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Encyclopedia > Columbus Day
Columbus Day
Columbus Day
First Landing of Columbus on the Shores of the New World, after the painting by Discoro Téofilo de la Puebla
Observed by the Americas, Spain
Type Historical
Significance A celebration honoring Christopher Columbus' first voyage to the Americas in 1492
Date second Monday in October (USA);

October 12 (actual/traditional) Image File history File links Christopher_Columbus3. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

2007 date October 8 (USA)
2008 date October 13 (USA)
2009 date October 12 (USA)
Related to Día de la Raza in many Latin American countries, Discovery Day in The Bahamas, Hispanic Day in Spain, Día de las Culturas in Costa Rica and Día de la Resistencia Indígena in Venezuela. Also, Thanksgiving in Canada, which falls on the same date.

Columbus Day is a holiday celebrating the anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the Americas, which happened on the October 12, 1492 in the Julian calendar, or October 21, 1492 in the modern Gregorian calendar. Similar holidays, celebrated as Día de la Raza (Day of the Race) in many countries in Latin America, Día de las Culturas (Day of the Cultures) in Costa Rica, Discovery Day in The Bahamas, Día de la Hispanidad in Spain, Discoverer's Day in Hawaii, and the newly renamed (as of 2002) Día de la Resistencia Indígena (Day of Indigenous Resistance) in Venezuela, commemorate the same event. is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Discovery Day is celebrated in only two provinces in Canada. ... Hispanic Day (el Día de la Hispanidad) is the National Day of Spain. ... The Día de la Resistencia Indígena (Spanish for Day of Indigenous Resistance) is the current name for the October 12 official holiday in Venezuela, known as Día de la Raza and Columbus Day in other countries across the Americas. ... For the American holiday, see Thanksgiving (United States). ... For other uses, see Holiday (disambiguation). ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also film, 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Discovery Day is celebrated in only two provinces in Canada. ... Hispanic Day (el Día de la Hispanidad) is the National Day of Spain. ... Discoverers Day is celebrated on the second Monday of October in Hawaii; it honors Captain James Cook as the first European to document Hawaiian society. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Día de la Resistencia Indígena (Spanish for Day of Indigenous Resistance) is the current name for the October 12 official holiday in Venezuela, known as Día de la Raza and Columbus Day in other countries across the Americas. ...

Contents

Encounter with the Americas

Further information: Christopher Columbus, European colonization of the Americas

Columbus Day commemorates Columbus' famed expedition to the West, in which he hoped to find a naval route to India. Instead, he found an entire continent that was mostly unknown to Europe, Africa, and Asia at the time. While other Europeans had sporadically visited the Americas earlier, and there are varied theories of even earlier contact by East Asians, Phoenicians, and others, Columbus' expedition triggered the great wave of European interest in the New World. Unlike the earlier visitors, Columbus aggressively popularized his discoveries and arranged for return voyages. Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contacts were interactions between the indigenous peoples of the Americas and peoples of other continents – Europe, Africa, Asia, or Oceania – before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492. ... Christopher Columbus (1451–1506) was a navigator and an admiral for the Crown of Castile whose voyages to America greatly expanded European exploration and colonization of the continent (Vikings had previously had a colony at current New England, and there is significant support for Carthaginian pre-Columbian trans-Atlantic contact). ...


United States observance

The first Columbus Day celebration was held in 1792, when New York City celebrated the 300th anniversary of his landing in the New World. In 1892, President Benjamin Harrison called upon the people of the United States to celebrate Columbus Day on the 400th anniversary of the event. 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other persons named Benjamin Harrison, see Benjamin Harrison (disambiguation). ...


Italian-Americans observe Columbus Day as a celebration of their heritage, the first occasion being in New York City on October 12, 1866.[1] [2] Columbus Day was popularized as a holiday in the United States by a lawyer, a son of Genoese immigrants who came to California. During the 1850s, Genoese immigrants settled and built ranches along the Sierra Nevada foothills. As the gold ran out, these skilled "Cal-Italians", from the Apennines, were able to prosper as self-sufficient farmers in the Mediterranean climate of Northern California. San Francisco has the second oldest Columbus Day celebration, with Italians having commemorated it there since 1869. An Italian-American is an American of Italian descent. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Alternate uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the mountain range in the Western United States. ... This is about the terrestrial mountain range. ...  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. ... San Francisco redirects here. ...


This lawyer then moved to Colorado, which had a population of Genoese miners, and where, in 1907, the first state-wide celebration was held. In 1934, at the behest of the Knights of Columbus (a Catholic fraternal service organization named for the voyager), Congress and President Franklin Delano Roosevelt set aside Columbus Day as a Federal holiday (36 USC 107, ch. 184, 48 Stat. 657). Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Knights of Columbus emblem The Knights of Columbus is the worlds largest Roman Catholic fraternal service organization. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... In the United States, a Federal holiday is a holiday recognized by the United States Government. ...


Since 1971, the holiday has been commemorated in the U.S. on the second Monday in October, the same day as Thanksgiving in neighboring Canada. It is generally observed today by banks, the bond market, the US Postal Service other federal agencies, and most state government offices; however, most businesses, stock exchanges, and most school districts remain open (with the notable exception of the New York metropolitan area where most schools are closed). Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... For the American holiday, see Thanksgiving (United States). ... USPS and Usps redirect here. ... This article is about the state. ...


States and city observations

California

The city of Berkeley celebrates Indigenous People's Day instead of Columbus Day. Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in Northern California, in the United States. ...


Colorado

The Columbus Day parade in Denver has been protested by American Indian groups and their supporters for nearly two decades.[3] Denver has the longest running parade in the United States. [4]


Hawaii

Further information: Discoverer's Day
Discoverer's Day is celebrated on the second Monday of October in Hawaii; it honors Captain James Cook as the first European to document Hawaiian society.
Discoverer's Day is celebrated on the second Monday of October in Hawaii; it honors Captain James Cook as the first European to document Hawaiian society.

Hawaii does not officially honor Columbus day and instead celebrates Discoverer's Day on the same day, i.e., on the second Monday of each October. While many in Hawaii still celebrate the life of Columbus on Columbus Day, the alternative holiday also honors James Cook, the British navigator that became the first person to record the coordinates of the Hawaiian Islands and share with the world the existence of the ancient Hawaiian people and society. Some people interpret the holiday as a celebration of all discoveries relative to the ancient and modern societies of Hawaii. Discoverers Day is celebrated on the second Monday of October in Hawaii; it honors Captain James Cook as the first European to document Hawaiian society. ... Image File history File links Captain James Tiberius Cook official portrait from the National Maritime Museum, United Kingdom File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Captain James Tiberius Cook official portrait from the National Maritime Museum, United Kingdom File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Discoverers Day is celebrated on the second Monday of October in Hawaii; it honors Captain James Cook as the first European to document Hawaiian society. ... This article is about the British explorer. ... A navigator is the person onboard a ship responsible for the navigation of the vessel. ... Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 2,400 km in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawaii. ... Early Polynesians settled in Hawaiʻi circa A.D. 7th century, having traveled from Tahiti and Marquesas on double-hulled voyaging canoes Ancient Hawaiʻi refers to the period of Hawaiian history preceding the unification of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi by Kamehameha the Great in 1810. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ...


Many Native Hawaiians decry the celebration of both Columbus and Cook, known to have committed acts of violent subjugation of native people. Discoverer's Day is a day of protest for some advocacy groups. A popular protest site is the Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace and the Chancery building of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu. Such advocacy groups have been commemorating the Discoverer's Day holiday as their own alternative, Indigenous Peoples Day. The week is called Indigenous Peoples Week. The Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace is the oldest Roman Catholic cathedral in continuous use in the United States. ... Episcopal crest of Bishop Clarence Silva The Catholic Diocese of Honolulu is an ecclesiastical territory or particular church of the Catholic Church in the United States. ...


Nevada

Columbus Day is not a legal holiday in Nevada, but it is a day of observance. Schools and state, city and county government offices are open for business on Columbus Day.[5] This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ...


South Dakota

In the state of South Dakota, the day is officially a state holiday known as "Native American Day", not Columbus Day.[6] Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ...


Día de la Raza

The date of Columbus' arrival in the Americas is celebrated in Latin America (and in some Latino communities in the USA) as the Día de la Raza ("day of the people"), commemorating the first encounters of Europe and Native Americans. The day was first celebrated in Argentina in 1917, Venezuela in 1921, Chile in 1923, and Mexico in 1928. The day was also celebrated under this title in Spain until 1957, when it was changed to the "Día de la Hispanidad" ("Hispanic Day"). For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Hispanic Day (el Día de la Hispanidad) is the National Day of Spain. ...


In 2002, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela changed the name to "Día de la Resistencia Indígena" ("Day of Indigenous Resistance"). This is celebrated on Columbus Day, instead of celebrating Christopher Columbus, they celebrate the different races. Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Día de la Resistencia Indígena (Spanish for Day of Indigenous Resistance) is the current name for the October 12 official holiday in Venezuela, known as Día de la Raza and Columbus Day in other countries across the Americas. ...


Opposition to Columbus Day

Opposition to the holiday cites the fact that Columbus and many of the conquistador followers treated the American Indians with great cruelty. Columbus directly brought about the demise of many Taino (Arawak) Indians on the island of Hispaniola,[citation needed] and the arrival of the Europeans indirectly caused the deaths of many indigenous peoples by bringing diseases previously unknown in the New World. An estimated 85 percent of the Native American population was wiped out within 150 years of Columbus' arrival in America, due largely to diseases such as smallpox, that spread among Native American populations. Additionally, war and the seizing of land and material wealth by European colonists also contributed to the decline of the indigenous populations in America.[7] A Conquistador (Spanish: []) (English: Conqueror) was a Spanish soldier, explorer and adventurer who took part in the gradual invasion and conquering of much of the Americas and Asia Pacific, bringing them under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 19th centuries. ... The Taíno are the pre-Hispanic Amerindian inhabitants of the Greater Antilles, which includes Cuba, Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), Puerto Rico, Jamaica and the Bahamas. ... Early map of Hispaniola Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ...


In the summer of 1990, 350 Native Americans, representatives from all over the hemisphere, met in Quito, Ecuador, at the first intercontinental gathering of indigenous people in the Americas, to mobilize against the quincentennial celebration of Columbus Day. The following summer, in Davis, California, more than a hundred Native Americans gathered for a follow-up meeting to the Quito conference. They declared October 12, 1992, International Day of Solidarity with Indigenous People. Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Quito is the capital city of Ecuador. ... Davis is a city in Yolo County, California, United States. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


The largest ecumenical body in the United States, the National Council of Churches, called on Christians to refrain from celebrating the Columbus quincentennial, saying, "What represented newness of freedom, hope, and opportunity for some was the occasion for oppression, degradation and genocide for others."[8]


See also

This Chinese map, produced in 1763 and claimed by the unidentified author to be based on a 1418 Chinese map, has produced much controversy as to how much knowledge Medieval China had of the Americas and Antarctica. ... Discoverers Day is celebrated on the second Monday of October in Hawaii; it honors Captain James Cook as the first European to document Hawaiian society. ... Discovery Day is celebrated in only two provinces in Canada. ... A statue of Leif Erikson near the Minnesota State Capitol in St. ... Natives of North America. ... For the American holiday, see Thanksgiving (United States). ...

References

  1. ^ Charles Speroni, "The Development of the Columbus Day Pageant of San Francisco," Western Folklore, Vol. 7, No. 4 (Oct., 1948), pp. 325-335.
  2. ^ U.S. State Department, Bureau of International Information Programs, Holidays: Columbus Day.
  3. ^ Keith Coffman, Columbus Day protest in Denver leads to arrests, Reuters, Oct. 6, 2007.
  4. ^ Keith Coffman, Columbus Day protest in Denver leads to arrests, Reuters, Oct. 6, 2007.
  5. ^ Nevada Revised Statutes.
  6. ^ South Dakota Codified Laws.
  7. ^ Kenneth C. Davis, Don't Know Much About American History, p. 10.
  8. ^ A Faithful Response to the 500th Anniversary of the Arrival of Christopher Columbus in A Resolution of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA, paragraph 1.

Kenneth C. Davis is the author of books such as Dont Know Much About History and Dont Know Much About Geography. ...

External links

It has been suggested that Order of the Sons of Italy be merged into this article or section. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... In the United States, a Federal holiday is a holiday recognized by the United States Government. ... This article is about the date January 1 in the Gregorian calendar. ... Martin Luther King Jr. ... Inauguration Day 2005 of President George W. Bush on the west steps of the U.S. Capitol. ... Presidents Day (or Presidents Day), is the common name for the federal holiday officially designated as Linclon Birthday, and both variants are among the official names of a number of coinciding state holidays. ... Memorial Day is a United States federal holiday that is observed on the last Monday of May (observed this year on 2007-05-28). ... Fourth of July redirects here. ... This article is about the holiday in the United States. ... For Veterans Day in the United Kingdom, see Veterans Day UK. President Eisenhower signs HR7786, officially changing Armistice Day to Veterans Day. ... For the Canadian holiday, see Thanksgiving (Canada). ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Columbus Day History and Information Activities and Links (0 words)
Columbus is the explorer who discovered America in that year.
Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy in 1451 to Domenico Columbo, a wool weaver.
Columbus was just one of many, explorers and tradesmen trying to find such a route.
Columbus Day and Christopher Columbus - a History (0 words)
Columbus, the son of a wool merchant and weaver, was born in Genoa, Italy and went to sea at the age of 14.
Columbus and 90 crewmen boarded the three ships that were to make the first voyage to the New World, the Niña, Pinta, and the flagship, Santa Maria.
Nevertheless, Columbus' expedition was unique and important in that it resulted in the first intertwining of Europe with the Americas, resulting in the first permanent European colonies in the New World.
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