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Encyclopedia > Coloured
Coloureds
Total population

4.5 million
10% of South Africa's population

Regions with significant populations
South Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe
Languages
Afrikaans, English
Religions
Christian, Muslim
Related ethnic groups
Khoikhoi, Afrikaners, Cape Coloureds, Cape Malay

In the South African, Namibian, Zambian and Zimbabwean context, the term Coloured (also known as Bruinmense, Kleurlinge or Bruin Afrikaners in Afrikaans) refers to a heterogeneous group of people who posess some degree of sub-Saharan ancestry, but not enough to be considered Black under South African law. They are technically mixed race and often possess substantial ancestry from Europe, Indonesia, South India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Madagascar, Mozambique, Mauritius, St. Helena and Southern Africa. Besides the extensive combining of these diverse heritages in the Western Cape – in which a distinctive Cape Coloured and affiliated Cape Malay culture developed – in other parts of southern Africa, their development has usually been the result of the meeting of two distinct groups. Thus, in KwaZulu-Natal, most coloureds come from British and Zulu heritage, while Zimbabwean coloureds come from Shona or Ndebele mixing with British and Afrikaner settlers. Griqua, on the other hand, are descendants of Khoisan and Afrikaner trekboers. Despite these major differences, the fact that they draw parentage from more than one "naturalised" racial group means that they are "coloured" in the southern African context. This is not to say that they necessarily identify themselves as such – with some preferring to call themselves "black" or "Khoisan" or just "South African" – but the history of racial segregation and labelling has placed all such "mixed race" people in a certain relationship together by virtue of the fact that the imperial and apartheid governments categorized them as Coloureds and because, for the most part, other groups continue to view them through such a lens. Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... An 18th century drawing of Khoikhoi worshipping the moon The Khoikhoi (men of men) or Khoi are a historical division of the Khoisan ethnic group of south-western Africa, closely related to the Bushmen (or San, as the Khoikhoi called them). ... Afrikaners (sometimes known as Boers) are white South Africans, predominantly of Calvinist German, French Huguenot, Friesian and Walloons descent who speak Afrikaans. ... The Cape Coloureds are modern-day descendants of slaves imported into South Africa by Dutch settlers. ... The Cape Malays are an ethnic group who can claim descent from slaves brought to South Africa from Indonesia starting from 1667. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Pondicherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... Capital Cape Town Largest city Cape Town Premier Ebrahim Rasool Area - Total Ranked 4th 129,370 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 5th 4,524,335 35/km² Elevation Highest point: Seweweekspoort Peak at 2325 meters (7628 feet) Lowest point: sea level Languages Afrikaans (55. ... The Cape Coloureds are modern-day descendants of slaves imported into South Africa by Dutch settlers. ... The Cape Malays are an ethnic group who can claim descent from slaves brought to South Africa from Indonesia starting from 1667. ... KwaZulu-Natal (often referred to as KZN) is a province of South Africa. ... Languages Zulu Religions Christian, Animist Related ethnic groups Bantu Nguni Basotho Xhosa Swazi Matabele Khoisan The Zulu (South African English and isiZulu: amaZulu) are a South African ethnic group of about 10 million people who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... Shona is the principle language of Zimbabwe, in southern Africa. ... There are two versions of Ndebele in South Africa, they both belong to the Nguni group of Bantu Languages. ... Khoisan (increasingly commonly spelled Khoesan or Khoe-San) is the name for two major ethnic groups of southern Africa. ... Afrikaners are a European ethnic group primarily associated with Southern Africa and the Afrikaans language. ...

Extended Coloured family with roots in Cape Town, Kimberley and Pretoria
Extended Coloured family with roots in Cape Town, Kimberley and Pretoria

During the apartheid era, in order to keep divisions and maintain a race-focused society, the term Coloured was used to describe one of the four main racial groups identified by law: Blacks, Whites, Coloureds and Indians. (All four terms were capitalised in apartheid era law.) Coloured people constitute a majority of the population in Western Cape and Northern Cape provinces. Most speak Afrikaans, while about ten percent of Coloureds speak English as their mother tongue, mostly in the Eastern Cape and Natal. However, virtually all Cape Town coloureds are bilingual, comfortably codeswitching between "Kaapse taal" (a creolized dialect of Afrikaans spoken mostly in the Cape Flats), "suiwer Afrikaans" (formal Afrikaans, as taught at school), and English. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x630, 597 KB) This is a photo of an extended Coloured family with roots in Cape Town, Kimberley, and Pretoria (South Africa). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x630, 597 KB) This is a photo of an extended Coloured family with roots in Cape Town, Kimberley, and Pretoria (South Africa). ... Petty apartheid: sign on Durban beach in English, Afrikaans and Zulu (1989) Apartheid (meaning separateness in Afrikaans, cognate to English apart and hood) was a system of racial segregation in South Africa from 1948, and was dismantled in a series of negotiations from 1990 to 1993, culminating in democratic elections... This article concerns the term race as used in reference to human beings. ... Capital Cape Town Largest city Cape Town Premier Ebrahim Rasool Area - Total Ranked 4th 129,370 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 5th 4,524,335 35/km² Elevation Highest point: Seweweekspoort Peak at 2325 meters (7628 feet) Lowest point: sea level Languages Afrikaans (55. ... Capital Kimberley Largest city Kimberley Premier Elizabeth Dipuo Peters (ANC) Area - Total Ranked 1st 361,830 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 9th 822,726 2/km² Languages Afrikaans (70%) Tswana (20%) Xhosa (6. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Landsat image of Cape Town and environs, looking roughly east. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Contents

History of the idea of “Coloured” people

The Oxford Dictionary of South African English reveals that the word “Coloured” has been used since the 1840s to refer specifically to South Africans of mixed race, while the term Cape Coloureds came into use around the turn of the twentieth century. During the nineteenth century, the people of Griqualand, who would now be known as Coloured, were known by the Afrikaans term basters. An offshoot of the Cape Coloureds now make up a separate ethnic group in south-central Namibia, known as the Rehoboth Basters; they migrated to their current location in pre-German times. They have also subsequently migrated to the urban centres. The Cape Coloureds are modern-day descendants of slaves imported into South Africa by Dutch settlers. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Griqua are a subgroup of South Africas Coloured population, descended from an admixture of European settlers and the Khoisan peoples they encountered on their initial arrival at the Cape. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rehoboth is the name of three Biblical places, see Rehoboth (Bible). ... The Basters (also known as Baasters or Rehoboth Basters) are the descendents of liaisons between the Cape Colony Dutch and indigenous African women. ...

Children from Cape Town's "Cape Coloured" community.
Children from Cape Town's "Cape Coloured" community.

The idea of “Coloured” people developed partly to describe the complex position of those who were neither white nor members of groups that spoke African languages. In part, the ethnic category reflects the destruction of distinct Khoisan political structures and the decline of spoken Khoikhoi language. During the 18th century in particular, Khoikhoi people in the southern parts of South Africa were squeezed between white settlement and Xhosa groups, with Khoikhoi numbers reduced by smallpox and the loss of the range they required to run cattle, the basis of the pre-settlement Khoikhoi economy. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 450 pixelsFull resolution (1528 × 859 pixel, file size: 527 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo of Cape coloured children in Bonteheuwel township (Cape Town, South Africa) by Henry Trotter in 2000. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 450 pixelsFull resolution (1528 × 859 pixel, file size: 527 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo of Cape coloured children in Bonteheuwel township (Cape Town, South Africa) by Henry Trotter in 2000. ... The Cape Coloureds are modern-day descendants of slaves imported into South Africa by Dutch settlers. ... Khoisan (increasingly commonly spelled Khoesan or Khoe-San) is the name for two major ethnic groups of southern Africa. ... An 18th century drawing of Khoikhoi worshipping the moon The Khoikhoi (men of men) or Khoi are a historical division of the Khoisan ethnic group of south-western Africa, closely related to the Bushmen (or San, as the Khoikhoi called them). ... An 18th century drawing of Khoikhoi worshipping the moon The Khoikhoi (men of men) or Khoi are a historical division of the Khoisan ethnic group of south-western Africa, closely related to the Bushmen (or San, as the Khoikhoi called them). ... The Xhosa (IPA ) people are peoples of Bantu origins living in south-east South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (often called cows in vernacular and contemporary usage, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ...


So while many Xhosa people thus also share Khoikhoi ancestry, the white power structure designated them as Xhosa along with any other Xhosa-speaking person. The Afrikaans-speaking and increasingly diverse groups of black people who lived on white farms and in cities, on the other hand, were the descendants of the Khoikhoi serfs, the African and Asian slaves brought to South Africa from elsewhere, and the white settlers — and they spoke Afrikaans. The “Coloured” identity then became a way for whites to describe this group concisely as both not white, and not the same as African groups like the Xhosa and later, the Zulu and other groups. The Xhosa (IPA ) people are peoples of Bantu origins living in south-east South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. ... An 18th century drawing of Khoikhoi worshipping the moon The Khoikhoi (men of men) or Khoi are a historical division of the Khoisan ethnic group of south-western Africa, closely related to the Bushmen (or San, as the Khoikhoi called them). ... The Xhosa (IPA ) people are peoples of Bantu origins living in south-east South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. ... The Xhosa (IPA ) people are peoples of Bantu origins living in south-east South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. ... Languages Zulu Religions Christian, Animist Related ethnic groups Bantu Nguni Basotho Xhosa Swazi Matabele Khoisan The Zulu (South African English and isiZulu: amaZulu) are a South African ethnic group of about 10 million people who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ...


The majority of people who came to be described as “Coloured”, then, shared three features that allowed some to describe them as an ethnic group in the anthropological sense: Anthropology (from the Greek word άνθρωπος = human) consists of the study of humankind (see genus Homo). ...

  1. Khoikhoi family lineage and racial features
  2. traditional association with the Afrikaans language and the Dutch Reformed Church
  3. a historically complicated and ambivalent relationship with the related ethnic group of Afrikaners

This did not apply to all people who Apartheid described as “Coloured”, however; for instance, so-called Cape Malays were at least partly of Asian descent and were often Muslims. In fact, the description came to apply to a number of groups, including Cape Malays, Cape Coloureds, Basters and Griqua; some also included the Namaqua into this group. An 18th century drawing of Khoikhoi worshipping the moon The Khoikhoi (men of men) or Khoi are a historical division of the Khoisan ethnic group of south-western Africa, closely related to the Bushmen (or San, as the Khoikhoi called them). ... Afrikaans is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Afrikaners are a European ethnic group primarily associated with Southern Africa and the Afrikaans language. ... The Cape Malay community is an ethnic group or community in South Africa, taking its name from what is now known as the Western Cape of South Africa and the people originally from the Malay archipelago who started this community in South Africa. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... The Cape Malay community is an ethnic group or community in South Africa, taking its name from what is now known as the Western Cape of South Africa and the people originally from the Malay archipelago who started this community in South Africa. ... The Cape Coloureds are modern-day descendants of slaves imported into South Africa by Dutch settlers. ... The Basters (also known as Baasters or Rehoboth Basters) are the descendents of liaisons between the Cape Colony Dutch and indigenous African women. ... The Griqua (Afrikaans Griekwa) are a subgroup of South Africas heterogeneous and multiracial Coloured people. ... Nama (in older sourses also Namaqua) are a pastoral people of South Africa, Namibia and Botswana speaking the Nama language which belongs to the Khoe-Kwadi language family (previously known as Central Khoisan). ...


In the 1950s and 1960s, laws prohibiting interracial sex and marriage, the proclamation of separate residential areas, the provision of separate schooling and other apartheid laws attempted to make the so-called “Coloureds” appear to be far more of a unified identifiable ethnic group than they were in reality. Indeed, many sub-classifications were required in the law to include all those that the government categorised “Coloured”. The political function of this group was to define “Coloured” people as distinct from Indian and Black people, with both small privileges and large policies of discrimination being designed specifically for each group. This does not cite any references or sources. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...


There are approximately 4.1 million Coloured people spread across the country but the largest are located in the Western Cape where roughly 2.5 million Cape Coloureds live.[1] Within that population are included the Cape Malays who are distinguishable primarily by their Islamic faith and Asian culinary influence. During the Dutch rule thousands of people were bought, tricked or kidnapped from various coastal regions around the Indian Ocean and brought to the Cape Colony to work as slaves, mostly originating in Java, southern India, Mozambique and Madagascar. The Asian influence had led to a slightly different language use and a strongly Muslim heritage among Cape Malays. The Cape Malay community is an ethnic group or community in South Africa, taking its name from what is now known as the Western Cape of South Africa and the people originally from the Malay archipelago who started this community in South Africa. ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Cape Malay community is an ethnic group or community in South Africa, taking its name from what is now known as the Western Cape of South Africa and the people originally from the Malay archipelago who started this community in South Africa. ...


One of the more distinctive subgroups is that of the Griqua, numbering between 100,000 and 300,000, depending on how they are defined or define themselves. The Griqua (Afrikaans Griekwa) are a subgroup of South Africas heterogeneous and multiracial Coloured people. ...


The absurdity of the systems of racial classifications were vividly seen in the convoluted criteria the government attempted to use to distinguish so-called Coloured people from people classified as being "purely" of African or European descent.[2] The Apartheid bureaucracy devised complex (and often arbitrary) criteria at the time that the Population Registration Act was implemented to determine who was Coloured. Minor officials would administer tests such as the so-called pencil test (testing the curliness of hair) to determine if someone should be categorised Coloured or Black, or Coloured or White. Different members of the same family found themselves in different race groups. Further tests determined membership of the various sub-racial groups of the Coloureds. Pencil test has multiple meanings. ...


The most common language of South African Coloured people is Afrikaans, followed by English, though Cape Coloureds generally use a unique variation of the two in everyday speech. Afrikaans is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Cape Coloureds are modern-day descendants of slaves imported into South Africa by Dutch settlers. ...


Some Coloureds, especially of the middle-class, do not like the term "coloured," preferring alternative expressions like "so-called Coloureds" (Afrikaans sogenaamde Kleurlinge) and "brown people" (bruinmense) and "brown Afrikaners" (bruine Afrikaners) or “brown South Africans” (bruine Suid-Afrikaners). Others refer to themselves as "black" in the terms of the Black Consciousness Movement, which extended black identity to Coloureds and Asians in South Africa. Afrikaans is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia. ... Brown people is a term used in political, racial, ethnic, societal, and cultural classifications, similar to black people and white people. ... The Black Consciousness Movement was a movement which called for non-violent black resistance to the Apartheid government in South Africa. ...


However, the term Coloured is still widely used in South Africa, including by some organisations which opposed apartheid, for example, the Congress of South African Trade Unions. It is also used amongst the great majority of working-class coloureds on the Cape Flats. In the United Kingdom problems have arisen when teachers have come from South Africa, some of whom define themselves as Coloured, and prefer this term to "mixed race"; some British people consider the term Coloured to be pejorative or, at least, out-moded. But some people who identify as Coloured reject the term "mixed race" on the grounds that it suggests that they are somehow the exception to a general rule of racial purity — an idea not borne out by genetics or history. The Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) is a trade union federation in South Africa. ... Landsat image of Cape Town and environs, looking roughly east. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with miscegenation. ...


Politics in the pre-apartheid and apartheid eras

Zackie Achmat, founder of the Treatment Action Campaign, began campaigning at fourteen when he burnt down his school in order to persuade his fellow students in the Coloured community to join the Soweto uprising and school boycott.

Coloured people played an important role in the struggle against apartheid and its predecessor policies. The African Political Organisation, established in 1902, had an exclusively Coloured membership; its leader Abdullah Abdurahman rallied Coloured political efforts for many years.[1] Many Coloured people later joined the African National Congress and the United Democratic Front and whether in these organisations or others, many Coloured people were active in the fight against apartheid. Image File history File links Zackie10001. ... Image File history File links Zackie10001. ... Zackie Achmat (born Abdurazzack Achmat in 1962) is a South African activist of Malay Muslim descent, most widely known as founder and chairman of Treatment Action Campaign. ... The Treatment Action Campaign is a South African grassroots pressure group which was founded by Zackie Achmat, an HIV-positive activist who refused anti-retroviral treatment (ARVs) until they were universally available. ... Fatally-wounded Hector Pieterson (13), one of the first fatalities, is carried by Mbuyisa Makhubo on June 16, 1976, with Antoinette Pieterson (17) running alongside. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Abdullah Abdurahman Abdullah Abdurahman (December 18, 1872 – February 2, 1940) was an South African politician and physician, born in Wellington, South Africa. ... For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ... Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | Liberal parties | Malawi political parties ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...


The political rights of Coloured people varied by location and over time. In the nineteenth century they theoretically had similar rights to Whites in the Cape Colony (though income and property qualifications affected them disproportionately) but had few or no political rights in the Transvaal Republic or the Orange Free State. There were Coloured members elected to Cape Town's municipal authority (including, for many years, Abdurahman). The establishment of the Union of South Africa gave them the franchise, though by 1930 they were restricted to electing White representatives, and there were frequent voting boycotts in protest. This may have helped the election of the National Party in 1948 with an apartheid programme aimed at stripping Coloured people of their remaining voting powers, and led to a constitutional crisis between the Government and the Supreme Court over entrenched clauses of the constitution. Coloured people largely lost their votes in the 1950s, with the last municipal votes being removed in 1972. Coloured people were subject to forced relocation; for instance, the multicultural Cape Town area of District Six was bulldozed and its inhabitants moved to racially-designated sections of the metropolitan area on the Cape Flats. Additionally, apartheid meant that Coloured people received an inferior education, albeit better than that provided to Black South Africans. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... The South African Republic (Dutch: Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek), often informally known as the Transvaal Republic, not to be confused with the Republic of South Africa, occupied the area later known as the province of Transvaal, first from 1857 to 1877, and again, after a successful Afrikaner rebellion against British rule... Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ... City motto: Spes Bona (Latin: Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Province Western Cape Mayor Helen Zille Area  - % water 2,499 km² N/A Population  - Total (2004)  - Density Not ranked 2,893,251 1,158/km² Established 1652 Time zone SAST (UTC+2... Motto Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika Capital Cape Town (legislative) Pretoria (administrative) Bloemfontein (judicial) Language(s) Afrikaans, Dutch, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1952-1961 Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1959-1961 Charles Robberts Swart Prime Minister  - 1958-1961 Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd... 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... An entrenched clause of a constitution is a provision which makes certain amendments either more difficult than others or impossible. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Population transfer is a term referring to a policy by which a state, or international authority, forces the movement of a large group of people out of a region, most frequently on the basis of their ethnicity or religion. ... District Six is the name of a former neighborhood of Cape Town, South Africa, best known for the forced removal of its inhabitants during the 1970s. ... A bulldozer is a powerful crawler (tractor) equipped with a blade. ... Landsat image of Cape Town and environs, looking roughly east. ...


In 1983, the Constitution was reformed to allow the Coloured and Asian minorities a limited participation in separate and subordinate Houses in a tricameral Parliament, a development which enjoyed limited support. The theory was that the Coloured minority could be allowed limited rights, but the Black majority were to become citizens of independent homelands. These separate arrangements were removed by the negotiations which took place from 1990 to provide all South Africans with the vote. 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Tricameralism is the practice of having three legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... The Parliament of South Africa is South Africas legislature and is composed of the National Assembly of South Africa and the National Council of Provinces. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ...


Post-apartheid politics

During the 1994 all-race elections, many Coloured people voted for the white National Party, which had formerly oppressed them; and the National Party recast itself as the New National Party partly to woo non-White voters. This political alliance, often befuddling to outsiders, has sometimes been explained in terms of the common Afrikaans language of White and Coloured NNP members, opposition to affirmative action programs that might give preference to non-Coloured Black people, or old privileges (e.g., municipal jobs) that Coloured people feared giving up under African National Congress leadership. 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from June 4th 1948 until May 9th 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... The New National Party (NNP) was a South African conservative political party formed when the National Party pulled out of the Government of National Unity with the African National Congress and decided to change its name in the process. ... For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ...


Since then, coloured identity politics has continued to be important in the Western Cape, particularly for opposition parties which see the Western Cape, in particular, as a place where they might gain ground against the dominant ANC. The Democratic Alliance wooed away some former NNP voters as the NNP collapsed in the 2004 elections, winning considerable coloured support; this support played a role in the DA's victory in the 2006 Cape Town municipal elections. Patricia de Lille, leader of the Independent Democrats, does not use the label "Coloured" to describe herself but would be recognised as a so-called Coloured person by many; the ID party has also sought the Coloured vote and gained significant ground in the municipal and local elections in 2006, particularly in districts with heavily Coloured constituencies in the Western Cape. The firebrand Peter Marais (formerly a provincial leader of the New National Party) has also sought to portray his New Labour Party as the political voice for Coloured people. Identity politics is the political activity of various social movements for self-determination. ... The Democratic Alliance (DA) is a liberal South African political party, and the official opposition to the ruling African National Congress. ... Patricia de Lille is the leader of the Independent Democrats, a South African political party which she formed in 2003 when she broke away from the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC). ... The Independent Democrats are a South African political party, formed by former Pan Africanist Congress member Patricia de Lille in 2003. ... Peter Marais is a controversial South African politician. ... Categories: South African politics | Politics stubs | Labour parties | South African political parties ...


The ambitions of the opposition parties aside, however, there is also substantial Coloured support for and membership in the African National Congress before, during and after the apartheid era: Ebrahim Rasool (now Western Cape premier), Dipuo Peters, Beatrice Marshoff, Manne Dipico, and Allan Hendrickse have been noteworthy Coloured politicians affiliated with the ANC, and the ANC is now the strongest political force in the Western Cape. The ANC has had some success in winning Coloured votes, particularly among labour-affiliated and middle-class Coloured voters, but there is also distrust of the ANC, reflected in the comment ‘not white enough under apartheid, and not black enough under the ANC’. [2] Voter apathy was high in historically Coloured areas in the 2004 election. [3] For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Ebrahim Rasool is the Premier of the Western Cape Province in South Africa. ... Helenard Joe Hendrickse (popularly known as Allan Hendrickse) (22 October, 1927 - 16 March, 2005) was a South African politician, preacher, and teacher. ...


Southern Africa

The term "Coloured" is also used to describe persons of mixed race in Namibia, to refer to those of part Khoisan, part white descent. The Basters of Namibia constitute a separate ethnic group that are sometimes considered a sub-group of the Coloured population of that country. Under South African rule, the policies and laws of apartheid were extended to what was then called South West Africa, and the treatment of Namibian Coloureds was comparable to that of South African Coloureds. The Khoikhoi (men of men) or Khoi are a division of the Khoisan ethnic group of south-western Africa, closely related to the Bushmen (San). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Basters (also known as Baasters, Rehobothers or Rehoboth Basters) are the descendants of liaisons between the Cape Colony Dutch and indigenous African women. ... South-West Africa is the former name (1884-1990) of Namibia under German (as German South-West Africa, Deutsch Süd-West Afrika) and (from 1915) South African administration when it was conqured from the Germans during World War I. Following the war, the Treaty of Versailles declared the territory...


The term "Coloured" or "Goffal" is also used in Zimbabwe, where, unlike South Africa and Namibia, most people of mixed race have African and European ancestry, being descended from the offspring of European men and Shona and Ndebele women; under white minority rule in the then Rhodesia, Coloureds had more privileges than black Africans, including full voting rights, but still faced serious discrimination. In Swaziland, the term Coloured is also used. Goffal is a term used for people of mixed race from Zimbabwe particularly white with black. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Shona (IPA: ) is the name collectively given to several groups of people in Zimbabwe and western Mozambique. ... This article relates to the Ndebele people of Zimbabwe. ... Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ...


Other usage

The American English term (spelt as colored) had a related, but different meaning and was primarily used to refer to African Americans - except in the State of Louisiana, where it legally denoted people of mixed European and sub-Saharan African ancestry. The use of term in this way is now considered archaic and offensive in most contexts; nonetheless it remains part of the title of the NAACP, a prominent African-American organisation, and has been employed by some members of the African-American community as a legitimate ethnic/racial label when intentionally self-chosen and used in a respectful manner. "People of color" is currently used more frequently than "colored", but in the American usage, the phrase refers more generally to all people who do not describe themselves as "white", including people of Asian, Native American and African descent. In a British context "coloured" has also been used to refer to black people, although this is now regarded as an old-fashioned and somewhat offensive usage. For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Official language(s) de jure: none de facto: English & French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans [1] Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33°N  - Longitude 89°W... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ...


For the main article, see colored. Colored and Colored People (or Colored Folk in the plural sense) are North American terms that were commonly used to describe Black people, but also included Asian (brown)/(yellow), Chicano (bronze or brown), and Native American (red). ...


See also

This is a list of terms for multiraciality used worldwide for people of various types, kinds and degrees of multiracial backgrounds. ... Colored and Colored People (or Colored Folk in the plural sense) are North American terms that were commonly used to describe Black people, but also included Asian (brown)/(yellow), Chicano (bronze or brown), and Native American (red). ... Goffal is a term used for people of mixed race from Zimbabwe particularly white with black. ... The one-drop theory (or one-drop rule) is the colloquial term for the standard, found throughout the USA, that holds that a person with even one drop of non-white ancestry should be classified as colored, especially for the purposes of laws forbidding inter-racial marriage. ... Pencil test has multiple meanings. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... There is no single Culture of South Africa. ... The Griqua (Afrikaans Griekwa) are a subgroup of South Africas heterogeneous and multiracial Coloured people. ... The Basters (also known as Baasters or Rehoboth Basters) are the descendents of liaisons between the Cape Colony Dutch and indigenous African women. ... The Burghers are a Eurasian ethnic group, historically from Sri Lanka, consisting for the most part of male-line descendants of European colonists from the 16th to 20th centuries (mostly Portuguese, Dutch and British) with local Sinhalese ancestry. ... Anglo-Indians are persons who have descended from a mix of British and Indian parentage. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Melungeon is a term traditionally applied to one of a number of so-called tri-racial isolate groups of the Southeastern United States, found mainly in the Cumberland Gap area of central Appalachia: eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, and eastern Kentucky. ... Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço; French, Métis: from Late Latin mixticius, from Latin mixtus, past participle of miscere, to mix) is a term of Spanish origin used to designate people of mixed European and indigenous non-European ancestry. ... The Métis (pronounced MAY tee, IPA: , in French or , in Michif ), also historically known as Bois Brule, Countryborn, or Black Scots, are one of three recognized Aboriginal peoples in Canada. ...

External links

  • 2001 Digital Census Atlas
  • KakDuidelik.co.za - Die ding ruk mal. A coloured community portal.
  • Bruin-ou.com - A lifestyle portal for mixed race people in South Africa
  • Beyond Identity a new documentary about mixed race, multiracial people from South Africa

  Results from FactBites:
 
International Association of Colour (548 words)
A client’s response to colour is the gateway through which she can tune in to strengths/weaknesses, pinpoint problem areas and counsel clients, incorporating various therapies for healing.
Through his in-depth studies of colours’ effect on the human organism, he discovered that colours affect the entire organism, that each colour has a role to play, and that a balance of colour is necessary for good health.
Colour therapy should be considered a complimentary treatment; it is not meant to replace conventional treatments and medications, but to compliment them.
Colour (741 words)
Colour is simply light of different wavelengths and frequencies and light is just one form of energy made up from photons.
As the light passes through the prism, it is split into the seven visible colours of the spectrum by refraction.
The higher the frequency, of the colour, the closer together the waves of energy are.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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