome articles Category:Stub-Class Classical Greece and...

Corinthian order

Main article: Corinthian order

The Corinthian order is named for the Greek city-state of Corinth, to which it was connected in the period. However, according to the Greek architectural historian Vitruvius, the column was created by the sculptor Callimachus, probably an Athenian, who drew acanthus leaves growing around a votive basket. In fact, the oldest known Corinthian capital was found in Bassae, dated at 427 BC. It is sometimes called the feminine order because it is on the top level of the Colosseum and holding up the least weight, and also has the slenderest ratio of thickness to height. The Corinthian order as used for the portico of the Pantheon, Rome provided a prominent model for Renaissance and later architects, through the medium of engravings. ... The Corinthian order as used for the portico of the Pantheon, Rome provided a prominent model for Renaissance and later architects, through the medium of engravings. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... Temple of Apollo at Corinth Corinth, or Korinth (Κόρινθος) is a Greek city, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the original isthmus, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Athens is the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... Species See text Acanthus is a genus of about 30 species of flowering plants in the family Acanthaceae, native to tropical and warm temperate regions of the Old World, with the highest species diversity in the Mediterranean region and Asia. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 432 BC 431 BC 430 BC 429 BC 428 BC - 427 BC - 426 BC 425 BC...


Composite order

The Composite order draws its name from the capital being a composite of the Ionic and Corinthian capitals. The acanthus of the Corinthian column already has a scroll-like element, so the distinction is sometimes subtle. Generally the Composite is similar to the Corinthian in proportion and employment, often in the upper tiers of colonnades. A capital of the Composite order The composite order is a mixed order, combining the volutes of the Ionic order with the leaves of the Corinthian order. ...


Solomonic

Solomonic columns were inventions of Baroque architects in Europe. They were not used in antiquity, but were called "Solomonic" by baroque architects because they were based on a description of columns in the great temple of King Solomon in the Old Testament. A Solomonic column begins on a base and ends in a capital, just like a classical column, but the shaft twists around the usual parameters of a column, producing a dramatic, serpentine effect of movement. The most famous use of Solomonic columns is in the canopy designed by Bernini for Saint Peter's Basilica in the Vatican City. Solomonic columns applied with gilded vines in Poland The Solomonic column is characterized by a spiraling twisting shaft. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... Artists depiction of Solomos court (Ingobertus, c. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... Look up Canopy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A self portrait: Bernini is said to have used his own features in the David (below, left) Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini) (December 7, 1598 - November 28, 1680), who worked chiefly in Rome, was the pre-eminent baroque artist. ... Interior view, with the nave of the Cattedra in the back St. ...


Notable columns

The Alexander Column in the Palace Square The Alexander Column (Russian: , Aleksandrovskaya Kolonna), is the focal point of Palace Square in Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... Berlin Siegessäule (June 2003) The Statue of Victoria The Victory Column (German:  ) is a famous sight of Berlin. ... To the glory of God the Almighty, the Virgin Mary and the saints I will build a column that in its height and splendour will be unrivalled in any other town. ... The Monument, London to commemorate the Great Fire of London, designed by Sir Christopher Wren The viewing platform The Monument seen from the ground The Monument to the Fire of London, more commonly known as The Monument, is a 61-metre (202-foot) tall stone Roman doric column in the... Lord Nelson at the top of the column that bears his name Nelsons Column is a monument in Trafalgar Square, London, England. ... The Old Bourse seen from the Neva River The old Saint Petersburg Bourse is the most important monument of the Greek Revival not only in the capital of Imperial Russia but in the whole of the Russian Empire. ... Categories: Stub | Warsaw | Monuments in Poland ... Trajans Column is a monument in Rome raised by Apollodorus of Damascus at the order of the Senate. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Column

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... For the type of foundation, see Deep foundation. ... Enormous colonnade of the Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg. ... Persian columns or Persians is an archeological term pointing to the columns of which the shaft represents a Persian captive of war. ... In architecture, pilasters comprise slightly-projecting pseudo-columns built into or onto a wall, with capitals and bases. ... This article is about engineering. ... A spur (French ?griJje, German Knoll), in architecture, is the ornament carved on the angles of the base of early columns. ... The plague Column of the Virgin Mary Immaculate in Kutná Hora, the Czech Republic, built between 1713 and 1715 Erecting religious monuments in the form of a column surmounted by a figure or a Christian symbol was a gesture of public faith that flourished in the Catholic countries of Europe... The Doric order was one of the three orders or organizational systems of Ancient Greek or classical architecture; the other two canonic orders being the Ionic and the Corinthian. ... The Tuscan order in Andrea Palladio, Quattro Libri di Architettura, 1570 Among the classical orders of architecture, the Tuscan order is the newcomer, a stocky simplified variant of the Doric order that was introduced into the canon of classical architecture by Italian architectural theorists of the 16th century. ... Architects first real look at the Greek Ionic order: Julien David LeRoy, Les ruines plus beaux des monuments de la Grèce Paris, 1758 (Plate XX) Ionic order: 1 - entrablature, 2 - column, 3 - cornice, 4 - frieze, 5 - architrave or epistyle, 6 - capital (composed of abacus and volutes), 7 - shaft, 8... The Corinthian order as used for the portico of the Pantheon, Rome provided a prominent model for Renaissance and later architects, through the medium of engravings. ... A capital of the Composite order The composite order is a mixed order, combining the volutes of the Ionic order with the leaves of the Corinthian order. ... schema of a Corinthian column In architecture, entasis is a design technique used to counteract a certain optical illusion. ...


Related Links

Customize A Column (Smooth, Fluted, or Twisted)


  Results from FactBites:
 
Column - LoveToKnow 1911 (756 words)
The earliest Greek columns in stone as isolated features are those of the Temple of Apollo at Syracuse (early 7th century B.C.), the shafts of which were monoliths, but as a rule the Greek columns were all built of drums, sometimes as many as ten or twelve.
The Romans employed columns in various ways: the Trajan and the Antonine columns carried figures of the two emperors; the columna rostrata (260 B.C.) in the Forum was decorated with the beaks of ships and was a votive column, the miliaria column marked the centre of Rome from which all distances were measured.
In the same way the column in the Place Vendome in Paris carries a statue of Napoleon I.; the monument of the Fire of London, a finial with flames sculptured on it; the duke of York's column (London), a statue of the duke of York.
Colonial Columns - Architectural Columns Wood Columns Decorative Columns Porch Columns Fiberglass Columns Aluminum ... (172 words)
We coat the interior of the column with a bituminous coating that deters rotting and insects.
Columns range from 6 inches to 36 inches in diameter and lengths to 28 feet.
Columns are available in round, square, plain shaft or fluted.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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