In the days when battle was conducted at close quarters, it was necessary for soldiers to be able to determine where, during the heat of battle, their regiment was. This was done by the regiment carrying its colours into battle. The colours are a set of large flags, unique to each regiment, that the ordinary soldier would be able to identify straight away. However, as time passed, the colours took on a more mystical significance than as mere identifying markers on the battlefield; they became the heart of the regiment, in which all of its history was woven. Such became the significance in this context that, for a regiment to lose its colours was (and still is) a major disgrace, with the capture of an enemy's colours (or equivalent) being seen as a great honour. This is why that, whenever the colours are paraded, they are always escorted.
United Kingdom and other Commonwealth nations
Queen's Colours (top) and Regimental Colours (bottom) of the Irish Guards
(left) and the Highlanders (Seaforth, Gordons and Camerons)
Line Infantry and Foot Guards
In regiments of infantry of the British Army and the armies of Commonwealth countries, each battalion carries two colours, which collectively are called a stand. These are large flags, usually 36in x 45in, and mounted on a pike which is 8ft 7.5in long; the King's/Queen's Colour (or President's Colour in a country where the British Monarch is not head of state) is usually a version of the country's national flag, often trimmed with gold fabric, and with the regiment's insignia placed in the centre. The Regimental Colour is a flag of a single colour, usually the colour of the uniform facings (collar/lapels and cuffs) of the regiment, again often trimmed and with the insignia in the centre. All regiments that are designated as 'royal' regiments (that is either have the word 'Royal' or the sponsorship of a royal personage in their name) have a navy blue Regimental Colour. The colours of the five regiments of Foot Guards have the pattern of the line infantry reversed, with the Regimental Colour being the Union Flag, and the Queen's Colour being crimson.
- The Guards regiments each have at least one State Colour; this is usually crimson with various regimental devices and honours. They are only used by Guards of Honour, not found by the Queen’s Guard, mounted on State occasions when the Queen is present. They are only lowered to the Queen, the Duke of Edinburgh and, until her death, the Queen Mother. They are also lowered on other State occasions only when the Queen is present, even if the Guard of Honour is mounted in honour of some other personage.
- The Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment: The 1st Battalion, Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment, as the linear descendent, bears the Third Colour initially born by the 2nd Regiment of Foot (later the Queen's Royal Regiment [West Surrey]) which, for one reason or another, was never taken away from the regiment in the 18th century when new regulations on colours were implemented.
- The Royal Regiment of Fusiliers: The 1st Battalion, Royal Regiment of Fusiliers, which is the direct descendent, bears the Drummer's Colour awarded after the Battle of Wilhelmstahl to the 5th Regiment of Foot (Royal Northumberland Fusiliers).
- The Duke of Wellington's Regiment: The 1st Battalion, Duke of Wellington's Regiment carries the honourary Queen's and Regimental Colours that were given to the 76th Regiment of Foot by the Honourable East India Company following their actions at Delhi and Allyghur.
By tradition, rifle regiments do not carry colours; this goes back to their formation, when they were used as skirmishers and sharpshooters. While individual units may have had banners or pennants to distinguish themselves from other units, regiments as a whole never needed a full stand of Colours. Today, the two rifle regiments in the British Army, the Royal Green Jackets and the Royal Gurkha Rifles carry their battle honours on their drums, while the Green Jackets also have theirs inscribed on their cap badge. In place of a Regimental Colour, the Gurkhas carry the Queen's Truncheon.
Woven onto the colours are battle honours; the Queen's Colour has honours from the First World War and Second World War, while the Regimental Colour has honours from other campaigns. If the regiment has more than a single battalion, then there will be identifying marks on the colours to show which battalion they belong to. There are various other embellishments that can be added to the colours on various occasions:
- On anniversaries of various battle honours, and certain other events, a laurel wreath is added to the top of the pike.
- Battle honour equivalents awarded by foreign countries may be added to the colours, subject to permission being given by the head of state. In Britain and the Commonwealth, four infantry battalions are permitted to display the four-foot-long blue streamer that signifies the Presidential Unit Citation/Distinguished Unit Citation, which is the highest collective award given by the United States of America:
Because of their importance to the regiment, prior to a new stand of colours being presented, they are consecrated.
Royal Hospital, Chelsea
The Royal Hospital, Chelsea had never had either colours or other distinctive device during its entire history, until 2002 when Her Majesty the Queen presented the Hospital with the Sovereign's Mace. This is now paraded by a party of In-Pensioners at all of the Royal Hospital's ceremonial events
The Corps of Royal Marines has a single pattern Queen's Colour, which is the Union Flag with the foul anchor and the reigning sovereign's cypher interlaced in the centre. Above is a scroll with the single battle honour Gibraltar surmounted by St Edward's Crown. Below is the globe surrounded by a laurel wreath and below this is a scroll with the Corps' motto. Each of the three commandos (the battalion-sized formations that make up the bulk of the corps) has a Queen's Colour, with the only difference being the colour of the cords and tassels. Each commando also has its own Regimental Colour. The Regimental Colour is a dark blue flag (because the Corps is classed as a 'royal regiment') with a small Union Flag at the pike head. The Colour carries similar central embellishments as the Queen's Colour, with the exception that the cypher of George IV replaces that of the reigning monarch and the unit numeral is below. The Royal Cypher is at the other corners. The Regimental Colours also have the coloured cords and tassels, which are gold combined with the following colours:
- 40 Commando: Light Blue
- 42 Commando: White
- Fleet Protection Group: Old Gold and Scarlet
- 45 Commando: Red
NB: The Fleet Protection Group carries on the traditions of 43 Commando, and has custody of the unit's Colours.
- Colours of the Royal Marines (http://www.onceamarinealwaysamarine.co.uk/corps_flags.htm)
The Royal Navy and Royal Air Force
Queen's Colours of the Royal Navy (top) and the Royal Air Force (bottom)
Both the Royal Navy and the Royal Air Force have their own Queen's Colour.
- Royal Navy: The Colour of the Royal Navy is a variation of the White Ensign, with its dimensions altered to mirror those of the Colours of infantry regiments. In the centre is the Royal Cypher of the reigning monarch within the Garter, surmounted by the crown.
- Royal Air Force: The Colour of the Royal Air Force is a variation of the RAF Ensign, again with its dimensions altered. The RAF Roundel is moved to the lower fly, with its place in the centre again taken by the Royal Cypher surmounted by the crown.
Australia and Canada
The naval and air forces of both Australia and Canada also have similar colours based on their own ensigns:
Queen's Colours of the RAN and CFMC
- Royal Australian Navy: The Queen's Colour of the RAN is a variation of the Australian White Ensign - it is a reverse of the Australian flag (white with blue stars), with the Royal Cypher and Garter band positioned between the Commonwealth Star and the stars representing the Southern Cross.
- Canadian Forces Maritime Command (the 'navy'): The Queen's Colour of Maritime Command is a variation of the Canadian Naval Jack - it is white, with the Canadian flag in the canton, the Royal Cypher for Canada in the centre and the symbol of the navy in the lower fly. The edge of the Colour is trimmed in gold.
- Royal Australian Air Force: The Queen's Colour of the RAAF is similar to that of the RAF - however, in addition to the RAAF roundel, which is in the lower fly, it has the Commonwealth Star in the lower hoist and the stars of the Southern Cross in the upper fly, with the Royal Cypher in the centre. The flag has a border of golden wattle as well as golden fringe.
- Canadian Forces Air Command (the 'air force'): The Queen's Colour of Air Command is significantly different from the standard in that it is not based on the ensign but instead is similar to the Queen's Colour of infantry regiments: it is a silk national flag of Canada with a red circlet on the maple leaf inscribed with the name of the command, surrounding the royal cipher, and ensigned with the royal crown. Uniquely among Commonwealth air forces, the Canadian air force also has a Command Colour, analogous to an infantry Regimental Colour. This is light blue with the command badge in the centre and a gold maple leaf in each corner, stems outward.
US Army Organizational Color pattern
In the US Army, most regiments, battalions of regiments and separate battalions also have a stand of colours. The first is the National Color, which is a 36in x 48in version of the national flag trimmed with a 2.5in wide gold fringe, and is the equivalent of the Queen's Colour in the British Army. (NB: In the Navy and Marine Corps, the National Color has no gold fringe, and is instead decorated with red, white and blue cords and tassels). The second is the Organizational Color, which is the equivalent of the Regimental Colour; this is the same dimensions as the National Color, but is a of a single colour representing the branch of the service that the unit is from; each branch also has its own fringe colour, which the Organizational Color is trimmed with. In the centre of the Color is the eagle from the Great Seal of the United States, but with the regimental coat of arms in the shield. The eagle has in its beak a scroll bearing the regimental motto, with the crest of the regiment's coat of arms above it and the regiment's name below.
USAF groups have the same National Color as the Army; the Organizational Color is ultramarine blue, with the group's coat of arms beneath the USAF crest, which is an eagle on a cloud background. The fringe is in gold. The finial is a nickel or chrome plated spearhead for the Army, Air Force and Marines. Battle honours are displayed on the Organizational Color by the use of various coloured streamers attached to the top of the pike; these can either be War Service streamers, which are in the colours of the appropriate campaign medal and have the name of the campaign embroidered, or Unit Citation streamers, which have the name of the action embroidered and signify that the unit's performance in a specific action has been worthy of special mention. The streamers are 3ft x 2.75in.
- Service Streamers
- World War I: The streamer is the World War I Victory Medal ribbon which had a red centre with a rainbow on each side of the centre stripe and a purple edge.
- World War II Asia-Pacific: The Asiatic Pacific Campaign streamer is yellow with a narrow blue, white and red centre stripe and a narrow white, red and white stripe on each side. The yellow colour represents Asia; the blue, white, and red stripes taken from the American Defence Medal refer to the continuance of American Defence after Pearl Harbor. The red and white stripes are the Japanese colours.
- World War II Europe-Africa-Middle East: The EAME streamer is green with a brown stripe on each edge. The centre has a narrow blue, white and red stripe. On the upper portion is a narrow white and red stripe with a narrow white, black and white stripe on the lower portion.
- Korea: The Korean Service streamer is light blue with a white centre stripe and a narrow white stripe on each edge.
- Vietnam: The Vietnam Service streamer is yellow with three red stripes through the centre. It has a green stripe on each side.
- Gulf: The Gulf Service streamer has buff stripes at the top and bottom, with a green stripe in the centre. In the centre of the green stripe is a thin black band, while the buff stripes have thin bands of blue-white-red (as seen from the edge of the streamer).
- Citation Streamers
- Presidential Unit Citation: The PUC streamer is all blue for the Army and Air Force, and blue-gold-red for the Navy and Marine Corps.
- Valorous Unit Award/Navy Unit Commendation/Gallant Unit Citation: The VUA streamer has three red and two dark blue stripes, in between which are very thin white stripes. The NUC streamer is green, with thin bands of blue, yellow and red at the top and bottom. The GUC streamer has two main blue stripes, divided by thin bands of red at the top and bottom, and two bands of white/one band of red in the middle.
- Meritorious Unit Commendation/Award: The MUC streamer is all red for the Army and green with thin bands of gold, blue and red in the middle for the Navy and Marines. For the Air Force, it is known as the Meritorious Unit Award, and has stripes in the order red-white-blue-white-red, with the red stripes divided by thin white bands.
- Superior Unit Award/Outstanding Unit Award: The SUA streamer is red with a single green stripe down the centre. The OUA streamer has two blue stripes, divided by two white and one red bands in the centre, and with bands of red and white at the top and bottom.
US units are also permitted to wear streamers of overseas awards they may have been presented with. These streamers are in the colours of the appropriate medal ribbon.
In addition to individual regiments and battalions having their own colours, each branch of the services has an organizational color, which is called the ceremonial flag. Each of these is 4ft 4in x 5ft 6in, with a 2.5in gold fringe. All of them have attached campaign/battle streamers for actions in which the service as a whole has taken part. The ceremonial flag is paraded with a National Color of equal dimensions.
Russian Armed Forces (top); Russian Army (middle); Russian Air Force (bottom)
For many years after the end of the Soviet Union, the military forces of Russia continued to use the old Soviet symbols on their colours, though with the hammer and sickle removed. At the beginning of the 21st century however, moves were made to give the Russian armed forces their own identity separate from the old Soviet era. Initially, the Colour for the whole armed forces was a plain red flag. However, in 2003, a new colour was adopted. This was red, with on the reverse the coat of arms of the Russian Federation, and on the obverse the symbol of the armed forces. Around the edge is a gold border, with a single red star at each corner. Written on the obverse is the motto Fatherland, Duty, Honour In addition, both the Army and the Air Force have their own individual colours; the army's is similar to that of the armed forces as a whole, with the national coat of arms on the obverse and the symbol of the army on the reverse. The air force's is divided into yellow and blue segments, with the symbol of the air force on the reverse.
- Modern Russian colours (In Russian) (http://www.hrono.ru/heraldicum/flagi/mod_army.htm)
Army flags of the People's Republic of China (top) and the Republic of China (bottom)
This details the two Chinas (People's Republic of China and Republic of China)
People's Republic of China
The People's Liberation Army is the overall body for the entire armed forces of the People's Republic of China, and is represented by a single flag, which serves as a ceremonial colour for all regiments and larger formations. This is based on the national flag, but has instead of the four smaller gold stars the Chinese characters for the numerals '8' and '1', which stands for the 1st August, which was the date in 1927 that the PLA was founded. When paraded, the flag is fringed with gold, and is mounted on a red and gold pole. However, each branch of the PLA has its own flag, based on the Army Flag:
- Ground forces: This is the Army Flag with the lower 40% coloured green.
- Navy: This is the Army flag except that the lower 40% has three blue and two white horizontal stripes of equal width.
- Air Force: This is the Army Flag with the lower 40% coloured air force blue.
- Banners of the PLA (http://english.pladaily.com.cn/special/cpla/2/index.htm)
Republic of China
The army of the Republic of China (Taiwan) also has a single flag that it uses, which is red, with a blue rectangle in the centre and the white sun from the national flag. It has a red flagpole with silver spearhead finial and red tassels immediately underneath. Individual units use a variation of the Army Flag as their own identifying Colour; this features a white strip next to the hoist, which has the unit's name in black characters, as well as yellow fringe.
The top is a Danish regimentsfane
; the middle is a Belgian drapeau/vlag
(obverse); the bottom is a Belgian drapeau/vlag
In the Dutch armed forces, the Colour is orange. On obverse is the royal cypher of the monarch, with the unit's name underneath, both in gold; around the four edges is a laurel branch. On the reverse is the arms of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The shield is blue and is strewn with small upright rectangles; the main device is a crowned rampant lion, holding a sword in its upper paw. The lion and rectangles are gold, whilst the blade of the sword is silver. Supporting the shield on either side is a gold rampant lion, facing outwards towards the viewer. There is a gold crown above the shield; whilst below it is a blue scroll with the motto Je Maintiendrai in gold. The shield and lions are surrounded by a wreath of green palm leaves, and there is another wavy gold laurel wreath around the edge. Battle honours are added in the corners of the obverse; if additional honours are awarded, they are attached as streamers to the pike until the presentation of a new Colour. The Military Order of William or other decorations are attached to the pike when awarded. The pike has a finial of a lion on a block holding a sword and a bunch of arrows.
- Dutch Colours (http://www.mindef.nl:30280/mpbundels/20_serie/dp_20_30/bijlage_d.htm)
Infantry units have a drapeau / vlag, a square vertical tricolor of black, yellow, and red within a 15 mm wide gold border, the whole being 90 cm square. The names of battle honours for which the unit was cited are embroidered in gold in French on the obverse and in Dutch on the reverse, in straight lines.
Danish infantry units carry a regimentsfane or bataljonsfane, which measures 105 x 140 cm. The flag is a variation of the Dannebrog, with a curvilinear white Dannebrog cross, set with its center about 1/2 the width of the hoist from the hoist edge. The royal cypher is embroidered in gold over the center of the cross, the unit badge in gold in the upper hoist, and the unit number and/or name in gold in the lower hoist. Some regiments have additional marks in the upper and lower fly. The Prince's Life Regiment, for instance, has Prince Henrik's cipher in the upper fly and the Queen Mother's in the lower, as it was formerly her "life regiment." The finial is an ornate gold openwork spearhead with the royal cypher in the center. Attached below the spearhead are one or more fanebander, lengths of red silk with gold fringe at each end, knotted around the pike, with the regiment's battle honors inscribed in gold. The color is decorated with a gold cord with two tassels and bordered with a thin strip of gold cord. The sleeve holding the color to the pike is attached with ornamental nails, the first three of which represent the sovereign, the Fatherland, and the Union.
- Infantry: Norwegian line infantry units carry flags, either of a solid colour or divided vertically into two or three stripes, with the Norwegian lion in the centre, the name of the unit, and battle honors embroidered on the field. The colours vary by regiment and derive either from historic associations with predecessor regiments or from the colours of the regiment's oldest known uniform.
- Guards: Norwegian Guards regiments have Colours that are all white, again with the lion in the centre, and with the Royal Cypher of the reigning monarch in each corner.
Standard Spanish Army Colour (top); Spanish Army Coronela (bottom)
- Standard Colours: Units of the Spanish Army have a single colour based on the national flag. This has the coat of arms in the centre of the flag, surrounded by the regiment's name in black. Red and yellow tassles are attached to the finial which have battle honours embroidered on them.
- Coronelas: Up until the early years of the 20th century, some Spanish regiments had a coronela, or King's Colour in addition to their Regimental Colour based on the national flag. Although officially the only colour is the standard one, some older regiments continue to carry a copy of their old coronela which are used on some occasions to maintain regimental traditions. However, the coronelas no longer have any offical standing and are not used on offical occasions.
Top: German Truppenfahne
;Middle: French Drapeau (obverse)
; Bottom: French Drapeau (reverse)
Units of the Bundeswehr have only a single Color. The Truppenfahne is a square version of the national flag with the Bundesadler (national shield) overall in the center. The flag is surrounded by a black, red, and gold lacework border and edged on three sides by gold fringe. The finial is a gilt bronze openwork spearhead surrounding a black and silver Iron Cross. Below the finial, a streamer is attached with the unit badge at the top and its designation embroidered in gold at the end. These streamers are red for army (Heer) units, blue for the navy (Marine), and white for the air force (Luftwaffe). The streamer is the same length as the hoist of the flag.
Regimental Colours of French Army infantry units are called drapeaux (flags)
- Foot Units: Infantry (including Marine Infantry, Legion Infantry, Paratroops Infantry), Engineers, Transmissions and Military Colleges.
An Army flag is a 90cm x 90cm Tricolore (about 1 x 1yd). It is a square Tricolore set on a 2m stave ended by a pike-shaped finial with a cartouche (one side "RF", the other side: name of unit). A golden fringed tricolour cravate is tied to the pike.
- Obverse: The obverse of a colour carries in gold the words:
- REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE
- (NAME OF THE UNIT)
and the unit number or monogram encircled in antique oak and laurel crown, in gold too, in each corner.
- Reverse: The reverse of a colour carries in gold the words:
- HONNEUR (Honour)
- ET (and)
- PATRIE (Fatherland)
and the unit number or monogram in each corner as on the obverse. Below "honneur et patrie" are:
- the unit's motto
- the unit's battle honours
The Color (bandiera di guerra) for army units (other than cavalry) is a square version of the national tricolor in silk, 99 cm x 99 cm. It is mounted on a pike 2.2 m long, made of wood covered with green velvet and decorated with ornate brass nails arranged in a spiral. The pike is topped by a 35 cm high finial consisting of an ornate gilt brass spearhead chased with a five pointed star and the monogram RI (for Repubblica Italiana), which is in turn mounted atop a gilt brass ball on which is the name and date of establishment of the unit. The pike is adorned with two silver cords 67 cm long, each with a 10 cm long silver tassel and a blue silk cravat 8 cm x 66 cm with a 8-cm silver fringe at each end, to which the unit’s decorations are pinned, the ribbons of the decorations overlapping so that the medals hang down the cravat.
All army regiments in Greece have a single colour or war flag. This is blue, with a white cross and features St George and the Dragon in the centre. This has no distinguishing features for individual regiments.
South American Nations
Units of the army of Brazil carry two Colours. The standard of the Army measures 80 x 120 cm, white with the Army coat of arms in the centre, trimmed with gold fringe. The name of the service is inscribed in gold letters on a green scroll beneath the shield. Above the shield is a knight's helmet with red and sky blue mantling. The staff is topped by a nickel-plated lance-head finial, 32 cm high. Below the lance-head, there is a cravat (lašo militar) divided lengthwise, sky blue and red, with a gold fringe at the end, tied in a bow and fastened with a cockade of blue with the Cruzeiro do Sul in white stars, red, and blue. Ten red streamers with campaign honors inscribed in sky blue letters are also attached below the lance-head. The staff is 212 cm long, not including the lance-head, and 3.5 cm in diameter. It is covered in sky blue velvet with a red spiral strip. The color belt is 10 cm in width, covered with sky blue velvet with red velvet stripes.
Brazilian army units also carry the national flag as a Colour. This is in the dimensions 90 x 128 cm. It is mounted on the same size staff and with the same finial as the Army standard, but the cravat is divided lengthwise yellow and green, with a gold fringe at the end, tied in a bow and fastened with a cockade of blue with the Cruzeiro do Sul in white stars, yellow, and green. The staff is covered in green velvet with a yellow spiral strip. The color belt is 10 cm in width, covered with green velvet with yellow velvet stripes of width and number varying with the rank of the organization's commander.
Units of the Chilean army carry one main Colour, known as the estandarte de combate (combat standard). This is the same as the national flag, but with an embroidered star and with the unit designation, honorific title, founding date and place, and, depending on the unit, other historic information and honours embroidered diagonally across the fly in gold. The flag is also trimmed with gold fringe. It is mounted on a staff with a gilt condor finial; below the finial is a cravat in the national colours with decorations attached. In addition to the military Colour, particularly distinguished units may carry a second Colour known as a bandera coronela (colonel’s colour). This is a red field with a large white five-pointed star. In the angles of the star are the names and dates of battle honors surrounded by laurel wreaths, all in gold, while in an arc above the star is the designation of the unit, also in gold. The flag is surrounded by gold fringe.
Guidons and Standards
United Kingdom and Commonwealth
In cavalry and armoured regiments, the equivalents of the colours are the standard and the guidon (pronounced gee-don). The standard is carried by the two Household Cavalry regiments (the Life Guards and the Blues and Royals), as well as by dragoon guards regiments, such as The Governor General's Horse Guards. This is a banner much smaller than infantry colours, 27in x 30in, on a pole that is 8ft 6in long, designed to be carried by a soldier on horseback.
The guidon is traditionally carried by the dragoon regiments, and in modern times by hussar and lancer regiments as well. It is swallow-tailed, 27in x 41in, with a pole identical to that for a standard. Both the standard and the guidon are usually of crimson, again often trimmed in gold and with the regiment's insignia in the centre. However, because cavalry regiments only have a single guidon, instead of a stand of colours, all of the battle honours won by the regiment are woven into it, using both the obverse and reverse.
In the United States armed forces, guidons are much more prevalent, with units below battalion size being authorized to use them. These are swallow tailed flags that are 20in x 27in, and are in the colour of the branch of the service the unit is from, with the branch's insignia the most prominent device. Also on the guidon is included the unit's identifying letter, and the number(s) of its parent unit. War service and campaign streamers are not attached to these guidons, but unit citation streamers can be.
Cavalry (armor) units carry an estandart, of similar design to the infantry fane, but smaller and square, with the cross centered on the field. The royal cypher is in the upper hoist and the initials of the regiment in the lower hoist.
In the French Army, mounted units carry Útendards (standards). Mounted units include Armoured corps and Cavalry (including Dragoon Paratroopers and Legion Cavalry), Artillery (including Marine Artillery, Legion Artillery, etc.), Transportation, Army Aviation, Supplies. The Útendard is a 64 x 64cm square flag identical to the drapeux carried by the infantry.
In the Italian Army, cavalry units carry a stendardo (standard) of the same pattern as the bandiera di guerra, but which measures 60 cm x 60 cm.
In regiments of artillery in British and Commonwealth forces, the guns are afforded the status of colours, due to the difficulty of artillery regiments being able to carry flags onto the battlefield. As a consequence, whenever artillery regiments parade, the etiquette that would normally be applied to the colours is applied to the guns.
- The Regimental Colour is always paraded whenever the regiment is on a formal parade. However, the Queen's Colour is only paraded on certain occasions.
- Compliments must always be placed to an uncased colour/guidon.
- The colours/guidon are always housed in the Officer's Mess unless they are being paraded. When they are paraded, they are always carried by either an officer or warrant officer, and are always escorted by a pair of armed men. This constitutes the colour party.
- When a regiment is awarded new colours, the old colours are laid up; this means that they are taken for display in a sacred place (for example a church) and are never again paraded by the regiment.
- Flags of the World (http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/)
- Warflags (http://tmg110.tripod.com/warflags.htm)