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Encyclopedia > Columbian Exchange
Inca-era terraces on Taquile are used to grow traditional Andean staples, such as quinua and potatoes, alongside wheat, a European import.
Inca-era terraces on Taquile are used to grow traditional Andean staples, such as quinua and potatoes, alongside wheat, a European import.

The Columbian Exchange (also sometimes known as The Grand Exchange) has been one of the most significant events in the history of world ecology, agriculture, and culture. The term is used to describe the enormous widespread exchange of plants, animals, foods, human populations (including slaves), communicable diseases, and ideas between the Eastern and Western hemispheres that occurred after 1492. Many new and different goods were exchanged between the two hemispheres of the Earth, and it began a new revolution in the Americas and in Europe. In 1492, Christopher Columbus' first voyage launched an era of large-scale contact between the Old and the New World that resulted in this ecological revolution: hence the name "Columbian" Exchange. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1886x1264, 1602 KB) Beschreibung Intika watamanta Amantani watata qhawachkanchik. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1886x1264, 1602 KB) Beschreibung Intika watamanta Amantani watata qhawachkanchik. ... For the a general view of Inca civilisation, people and culture, see Incas. ... Terraced vineyards near Lausanne The Incan terraces at Písac are still used today. ... Categories: Stub ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Binomial name Chenopodium quinoa Willd. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Slavery is any of a number of related conditions involving control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or other clear forms of coercion. ... In medicine, infectious disease or communicable disease is disease caused by a biological agent (e. ... The eastern hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... Also film, 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans, Asians, and Africans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ...


The Columbian Exchange greatly affected almost every society on earth, bringing destructive diseases that depopulated many cultures, and also circulating a wide variety of new crops and livestock that, in the long term, increased rather than diminished the world human population. Maize and potatoes became very important crops in Eurasia by the 1700s. Peanuts and manioc flourished in tropical Southeast Asian and West African soils that otherwise would not produce large yields or support large populations. Binomial name Manihot esculenta Crantz Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta; also yuca in Spanish, and mandioca, aipim, or macaxera in Portuguese) is a woody perennial shrub of the spurge family, that is extensively cultivated as an annual crop for its edible starchy tuberous root. ...

Contents

Examples

This exchange of plants and animals transformed European, American, African, and Asian ways of life. New foods became staples of human diets and new growing regions opened up for crops. For example, before AD 1000, potatoes were not grown outside of South America. By the 1840s, Ireland was so dependent on the potato that a diseased crop led to the devastating Irish Potato Famine. The first European import, the horse, changed the lives of many Native American tribes on the Great Plains, allowing them to shift to a nomadic lifestyle based on hunting bison on horseback. Tomato sauce, made from New World tomatoes, became an Italian trademark, while coffee from Africa and sugar cane from Asia became the main crops of extensive Latin American plantations. Also the chili / Paprika from South America was introduced in India by the Portuguese and it is today an inseparable part of Indian cuisine. A growing region is an area suited by climate and soil conditions to the cultivation of a certain type of crop. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... // First use of general anesthesia in an operation, by Crawford Long The first electrical telegraph sent by Samuel Morse on May 24, 1844 from Baltimore to Washington, D.C.. First signing of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) on February 6, 1840 at Waitangi, Northland New Zealand. ... For other uses, please see Great Famine. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... Species †B. antiquus B. bison B. bonasus †B. latifrons †B. occidentalis †B. priscus Bison in winter. ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... This article is about crop plantations. ... For other uses, see Chili. ... Capsicum fruit which comes in various shapes and colours can be used to make paprika. ... The multiple families of Indian cuisine are characterized by their sophisticated and subtle use of many spices and herbs. ...


Before the Columbian Exchange, there were no oranges in Florida, no bananas in Ecuador, no paprika in Hungary, no tomatoes in Italy, no pineapples in Hawaii, no rubber trees in Africa, no cattle in Texas, no burros in Mexico, no chile peppers in Thailand and India, no cigarettes in France and no chocolate in Switzerland. Even the dandelion was brought to America by Europeans for use as an herb. Binomial name (L.) Osbeck Orange—specifically, sweet orange—refers to the citrus tree Citrus sinensis (syn. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Capsicum fruit which comes in various shapes and colours can be used to make paprika. ... Binomial name Solanumlycopersicum Linnaeus ref. ... Binomial name Ananas comosus The Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant and its fruit, native to Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758 The donkey, a. ... The chile pepper, chili pepper, or chilli pepper, or simply chile, is the fruit of the plant Capsicum from the nightshade family, Solanaceae. ... Unlit filtered cigarettes. ... For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dandelion (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ... For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). ...


Before regular communication had been established between the two hemispheres, the varieties of domesticated animals and infectious diseases were strikingly larger in the Old World than in the New. This led, in part, to the devastating effects of Old World diseases on Native American populations. The smallpox epidemics probably resulted in the largest death toll for Native Americans. Scarcely any society on earth remained unaffected by this global ecological exchange. Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ...


Table of comparison

Pre-Columbian Distribution of Organisms with Close Ties to Humans
Type of organism Old World list (what they had) New World list (what they had)
Domesticated animals
Domesticated plants
Infectious diseases

For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fowl (disambiguation). ... Alternate uses: Chicken (disambiguation) Binomial name Gallus gallus (Linnaeus, 1758) A chicken is a type of domesticated bird which is usually raised as a type of poultry. ... The word duck was also used as slang for the WWII amphibious vehicle called a DUKW. It is also a cricketing term denoting a batsman being dismissed with a score of zero; see golden duck. ... This article is about the domestic species. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Species See text. ... This article is about a breed of domesticated ungulates. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... For other uses, see Fowl (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Guinea pig (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Llama (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... This article is on the plant. ... Binomial name L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Citrus (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... Binomial name L. Vit. ... Binomial name Avena sativa Carolus Linnaeus (1753) The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. ... For other uses, see Onion (disambiguation). ... This article is about the drug. ... Binomial name (L.) Batsch Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical... Trinomial name Brassica rapa rapa L. For similar vegetables also called turnip, see Turnip (disambiguation). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Amaranth (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Mill. ... This article is on the plant. ... Binomial name L. The Cashew (Anacardium occidentale; syn. ... Binomial name Salvia hispanica L. Chia (Salvia hispanica) is a plant of the genus Salvia of the mint family. ... Binomial name Manilkara chicle (Pittier) Gilly Chicle is the gum from Manilkara chicle, a species of sapodilla tree. ... For other uses, see Chili. ... For other uses, see Coca (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cocoa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Wild huckleberry in the Mount Hood National Forest. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Binomial name Manihot esculenta Crantz Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta; also yuca in Spanish, and mandioca, aipim, or macaxera in Portuguese) is a woody perennial shrub of the spurge family, that is extensively cultivated as an annual crop for its edible starchy tuberous root. ... Binomial name L. This article is about the fruit. ... Binomial name L. This article is about the legume. ... Binomial name Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. ... For other uses, see Pineapple (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Willd. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Species - hubbard squash, buttercup squash - cushaw squash C. moschata- butternut squash C. pepo- most pumpkins, acorn squash, summer squash References: ITIS 223652002-11-06 Hortus Third Squashes are four species of the genus Cucurbita, also called pumpkins and marrows depending on variety or the nationality of the speaker. ... For other uses, see Pumpkin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sunflower (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Strawberry (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (L.) Lam. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vanilla (disambiguation). ... The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis (Pasteurella pestis). ... Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is an extreme diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Sleeping sickness or African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease in people and animals, caused by protozoa of genus Trypanosoma and transmitted by the tsetse fly. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... This is about the disease typhoid fever. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... Yaws (also Frambesia tropica, thymosis, polypapilloma tropicum or pian) is a tropical infection of the skin, bones and joints caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pertenue. ...

See also

Articles

Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contacts were interactions between the indigenous peoples of the Americas and peoples of other continents – Europe, Africa, Asia, or Oceania – before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492. ... Natives of North America. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies is a 1997 book by Jared Diamond, professor of geography and physiology at UCLA. In 1998 it won a Pulitzer Prize and the Aventis Prize for Best Science Book. ... Alfred W. Crosby is a historian, professor and well-respected author. ...

Lists

Mike Poteet is SEXY This is a list of plants that have been domesticated by humans. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This is a list of vegetables in the culinary sense, which means it includes some botanical fruits like pumpkins and doesnt include herbs, spices, cereals and most culinary fruits and culinary nuts. ... By far the most commonly used seasoning for food is table salt; however, it is a mineral, not a spice. ... Here are lists of all the fruits considered edible in some cuisine. ...


Sources

  • The Columbian Exchange: Plants, Animals, and Disease between the Old and New Worlds in the Encyclopedia of Earth by Alfred W. Crosby
  • Worlds Together, Worlds Apart by Jeremy Adelman, Stephen Aron, Stephen Kotkin, et al.

  Results from FactBites:
 
White Dove's Native American Indian Site Columbian Exchange (0 words)
The Columbian Exchange is the term Crosby coined to describe the worldwide redistribution of plants, animals, and diseases that resulted from the initial contacts between Europeans and American Indians.
Perhaps the most powerful currency of the Columbian Exchange, however, was epidemic disease.
Largely immune to the diseases that corroded native life, Europeans were able to take and hold an advantage over the tribes, turning their attention to learning to use the domesticated animals and plants they encountered in the New World.
Columbian Exchange - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (451 words)
The Columbian Exchange (also sometimes known as The Grand Exchange) has been one of the significant events in the history of world ecology, agriculture, and culture.
The term is used to describe the enormous widespread exchange of agricultural goods, livestock, slave labor, communicable diseases, and ideas between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres that occurred after 1492.
Before the Columbian Exchange, there were no oranges in Florida, no bananas in Ecuador, no paprika in Hungary, no zuchini in Italy, no pineapples in Hawaii, no rubber trees in Africa, no cattle in Texas, no burros in Mexico, no chile peppers in Thailand, no cigarettes in France and no chocolate in Switzerland.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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