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Encyclopedia > Columbia River
Columbia River
Columbia River near Revelstoke, BC.
Countries Canada, United States
States Washington, Oregon
Provinces British Columbia
Major cities Revelstoke, BC, Wenatchee, WA, Tri-Cities, WA, Portland, OR
Length 1,243 mi (2,000 km) [1]
Watershed 258,000 mi² (668,217 km²)
Discharge mouth
 - average 265,000 ft³/s (7,504 /s) [2]
 - maximum 1,240,000 ft³/s (35,113 /s)
 - minimum 12,100 ft³/s (343 /s)
Source Columbia Lake
 - location British Columbia, Canada
 - coordinates 50°13′N, 115°51′W [3]
 - elevation 2,650 ft (808 m) [4]
Mouth Pacific Ocean
 - coordinates 46°14′39″N, 124°3′29″W [5]
 - elevation ft (0 m)
Major tributaries
 - left Kootenay River, Pend Oreille River, Spokane River, Snake River, Deschutes River, Willamette River
 - right Okanogan River, Yakima River, Cowlitz River
Columbia River Basin, showing major dams and tributaries

The Columbia River (French: fleuve Columbia) is a river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. It stretches from the Canadian province of British Columbia, through the U.S. state of Washington, and forms much of the border between Washington and Oregon before emptying into the Pacific Ocean. It is the largest river by volume flowing into the Pacific from the Western Hemisphere, and is the fourth-largest by volume in North America behind the Mississippi, St. Lawrence, and Mackenzie Rivers. (In rare years, the river’s flow may actually exceed that of the Mississippi.) Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 899 KB) Looking up the Columbia River in Revelstoke, British Columbia. ... Revelstoke was also the name of a well-known Canadian chain of hardware and home improvement stores, now known as Rona. ... Official language(s) English Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Area  Ranked 18th  - Total 71,342 sq mi (184,827 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 6. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... Revelstoke was also the name of a well-known Canadian chain of hardware and home improvement stores, now known as Rona. ... Wenatchee (IPA: ) is located at the confluence of the Wenatchee and Columbia rivers near the eastern foothills of the Cascade Mountain range in the U.S. State of Washington. ... Central Richland as seen from the Badger Mountain Centennial Preserve. ... Nickname: Location in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: Country United States State Oregon County Multnomah County Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Mayor Tom Potter Area  - City  145. ... A mile is a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including Imperial units, United States customary units and Norwegian/Swedish mil. ... km redirects here. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... It has been suggested that Thousand Cubic Feet be merged into this article or section. ... Look up second in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ... Look up second in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that Thousand Cubic Feet be merged into this article or section. ... Look up second in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ... Look up second in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that Thousand Cubic Feet be merged into this article or section. ... Look up second in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ... Look up second in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Columbia Lake is a lake at the headwaters of the Columbia River, in British Columbia, Canada. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The or meter (see spelling differences) is a measure of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The or meter (see spelling differences) is a measure of length. ... The Kootenay River (spelled Kootenai River for its American portions) is the uppermost major tributary of the Columbia River, flowing through British Columbia, Montana and Idaho. ... The Pend Oreille River is a tributary of the Columbia River, approximately 130 mi (209 km) long, in northern Idaho and northeastern Washington in the United States, as well as southeastern British Columbia in Canada. ... The Spokane River is a tributary of the Columbia River, approximately 100 mi (161 km) long, in northern Idaho and eastern Washington in the United States. ... Perrine Bridge spanning the Snake River Canyon at Twin Falls, Idaho The Snake River is a river in the western part of the United States. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Willamette River (pronounced wil-LAM-met) is a tributary of the Columbia River, approximately 240 mi (386 km) long, in northwestern Oregon in the United States. ... The Okanogan River (called the Okanagan River in its upper reaches in Canada) is a tributary of the Columbia River, approximately 115 mi (185 km) long, in southern British Columbia in Canada and north central Washington in the United States. ... Washington State Route 10 winds past the Yakima River (©2004 Mountains to Sound Greenway Trust) The Yakima River south of Union Gap The Yakima River is a tributary of the Columbia River in eastern Washington state, named for the indigenous Yakama people. ... The Cowlitz River is a river in the state of Washington in the United States, a tributary of the Columbia River. ... Download high resolution version (683x760, 32 KB)Caption: The Columbia River carved the Interior Columbia River Basin from the landscape of seven Western states and two Canadian provinces. ... This bridge across the Danube River links Hungary with Slovakia. ... The Pacific Northwest from space This page is about the region that includes parts of Canada and the United States. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Canada consists of ten provinces and three territories. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties/Parishes/Boroughs, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Official language(s) English Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Area  Ranked 18th  - Total 71,342 sq mi (184,827 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 6. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... The Mississippi River, derived from the old Ojibwe word misi-ziibi meaning great river (gichi-ziibi big river at its headwaters), is the second-longest named river in North America, with a length of 2320 miles (3733 km) from Lake Itasca to the Gulf of Mexico. ... TheSaint Lawrence River (In French: fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Approximate extent of the Mackenzie River watershed The Mackenzie River (French: Fleuve Mackenzie) originates in Great Slave Lake, in the Northwest Territories, and flows north into the Arctic Ocean. ...


The Columbia's average annual flow is about 265,000 ft³/s (7,500 m³/s). The highest recorded flow was 1,240,000 ft³/s (35,113 m³/s), on June 6, 1894. From its headwaters to the Pacific Ocean it flows 1,243 miles (2,000 km), and drains 258,000 square miles (668,217 km²), of which about 15% is in Canada.


The Columbia is the largest hydroelectric power producing river in North America, with 14 hydroelectric dams in the United States and Canada. Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... Hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River (Listed in order from the headwaters, to the Pacific Ocean) See also: Columbia River Categories: Lists of dams ...


The river was named after Captain Robert Gray’s ship Columbia Rediviva, the first ship from the United States or a European country documented to have traveled up the river.[6] Robert Gray (May 10, 1755 – July, 1806) was an American merchant sea-captain and explorer. ... Columbia Rediviva was privately owned sloop under Captain Robert Gray. ...


Because of its large water volume and relatively steep grade, the river has the nickname “the Mighty Columbia.”

Contents

Geography

Columbia Lake (elevation about 808 metres or 2,650 ft) forms the Columbia’s headwaters in the Canadian Rockies of southern British Columbia. The river then flows through Windermere Lake and the town of Invermere, then northwest to Golden and into Kinbasket Lake. The river then turns sharply south (the “Big Bend”), passing through Revelstoke Lake and the Arrow Lakes to the BC–Washington border. The headwaters of a river are small streams that create it. ... Ringrose Peak, Lake OHara, British Columbia, Canada The Canadian Rockies comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains range. ... Lake Windermere is a very large widening in the Columbia River. ... , Invermere, BC with Mount Nelson in the distance Invermere is a community in eastern British Columbia, Canada, near the border of Alberta. ... Golden is a town in central eastern British Columbia, Canada, located 262 kilometres (163 miles) west of Calgary, Alberta and 713 kilometres (443 miles) east of Vancouver. ... Kinbasket Lake (or Kinbasket Reservoir) is a reservoir on the Columbia River in southeast British Columbia, north of the town of Revelstoke and Golden. ... Revelstoke Lake is a very large damed river in central BC north of the town of Revelstoke. ... Upper Arrow Lake, British Columbia The Arrow Lakes, divided into Upper Arrow Lake and Lower Arrow Lake are widenings of the Columbia River. ... Official language(s) English Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Area  Ranked 18th  - Total 71,342 sq mi (184,827 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 6. ...


The river then flows through the east-central portion of Washington. The last 300 miles (480 km) of the Columbia form the Washington-Oregon boundary. The river empties into the Pacific Ocean between Ilwaco, Washington and Astoria, Oregon, forming the Columbia Bar. Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... Ilwaco is a city located in Pacific County, Washington. ... The Astoria Column Suomi Hall, the meeting hall of Finnish and Scandinavian immigrants, under the Astoria-Megler Bridge Woman walking her dog along the Columbia River in Astoria The city of Astoria is the county seat of Clatsop County, Oregon, United States. ... The Graveyard of the Pacific The Columbia River Bar is the portion of the Columbia River where the current dissipates into the Pacific Ocean, often as large, standing waves partially caused by the deposition of sediment as the river slows. ...


For its first 200 miles (320 km) the Columbia flows northwest; it then bends to the south, crossing from Canada into the United States, where the river meets the Clark Fork. The Clark Fork River begins near Butte, Montana and flows through western Montana before entering Pend Oreille Lake. Water draining from the lake forms the Pend Oreille River, which flows across the Idaho panhandle to Washington’s northeastern corner where it meets the northern Canadian fork. The Clark Fork River is a river in the U.S. states of Montana and Idaho, approximately 360 mi (579 km) long. ... Uptown Butte 1942 view of the city Butte is a city in Silver Bow County, Montana and is the county seat. ... Pend Oreille Lake is a lake in northern Idaho. ... The Pend Oreille River is a tributary of the Columbia River, approximately 130 mi (209 km) long, in northern Idaho and northeastern Washington in the United States, as well as southeastern British Columbia in Canada. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The river then runs south-southwest through the Columbia Plateau, changing to a southeasterly direction near the confluence of the Wenatchee River in central Washington. The river continues southeast, past The Gorge Amphitheatre (a prominent concert venue in the Northwest), and then past the Hanford Nuclear Reservation just before it reaches the confluence with the Snake River in the Tri-Cities, Washington. This part of the river is called the Hanford Reach and is the only part of the river in the United States that is free-flowing, unimpeded by dams and not a tidal estuary. The Columbia then makes a sharp bend to the west where it begins to form the Washington-Oregon border. A series of dams on the lower portion of the Columbia have been built to provide hydroelectric power, flood control, and navigational locks. The Washington towns of Spokane, Vantage, Yakima and Pasco, and the Oregon town of Pendleton, lie on the Columbia River Plateau. ... The Wenatchee River is a river in Washington State beginning at Lake Wenatchee and flowing southeast until it meets the Columbia River immediately north of Wenatchee, Washington. ... The Gorge Amphitheatre is a 20,000 seat concert venue located above the Columbia River gorge in George, Washington. ... Hanford Site during the Manhattan Project. ... Perrine Bridge spanning the Snake River Canyon at Twin Falls, Idaho The Snake River is a river in the western part of the United States. ... Central Richland as seen from the Badger Mountain Centennial Preserve. ... The Hanford Reach is a free-flowing section of the Columbia River in Eastern Washington State, named after a large Northward bend in the rivers otherwise Southbound course. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Near the town of Hood River, Oregon, the river begins cutting through the Cascade Mountains at the entrance to the Columbia River Gorge. The west side of the gorge is marked by Crown Point. Constant winds of 15 to 35 mph (25 to 55 km/h) blow through this wide straight gorge. Windsurfing and kitesurfing on the Columbia River at Hood River, Oregon. ... Mount Adams in Washington state The Cascade Range is a mountainous region famous for its chain of tall volcanos called the High Cascades that run north-south along the west coast of North America from British Columbia to the Shasta Cascade area of northern California. ... The Columbia River Gorge is a spectacular canyon of the Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. ... Columbia River Gorge and Crown Point, Oregon, from Portland Womens Forum Viewpoint (Chanticleer Point) Crown Point is the name of a spectacular promontory on the Columbia River Gorge and an associated state park in Oregon. ... A gorge is a narrow passage between steep mountains or hills. ...


The river continues west with one small north-northwesterly-directed stretch near Portland; Vancouver, Washington; and the confluence with the Willamette River. On this sharp bend the river’s flow slows considerably and it drops the sediment that would normally form a delta. The river empties into the Pacific Ocean near Astoria, Oregon; the Columbia River Bar is widely considered one of the most difficult to navigate. Nickname: Location in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: Country United States State Oregon County Multnomah County Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Mayor Tom Potter Area  - City  145. ... Nickname: Vancouver USA, The Couve Motto: A colorful past, a bright future Location in Washington Coordinates: Country United States State Washington County Clark County Founded 1825 Incorporated 1857 Government  - Mayor Royce Pollard Area  - City  46. ... Confluence of Rhine and Mosel at Koblenz In geography, a confluence describes the point where two rivers meet and become one, usually when a tributary joins a more major river. ... The Willamette River (pronounced wil-LAM-met) is a tributary of the Columbia River, approximately 240 mi (386 km) long, in northwestern Oregon in the United States. ... The Astoria Column Suomi Hall, the meeting hall of Finnish and Scandinavian immigrants, under the Astoria-Megler Bridge Woman walking her dog along the Columbia River in Astoria The city of Astoria is the county seat of Clatsop County, Oregon, United States. ... In geography, a bar is a linear shoaling landform feature within a body of water. ...


It is the river's extreme elevation drop over a relatively short distance (2,700 feet in 1,232 miles (822 m in 1,982 km)) that gives it such tremendous potential for hydroelectricity generation. It has been estimated that the Columbia represents 1/5 of the total hydroelectric capacity on Earth—although these estimates were made in the 1960s–1970s, and may not still be accurate. The Columbia in fact drops 2.16 feet per mile (0.41 meters per kilometer), as compared with the Mississippi which drops less than 0.66 feet per mile (0.13 meters per kilometer).

Columbia River Gorge, photographed from Angel's Rest

Image File history File links Cgorge. ... Image File history File links Cgorge. ...

Major tributaries

Columbia River Basin, showing major dams and tributaries
Columbia River Basin, showing major dams and tributaries

The largest tributaries
of the Columbia Tributaries of the Columbia River Going downstream Alphabetical Going downstream From the headwaters in British Columbia, Canada, to the mouth at Astoria, Oregon and beyond: Kicking Horse River Canoe River Kootenay River Flathead River Pend Oreille River Colville River Spokane River Sanpoil River Nespelum River Okanogan River Methow River Chelan... Download high resolution version (683x760, 32 KB)Caption: The Columbia River carved the Interior Columbia River Basin from the landscape of seven Western states and two Canadian provinces. ... Download high resolution version (683x760, 32 KB)Caption: The Columbia River carved the Interior Columbia River Basin from the landscape of seven Western states and two Canadian provinces. ... Look up tributary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Tributary Discharge*
Snake River 56,900 (1611)
Willamette River 35,660 (1010)
Kootenai River 30,650 (867)
Pend Oreille River 27,820 (788)
Cowlitz River 9,200 (261)
Spokane River 6,700 (190)
Deschutes River 6,000 (170)
Lewis River 4,800 (136)
Yakima River 3,540 (100)
Wenatchee River 3,220 (91)
Okanogan River 3,050 (86)
Kettle River 2,930 (83)
Sandy River 2,260 (64)

* Average discharge, cubic feet per second (cubic meters per second) Perrine Bridge spanning the Snake River Canyon at Twin Falls, Idaho The Snake River is a river in the western part of the United States. ... The Willamette River (pronounced wil-LAM-met) is a tributary of the Columbia River, approximately 240 mi (386 km) long, in northwestern Oregon in the United States. ... The Kootenay River (spelled Kootenai River for its American portions) is the uppermost major tributary of the Columbia River, flowing through British Columbia, Montana and Idaho. ... The Pend Oreille River is a tributary of the Columbia River, approximately 130 mi (209 km) long, in northern Idaho and northeastern Washington in the United States, as well as southeastern British Columbia in Canada. ... The Cowlitz River is a river in the state of Washington in the United States, a tributary of the Columbia River. ... The Spokane River is a tributary of the Columbia River, approximately 100 mi (161 km) long, in northern Idaho and eastern Washington in the United States. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Lewis River is a tributary of the Columbia River, approximately 95 mi (153 km), in southwestern Washington in the United States It drains part of the Cascade Range north of the Columbia River. ... Washington State Route 10 winds past the Yakima River (©2004 Mountains to Sound Greenway Trust) The Yakima River south of Union Gap The Yakima River is a tributary of the Columbia River in eastern Washington state, named for the indigenous Yakama people. ... The Wenatchee River is a river in Washington State beginning at Lake Wenatchee and flowing southeast until it meets the Columbia River immediately north of Wenatchee, Washington. ... The Okanogan River (called the Okanagan River in its upper reaches in Canada) is a tributary of the Columbia River, approximately 115 mi (185 km) long, in southern British Columbia in Canada and north central Washington in the United States. ... Kettle River is a 175 mile long (282 km) tributary of the Columbia River in northeastern Washington in the United States and southeastern British Columbia in Canada. ... The Sandy River is a tributary of the Columbia River, approxiately 50 mi (80 km) long, in northwestern Oregon in the United States. ... A cubic foot per second (also cfs, cusec and ft3/s) is an Imperial unit / U.S. customary unit of flow rate equal to a cube with sides each 12 inches (1 foot or 472. ... A cubic metre per second (m3·s−1, m3/s, cumecs or cubic meter per second in American English) is a derived SI unit of flow rate equal to that of a cube with sides of one metre (1000 mm) (39. ...


Missoula Floods

Main article: Missoula Floods

The Columbia River and its drainage basin has experienced some of the world’s greatest known floods. Towards the end of the last ice age, the rupturing of ice dams at Glacial Lake Missoula resulted in discharge rates ten times the combined flow of all the rivers of the world.[7] Water levels resulting from the Missoula Floods have been estimated to be 1,250 feet (381 m) at the Wallula Gap, 830 feet (253 m) at Bonneville Dam, and 400 feet (122 m) over current day Portland, Oregon.[8] In addition to their temporary inundation of the lower Columbia basin, these floods are responsible for many geological features still visible on the Columbia Plateau. Glacial Lake Columbia (west) and Glacial Lake Missoula (east) are shown south of Cordilleran Ice Sheet. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Glacial Lake Missoula was a prehistoric proglacial lake in western Montana that existed periodically at the end of the last ice age between 15,000 and 13,000 years ago. ... Picture taken from location slightly above the location of Fort Nez Percés as seen in 2006, looking to the south toward the Walulla Gap. ... Bonneville Lock and Dam is several dam structures that together complete a span of the Columbia River between the US states of Oregon and Washington at River Mile 146. ... Nickname: Location in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: Country United States State Oregon County Multnomah County Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Mayor Tom Potter Area  - City  145. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... The Washington towns of Spokane, Vantage, Yakima and Pasco, and the Oregon town of Pendleton, lie on the Columbia River Plateau. ...


Modern history

Cascade on the Columbia River

In 1775, Bruno de Heceta became the first European to sight the mouth of the Columbia River, naming it either Bahía de la Asunción, or the San Rogue River. On May 11, 1792, Captain Robert Gray managed to sail into the Columbia River, becoming the first White to enter it. Gray had traveled to the Pacific Northwest to trade for fur in a privately owned vessel named Columbia Rediviva; he named the river after the ship. Gray spent nine days trading near the mouth of the Columbia, then left without having gone beyond 13 miles upstream. George Vancouver, commander of the British naval expedition that was exploring the region at the same time, soon learned that Gray claimed to have found a navigable river, and went to investigate for himself. In October 1792, Vancouver sent Lieutenant William Robert Broughton, his second-in-command, up the river. Broughton sailed up for some miles, then continued in small boats. He got as far as the Columbia River Gorge, about 100 miles upstream, sighting and naming Mount Hood. He also formally claimed the river, its watershed, and the nearby coast for Britain. Gray's discovery of the Columbia was used by the United States to support their claim to the Oregon Country, which was also claimed by Russia, Great Britain, Spain, and other nations.[9] Image File history File links Summary Cascade on the Columbia River. ... Image File history File links Summary Cascade on the Columbia River. ... Bruno de Heceta (Hezeta) y Dudagoitia (1744-1807) was a Spanish explorer of the Pacific Northwest. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (132nd in leap years). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Robert Gray (May 10, 1755 – July, 1806) was an American merchant sea-captain and explorer. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Robert Gray (sea-captain). ... The Pacific Northwest from space This page is about the region that includes parts of Canada and the United States. ... Columbia Rediviva was privately owned sloop under Captain Robert Gray. ... George Vancouver Captain George Vancouver RN (June 22, 1757 – May 12, 1798) was an officer of the Royal Navy, best known for his exploration of North America, including the Pacific coast along the Canadian province of British Columbia and the modern day American states of Washington and Oregon. ... Landscape in Oregon Country, by Charles Marion Russell Map of Oregon Country Oregon Country was a region of western North America that originally consisted of the land north of 42°N latitude, south of 54°40N latitude, and west of the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. ...


French explorers called the Columbia River "the river of storms"[citation needed], ouragan, which is a possible origin of the name "Oregon". Other possibilities have been suggested based on words from French and Spanish (since the region was explored by their nationals)[citation needed], but an official origin of the name is not known. George R. Stewart argued in a 1944 article in American Speech that the name "Oregon" came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 1700s, on which the Ouisiconsink (Wisconsin River) was spelled "Ouaricon-sint", broken on two lines with the -sint below, so that there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon". This theory was endorsed in Oregon Geographic Names as "the most plausible explanation". George R. Stewarts books about U.S. highways were based on his cross-country drives in 1924, 1949 and 1950. ... The Wisconsin River is a tributary of the Mississippi River, approximately 430 mi (692 km) long, in the state of Wisconsin in the United States. ... Oregon Geographic Names is an authoritative compilation of the origin and meaning of place names in the state of Oregon. ...


Lewis and Clark’s overland expedition explored the vast, unmapped lands west of the Missouri River. On the last stretch of their expedition in 1805 they traveled down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. Lewis and Clark The Lewis and Clark expedition (1804-1806) was the first United States overland expedition to the Pacific coast and back. ... The Missouri River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the United States. ...


David Thompson of the North West Company spent the winter of 1807–08 at Kootenae House near the source of the Columbia at present day Invermere, British Columbia. In 1811 he traveled down the Columbia to the Pacific Ocean, becoming the first European-American to travel the entire length of the river. David Thompson (April 30, 1770 – February 10, 1857), was an English-Canadian map-maker and explorer, known to native peoples as the Stargazer. He was born in London to Welsh parents, and died in Montreal (now Quebec, then Canada East in the Province of Canada). ... Today, the North West Company is a grocery vendor in remote communities across northern Canada, Alaska and Greenland. ...


In 1825, on behalf of the Hudson's Bay Company, Dr. John McLoughlin established Fort Vancouver (currently Vancouver, Washington) on the banks of the Columbia as a fur trading headquarters in the region. The fort was by far the largest European settlement in the northwest of the time. Every year ships would come from London (via the Pacific) to drop off supplies and trade goods in exchange for the furs. For many settlers the fort became the last stop on the Oregon Trail to buy supplies and land before starting their homestead. Because of its access to the Columbia river, Fort Vancouver’s influence reached from Alaska to California and from the Rocky Mountains to the Hawaiian Islands. The Hudsons Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie dHudson in French) is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and is one of the oldest in the world. ... John McLoughlin (NSHC statue) Dr. John McLoughlin (pronounced mc-lock-lin, October 19, 1784 – September 3, 1857), the Father of Oregon, was a fur trader and early settler in the Oregon Country in the Pacific Northwest. ... Fort Vancouver Fort Vancouver was a 19th century fur trading outpost along the Columbia River that served as the headquarters of the Hudsons Bay Company in the companys Columbia District (known to Americans as the Oregon Country). ... The fur trade was a huge part in the early economic development of North America. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Ox Team or the Old Oregon Trail 1852-1906 by Ezra Meeker. ... Official language(s) none Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 2,400 km in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawai‘i. ...


By the turn of the 20th century, the difficulty of navigating the Columbia was seen as an impediment to the economic development of the Inland Empire region east of the Cascades.[10] The dredging and dam building that followed would permanently alter the river, disrupting its natural flow but also providing electricity, irrigation, navigability, and other benefits to the region. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... The Inland Empire is a region in the Pacific Northwest centered around Spokane, Washington, including much of the surrounding Columbia River basin. ...


On February 13, 1980, $5,800 (in bundles of $20 bills) was found by a family on a picnic five miles northwest of Vancouver, Washington on the banks of the Columbia River. The money is believed by the FBI to be part of the 1971 Hijacker, D. B. Cooper’s ransom money. February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... A 1972 FBI composite drawing of D. B. Cooper D. B. Cooper (aka Dan Cooper) is a pseudonym given to a notorious aircraft hijacker who, on November 24, 1971, after receiving a ransom payout of $200,000, leapt from the back of a Boeing 727 as it was flying over...


On July 1, 2003, Christopher Swain of Portland, Oregon became the first person to swim the Columbia River's entire length.[citation needed] Nickname: Location in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: Country United States State Oregon County Multnomah County Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Mayor Tom Potter Area  - City  145. ...

'Columbia River, Cascade Mountains, Oregon (1876) by Vincent Colyer (oil on canvas)

Image File history File links ColyerColumbia76. ... Image File history File links ColyerColumbia76. ...

Hydroelectric dams

See also: Hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River
This river may have been shaped by God, or glaciers, or the remnants of the inland sea, or gravity or a combination of all, but the Army Corps of Engineers controls it now. The Columbia rises and falls, not by the dictates of tide or rainfall, but by a computer-activated, legally-arbitrated, federally-allocated schedule that changes only when significant litigation is concluded, or a United States Senator nears election time. In that sense, it is reliable.

—Timothy Egan, in The Good Rain[11]

The mainstream of the Columbia River has 14 dams (three in Canada, 11 in the United States.) Four mainstem dams and four lower Snake River dams have locks to allow ship and barge passage. Numerous Columbia River tributaries have dams for hydroelectric and/or irrigation purposes. Although hydroelectricity accounts for 6.5% of energy in the United States, the Columbia and its tributaries provide approximately 60% of the hydroelectric power on the west coast.[12] The largest of the 150 hydroelectric projects, the Grand Coulee Dam and the Chief Joseph Dam, are also the largest in the United States. The Grand Coulee Dam is the third largest hydroelectric dam in the world. The dams also provide a secondary benefit in navigation and irrigation. The dams in the United States are owned by the Federal Government (Army Corps of Engineers or Bureau of Reclamation), Public Utility Districts, and private power companies. Hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River (Listed in order from the headwaters, to the Pacific Ocean) See also: Columbia River Categories: Lists of dams ... The USACE gold castle insignia, worn by officers of the Corps The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ... Seal of the U.S. Senate Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Senate composition following 2006 elections The United States Senate is... Hydraulic turbine and electrical generator. ... For the town, see Coulee Dam, Washington. ... Chief Joseph Dam is a 5,962 foot (1,817. ... The USACE gold castle insignia, worn by officers of the Corps The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ...


Grand Coulee Dam provides water for the Columbia Basin Project, one of the most extensive irrigation projects in the western United States. The project provides water to over 500,000 acres (2,000 km²) of fertile but arid lands in central Washington State. Water from the project has transformed the region from a wasteland barely able to produce subsistence levels of dry-land wheat crops to a major agricultural center. Important crops include apples, potatoes, alfalfa, wheat, corn (maize), barley, hops, beans, and sugar beets. The Columbia Basin Irrigation Project The Columbia Basin Project is an irrigation project Central Washington State, USA. It provides water for over 600,000 acres (2,400 km of agriculture. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Species Malus domestica Malus sieversii Apple is the fruit (pome) of the genus Malus belonging to the family Rosaceae, and is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits. ... Binomial name Solanum tuberosum L. The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, commonly grown for its starchy tuber. ... Binomial name Medicago sativa L. Subspecies subsp. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... “Corn” redirects here. ... Binomial name Hordeum vulgare L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is a cereal grain, which serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food. ... Hop umbel in a Hallertau hopgarden Hops are a flower used primarily as a flavouring and stability agent in beer, as well as in herbal medicine. ... Green beans Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae) used for food or feed. ... Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ...

The path of the Columbia River from Canada to the Pacific

Although the dams provide benefits like clean, renewable energy, they drastically alter the landscape and ecosystem of the river. At one time the Columbia was one of the top salmon-producing river systems in the world. Previously active fishing sites, like Celilo Falls in the eastern Columbia River Gorge, have exhibited a sharp decline in fishing along the Columbia in the last century. The presence of dams, coupled with over-fishing, has played a major role in the reduction of salmon populations. Fish ladders[13] have been installed at some dam sites to help the fish journey to spawning waters. Grand Coulee Dam has no fish ladders and completely blocks fish migration to the upper half of the Columbia River system. Downriver of Grand Coulee, each dam’s reservoir is closely regulated by the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and various Washington Public Utility Districts to ensure flow, flood control, and power generation objectives are met. Increasingly, hydro-power operations are required to meet standards under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and other agreements to manage operations to minimize impacts on salmon and other fish, and some conservation and fishing groups support removing four dams on the lower Snake River, the largest tributary of the Columbia. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Illustration of a male Coho Salmon The Chinook or King Salmon is the largest salmon in North America and can grow to 1. ... Dipnet Fishing at Celilo Falls Located between the states of Oregon and Washington, Celilo Falls was a unique natural feature formed by the relentless push of the Columbia River through basalt-laden narrows east of the Cascade Mountains, onward towards the Pacific Ocean—the final leg of the river... Pool-and-weir fish ladder at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River Fishways, most commonly referred to as fish ladders but also known as fish passes, are structures placed on or around man-made barriers (such as dams and weirs) to assist the natural migration of diadromous fishes. ... The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is a US self-financed federal agency headquartered in Portland, Oregon which transmits and sells wholesale electricity to Washington, Oregon, Idaho and western Montana. ... Perrine Bridge spanning the Snake River Canyon at Twin Falls, Idaho The Snake River is a river in the western part of the United States. ...


Pollution

The Hanford Site was established in 1940s as part of the Manhattan Project. It is located along the river in southeastern Washington on 586 mile² (1,520 km²) of some of the most fertile land in North America; at the time of its establishment, the area was considered a wasteland. The site served as a plutonium production complex with nine nuclear reactors and related facilities. Most of the facilities were shut down in the 1960s. The site is currently under control of the Department of Energy, and is a Superfund site. The Superfund cleanup is expected to be completed in 2030. Hanford Site plutonium production reactors along the Columbia River during the Manhattan Project. ... This page is about the World War II nuclear project. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... Checking the status of a cleanup site Superfund is the common name for the United States environmental law that is officially known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 9601 to 9675, which was enacted by the United States Congress on December 11...

Interstate 90 crossing the Columbia River. The view is from the east side of the river, looking south toward Wanapum Dam.

EPA studies and state monitoring programs have found significant levels of toxins in fish and the waters they inhabit within the basin. Accumulation of toxins in fish threatens the survival of fish species, and human consumption of these fish can lead to health problems. Many governments, communities and citizens have rallied to launch a long term and intense recovery effort to restore these remarkable fish. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 502 pixelsFull resolution (2576 × 1618 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 502 pixelsFull resolution (2576 × 1618 pixel, file size: 1. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 90 Interstate 90 (abbreviated I-90) is the longest interstate highway in the United States at nearly 3,100 miles (5,000 kilometers). ... EPA redirects here. ...


Water quality is also an important factor in the survival of other wildlife and plants that grow in the Columbia River Basin. The states, Indian tribes, and federal government are all engaged in efforts to restore and improve the water, land, and air quality of the Columbia River Basin and have committed to work together to enhance and accomplish critical ecosystem restoration efforts. A number of important work efforts are currently underway, including Portland Harbor in the Lower Basin, Hanford in the Middle Basin and Lake Roosevelt in the Upper Basin.[14]


Culture

Roll on, Columbia, roll on, roll on, Columbia, roll on
Your power is turning our darkness to dawn
Roll on, Columbia, roll on.

Roll on Columbia by Woody Guthrie, written under commission of the Bonneville Power Administration

With the importance of the Columbia to the Pacific Northwest, it has made its way into the culture of the area and the nation. Celilo Falls, in particular, was an important economic and cultural hub of western North America for as long as 10,000 years. Roll on Columbia is an American folk song written in 1941 by American folk singer Woody Guthrie, who popularized the song through his own recording of it. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is a US self-financed federal agency headquartered in Portland, Oregon which transmits and sells wholesale electricity to Washington, Oregon, Idaho and western Montana. ... Dipnet Fishing at Celilo Falls Located between the states of Oregon and Washington, Celilo Falls was a unique natural feature formed by the relentless push of the Columbia River through basalt-laden narrows east of the Cascade Mountains, onward towards the Pacific Ocean—the final leg of the river...

Kitesurfing on the Columbia River
Kitesurfing on the Columbia River

Several Indian tribes have a historical and continuing presence on the Columbia River, most notably the Sinixt or Lakes people in Canada and in the U.S. the Colvile, Spokane, Yakama, Nez Perce, Umatilla, Warm Springs Tribes. In the upper Snake River and Salmon River basin the Shoshone Bannock Tribes are present. In the Lower Columbia River, the Cowlitz and Chinook Tribes are present, but these tribes are not federally recognized. The Yakama, Nez Perce, Umatilla, and Warm Springs Tribes all have treaty fishing rights in the Columbia River and tributaries. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1365, 2086 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Columbia River Kitesurfing Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1365, 2086 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Columbia River Kitesurfing Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Kitesurfers use inflatable kites tethered to harnesses to glide through water and air Kitesurfing, also known as kite surfing, fly surfing, and kiteboarding, involves using a power kite to pull the rider through the water on a small surfboard, a wakeboard, or a kiteboard. ...


In the movies

Bend of the River is a 1952 American western movie directed by Anthony Mann and starring James Stewart in their second collaboration. ... James Stewart is the name of: // Actors James Stewart (actor) (1908–1997), Hollywood movie star, widely known as Jimmy Stewart. ... Lassie was a American television series which originally aired from 1954 to 1974. ... Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom is an Academy Award winning 1984 action/adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg. ... Harrison Ford (born July 13, 1942) is an American actor. ... Maverick is a 1994 comedy Western movie, based on the 1950s television series Maverick, and created by Roy Huggins. ... Mel Columcille Gerard Gibson AO (born January 3, 1956) is an American born Australian actor, director, and producer. ... Jodie Foster (born November 19, 1962) is a two-time Academy Award-winning American actress, director, and producer. ... James Garner (born James Scott Baumgarner on April 7, 1928) is an American film and television actor. ... For other uses, see Hood River (disambiguation) The Hood River is a tributary of the Columbia River in Northwestern Oregon in the United States. ... Snow Falling on Cedars is the first novel written by American writer David Guterson. ... Ethan Green Hawke (born November 6, 1970) is an Academy Award nominated American actor, writer and film director. ... Cathlamet is a town located in Wahkiakum County, Washington. ... Wahkiakum County is a county located in the U.S. state of Washington. ... Free Willy is a 1993 Warner Brothers film about a boy who befriends an Orca // Spoiler warning: Jesse (Jason James Richter) gets caught vandalizing the marina, but his social worker, Dwight (Mykelti Williamson), helps him avoid legal consequences, provided he cleans up his mess at the marina. ... Bandits is a 2001 comedy/crime/drama/romance movie directed by Barry Levinson. ... Crown Point is the name of several towns or cities, and geographic features: Crown Point, Alaska Crown Point, Indiana Crown Point, New York Crown Point, Oregon. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.columbiariverkeeper.org/intro.htm Columbia River Keeper, The River. Retrieved April 20, 2007.
  2. ^ Largest Rivers in the United States, USGS; retrieved April 21, 2007. Maximum and minimum discharge data from Water Data Report WA-05-1, chapter Klickitat and White Salmon River Basins and the Columbia River from Kennewick to Bonneville Dam; retrieved April 20, 2007. Identical data in: Loy, Willam G.; Stuart Allan, Aileen R. Buckley, James E. Meecham (2001). Atlas of Oregon. University of Oregon Press, 164-165. ISBN 0-87114-102-7. 
  3. ^ Google Earth coordinates for Columbia Lake. Retrieved April 20, 2007.
  4. ^ Google Earth elevation for Columbia Lake. Retrieved April 20, 2007.
  5. ^ USGS; Geographic Names Information System entry for Columbia River; retrieved April 20, 2007.
  6. ^ Loy, Willam G.; Stuart Allan, Aileen R. Buckley, James E. Meecham (2001). Atlas of Oregon. University of Oregon Press, 24. ISBN 0-87114-102-7. 
  7. ^ Glacial Lake Missoula and the Missoula Floods. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
  8. ^ Houck, Michael C.; Cody, M.J. (2000). Wild in the City. Oregon Historical Society. ISBN 0-87595-273-9. 
  9. ^ Jacobs, Melvin C. (1938). Winning Oregon: A Study of An Expansionist Movement. The Caxton Printers, Ltd.. 77. 
  10. ^ Reeder, Lee B.. "Open the Columbia to the sea", Pendleton Daily Tribune, E. P. Dodd, 1902. Retrieved on 2007-05-13. 
  11. ^ Egan, Timothy (1990). The Good Rain. Knopf. 
  12. ^ Energy Information Administration, "Electric Power Annual," http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, "Federal Columbia River Power System," brochure (2003), p. 1.
  13. ^ http://www.fpc.org/
  14. ^ EPA report on the Columbia

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ... Google Earth is a virtual globe program that was originally called Earth Viewer and was created by Keyhole, Inc. ... Google Earth is a virtual globe program that was originally called Earth Viewer and was created by Keyhole, Inc. ... InsertSLUTTY WHORES≤ non-formatted text here{| class=toccolours border=1 cellpadding=4 style=float: right; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; width: 20em; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; clear: right; |+ United States Geological Survey |- |style= align=center colspan=2| [[Image:USGS logo. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 19 is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (134th in leap years). ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... This is a list of bridges and other crossings of the Columbia River from the Pacific Ocean upstream to the its source. ... 1937 sketch including Columbia River Highway (now U.S. Highway 30) as it passes west of Sauvie Island, northwest of Portland. ... The Columbia River Gorge is a spectacular canyon of the Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. ... The Graveyard of the Pacific The Columbia River Bar is the portion of the Columbia River where the current dissipates into the Pacific Ocean, often as large, standing waves partially caused by the deposition of sediment as the river slows. ... Tributaries of the Columbia River Going downstream Alphabetical Going downstream From the headwaters in British Columbia, Canada, to the mouth at Astoria, Oregon and beyond: Kicking Horse River Canoe River Kootenay River Flathead River Pend Oreille River Colville River Spokane River Sanpoil River Nespelum River Okanogan River Methow River Chelan... Empire Builder is a train route operated by Amtrak in the Midwestern and Northwestern United States. ... Acela Express in West Windsor, NJ Amtrak Cascades service with tilting Talgo trainsets in Seattle, Washington Amtrak train in downtown Orlando, Florida For other uses, see Amtrak (disambiguation). ... Cities on the Columbia River, listed in order going upstream: Ilwaco, Washington Chinook, Washington Warrenton, Oregon Astoria, Oregon Cathlamet, Washington Longview, Washington Rainier, Oregon Prescott, Oregon Goble, Oregon Kalama, Washington Columbia City, Oregon St. ... Hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River (Listed in order from the headwaters, to the Pacific Ocean) See also: Columbia River Categories: Lists of dams ... Cascades Rapids The Cascades Rapids (sometimes called Cascade Falls) is an area of rapids in the Columbia River where travelers by boat along the river were forced to either portage boats and supplies or pull boats up with ropes. ... This is a list of rivers in the U.S. state of Washington. ... The following is a partial listing of rivers in the state of Oregon, United States of America. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Grays Point is the western, downstream point of Grays Bay, on the north shore of the Columbia River estuary, at River Mile 20 (measured from the estuary-mouth), in [Washington]] State, United States of America. ... The Columbia River Treaty (Treaty) is an international agreement between Canada and the United States of America (U.S.) on the development and operation of the upper Columbia River basin. ... Bateman island is an island located on the Columbia River between the cities of Richland and Kennewick, Washington. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Columbia River article (1914 words)
Recreation on the Columbia began early in the settlement era, with steamboat excursions up the Columbia from Portland, especially to the western end of the Columbia River Gorge.
The Columbia River first appeared on European maps in the early 17th century as "River of the West," when a Spanish maritime explorer Martin de Auguilar located a major river near the 42nd parallel.
Cartographers often labeled the "River of the West" as an estuary to the mythical Straits of Anian, or the Northwest Passage and located it anywhere from the 42nd to the 50th parallel.
Columbia River - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1464 words)
The Columbia River (French: fleuve Columbia) is a river situated in British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest of the United States.
It is the largest river in volume flowing into the Pacific Ocean from North America, and the third largest by volume in North America behind the Mississippi and the St Lawrence.
The exterior river boat scenes from the 1994 film Maverick (Mel Gibson, Jodie Foster, and James Garner), were shot on the Columbia River, in the Columbia River Gorge, near the town of Hood River.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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