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Encyclopedia > Colton antigen system

The Colton antigen system (Co) is present on the membranes of red blood cells and in the tubules of the kidney[1] and helps determine a person's blood type. The Co antigen is found on a protein called aquaporin-1 which is responsible for water homeostasis and urine concentration.[2] Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... A total of 29 human blood group systems are recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT). ... An antigen is a substance that stimulates an immune response, especially the production of antibodies. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Sideview of Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) Channel Aquaporins are a class of integral membrane proteins that form pores in the membrane of biological cells and selectively conduct water molecules in and out, while preventing the passage of ions and other solutes. ... Homeostasis is the property of an open system, especially living organisms, to regulate its internal environment to maintain a stable, constant condition, by means of multiple dynamic equilibrium adjustments, controlled by interrelated regulation mechanisms. ...


The Co antigen is important in transfusion medicine. 99.8% of people possess the Co(a) allele. Individuals with Co(b) allele or who are missing the Colton antigen are at risk for a transfusion reaction such as hemolytic anemia or alloimmunization. Antibodies against the Colton antigen may also cause hemolytic disease of the newborn, in which a pregnant woman's body creates antibodies against the blood of her fetus, leading to destruction of the fetal blood cells.[3] Transfusion medicine (or transfusiology) is the branch of medicine that is concerned with the transfusion of blood and blood components. ... An allele is any one of a number of viable DNA codings of the same gene (sometimes the term refers to a non-gene sequence) occupying a given locus (position) on a chromosome. ... Hemolytic anemia is anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the body (extravascular). ... Alloimmunity is a condition in which the body gains immunity against cells from another individual of the same species. ... Hemolytic disease of the newborn, (also known as HDN) is an alloimmune condition that develops in a fetus when IgG antibodies produced by the mother pass through the placenta and attack the fetuss red blood cells in the fetal circulation. ...


References

OMIM 110450 OMIM entry for the Colton antigen

  1. ^ Denker BM, Smith BL, Kuhajda FP, Agre P. Identification, purification, and partial characterization of a novel Mr 28,000 integral membrane protein from erythrocytes and renal tubules. J Biol Chem 1988;263:15634-15642. PMID 3049610
  2. ^ King LS, Choi M, Fernandez PC, Cartron JP, Agre P.Defective urinary-concentrating ability due to a complete deficiency of aquaporin-1. N Engl J Med. 2001 Jul 19;345(3):175-9. PMID 11463012
  3. ^ Covin RB, Evans KS, Olshock R, Thompson HW. Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction caused by anti-Coa. Immunohematol. 2001 Jun;17(2):45-9. PMID 15373591
Transfusion medicine - edit
Blood transfusion | Cross-matching | Coombs test | Intraoperative blood salvage | Transfusion reactions | International Society of Blood Transfusion | ISBT 128 | Platelet transfusion |
Human blood group systems - Blood type
ABO | Rhesus | Duffy | Hh | Kell | Kidd | Kx | Colton | Yt
Blood products
Blood donation | Blood | Plasma | Platelets | Cryoprecipitate | Plasmapheresis | Red blood cells 

 
 

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