FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Colosseum" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Colosseum
The Colosseum by night: exterior view of the best-preserved section.
The Colosseum by night: exterior view of the best-preserved section.

The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium, Italian Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo), is a giant amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome. Originally capable of seating 45,000–50,000 spectators, it was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles. It was built on a site just east of the Roman Forum, with construction starting between 70 and 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian. The amphitheatre, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire, was completed in 80 AD under Titus, with further modifications being made during Domitian's reign.[1] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (966x637, 217 KB) The by night. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (966x637, 217 KB) The by night. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The Colosseum in Rome, Italy. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... Pollice Verso (With a Turned Thumb), an 1872 painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme, is a well known history painters researched conception of a gladiatorial combat. ... This page refers to the main forum in the centre of Rome. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s - 70s - 80s 90s 100s 110s 120s Years: 65 66 67 68 69 - 70 - 71 72 73 74 75 Events The building of the Colosseum starts (approximate date). ... For other uses, see number 72. ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (November 17, 9–June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... Motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... Events By place Roman Empire The Emperor Titus inaugurates the Flavian Amphitheatre with 100 days of games. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ...


The Colosseum remained in use for nearly 500 years with the last recorded games being held there as late as the 6th century — well after the traditional date of the fall of Rome in 476. As well as the traditional gladiatorial games, many other public spectacles were held there, such as mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology. The building eventually ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era. It was later reused for such varied purposes as housing, workshops, quarters for a religious order, a fortress, a quarry and a Christian shrine. This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, a major literary achievement of Eighteenth Century, was written by the English historian, Edward Gibbon. ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ...


Although it is now in a severely ruined condition due to damage caused by earthquakes and stone-robbers, the Colosseum has long been seen as an iconic symbol of Imperial Rome and is one of the finest surviving examples of Roman architecture. It is one of modern Rome's most popular tourist attractions and still has close connections with the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope leads a torchlit "Way of the Cross" procession to the amphitheatre each Good Friday. The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... The Pope (or Pope of Rome) (from Latin: papa, Papa, father; from Greek: papas / = priest originating from πατήρ = father )[1] is the Bishop of Rome and the spiritual leader of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The 12th Station of the Cross - Jesus dies on the Cross. ... Good Friday is the Friday before Easter (Easter always falls on a Sunday). ...

Contents

History

Ancient

A map of central Rome during the Roman Empire, with the Colosseum at the upper right corner.
A map of central Rome during the Roman Empire, with the Colosseum at the upper right corner.

Construction of the Colosseum began under the rule of the Emperor Vespasian[1] in around 7072. The site chosen was a flat area on the floor of a low valley between the Caelian, Esquiline and Palatine Hills, through which a canalised stream ran. By the 2nd century BC the area was densely inhabited. It was devastated by the Great Fire of Rome in AD 64, following which Nero seized much of the area to add to his personal domain. He built the grandiose Domus Aurea on the site, in front of which he created an artificial lake surrounded by pavillions, gardens and porticoes. The existing Aqua Claudia aqueduct was extended to supply water to the area and the gigantic bronze Colossus of Nero was set up nearby at the entrance to the Domus Aurea.[2] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1099x777, 74 KB) Rasterized Image:Map_of_downtown_Rome_during_the_Roman_Empire_large. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1099x777, 74 KB) Rasterized Image:Map_of_downtown_Rome_during_the_Roman_Empire_large. ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (November 17, 9–June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s - 70s - 80s 90s 100s 110s 120s Years: 65 66 67 68 69 - 70 - 71 72 73 74 75 Events The building of the Colosseum starts (approximate date). ... For other uses, see number 72. ... The Caelian Hill (Latin Collis Caelius, Italian Celio) is one of the famous Seven Hills of Rome. ... The Esquiline Hill is one of the famous seven hills of Rome. ... 17th century aviaries on the hill, built by Rainaldi for Odoardo Cardinal Farnese: once wirework cages surmounted them. ... The Canal du Midi, Toulouse, France Canals are man-made channels for water. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... According to Tacitus, the Great Fire of Rome started on the night of 19 July in the year 64, among the shops clustered around the Circus Maximus. ... July 18 - Great fire of Rome: A fire began to burn in the merchant area of Rome and soon burned completely out of control while Emperor Nero allegedly played his lyre and sang while watching the blaze from a safe distance, although there is no hard evidence to support this... Nero[1] Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, AD 37 – June 9, AD 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. ... The Domus Aurea (Latin for Golden House) was a large landscaped portico villa, designed to take advantage of artificially created landscapes, rather than a monumental palace,[1] built in the heart of Ancient Rome by the Roman emperor Nero after Great fire of Rome, which devastated Rome in 64 AD... The Emperor Nero had a colossal statue of himself erected in the vestibule of the Domus Aurea. ...


The area was transformed under Vespasian and his successors. Although the Colossus was preserved, much of the Domus Aurea was torn down. The lake was filled in and the land reused as the location for the new Flavian Amphitheatre. Gladiatorial schools and other support buildings were constructed nearby within the former grounds of the Domus Aurea. According to a reconstructed inscription found on the site, "the emperor Vespasian ordered this new amphitheatre to be erected from his general's share of the booty." This is thought to refer to the vast quantity of treasure seized by the Romans following their victory in the Great Jewish Revolt in 70. The Colosseum can be thus interpreted as a great triumphal monument built in the Roman tradition of celebrating great victories.[2] Vespasian's decision to build the Colosseum on the site of Nero's lake can also be seen as a populist gesture of returning to the people an area of the city which Nero had appropriated for his own use. In contrast to many other amphitheatres, which were located on the outskirts of a city, the Colosseum was constructed in the city centre; in effect, placing it both literally and symbolically at the heart of Rome. It has been proposed below that Great Jewish Revolt be renamed and moved to First Jewish-Roman War. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s - 70s - 80s 90s 100s 110s 120s Years: 65 66 67 68 69 - 70 - 71 72 73 74 75 Events The building of the Colosseum starts (approximate date). ...


The Colosseum had been completed up to the third story by the time of Vespasian's death in 79. The top level was finished and the building inaugurated by his son, Titus, in 80.[1] Dio Cassius recounts that 11,000 wild animals were killed in the one hundred days of celebration which inaugurated the amphitheatre. The building was remodelled further under Vespasian's younger son, the newly-designated Emperor Domitian, who constructed the hypogeum, a series of underground tunnels used to house animals and slaves. He also added a gallery to the top of the Colosseum to increase its seating capacity. AD79 Events June 23 - Titus succeeds his father Vespasian as Roman emperor. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... Events By place Roman Empire The Emperor Titus inaugurates the Flavian Amphitheatre with 100 days of games. ... Dio Cassius Cocceianus (c. ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... The Holy of Holies, Hypogeum, Malta The Hypogeum in Hal-Saflieni, Paola, Malta, is an subterranean structure excavated c. ...


In 217, the Colosseum was badly damaged by a major fire (caused by lightning, according to Dio Cassius[3]) which destroyed the wooden upper levels of the amphitheatre's interior. It was not fully repaired until about 240 and underwent further repairs in 250 or 252 and again in 320. An inscription records the restoration of various parts of the Colosseum under Theodosius II and Valentinian III (reigned 425450), possibly to repair damage caused by a major earthquake in 443; more work followed in 484 and 508. The arena continued to be used for contests well into the 6th century, with gladiatorial fights last mentioned around 435. Animal hunts continued until at least 523.[2] Events Macrinus becomes Roman Emperor on the death of Caracalla. ... For alternate uses, see Number 240. ... Events Diophantus writes Arithmetica the first systematic treatise on algebra. ... Events Sun Liang succeeds Sun Quan as king of the Chinese Kingdom of Wu. ... This article is about the year 320 AD. For the aircraft, see Airbus A320. ... Theodosius II Flavius Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450 ). The eldest son of Eudoxia and Arcadius who at the age of 7 became the Roman Emperor of the East. ... Solidus minted in Thessalonica to celebrate the marriage of Valentinian III to Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II. On the reverse, the three of them in wedding dresses. ... Events October 23 -Valentinian III becomes western Roman emperor. ... Events August 25 - Marcian proclaimed Eastern Roman Emperor by Aspar and Pulcheria. ... Events The Burgundians create a kingdom on the banks of the Rhone Attila destroys Naissus. ... Events December 28 - Alaric II succeeds Euric as king of the Visigoths. ... Births Deaths Gerren I Llyngesog ab Erbin, King of Dumnonia. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... Events August 3 - Nestorius is exiled by Imperial edict to a monastery in a Sahara oasis. ... { ...


Medieval

Map of medieval Rome depicting the Colosseum.

The Colosseum underwent several radical changes of use during the medieval period. By the late 6th century a small church had been built into the structure of the amphitheatre, though this apparently did not confer any particular religious significance on the building as a whole. The arena was converted into a cemetery. The numerous vaulted spaces in the arcades under the seating were converted into housing and workshops, and are recorded as still being rented out as late as the 12th century. Around 1200 the Frangipani family took over the Colosseum and fortified it, apparently using it as a castle. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1299x899, 1190 KB)[edit] Summary Map of medieval Rome depicting the Colosseum [edit] Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1299x899, 1190 KB)[edit] Summary Map of medieval Rome depicting the Colosseum [edit] Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died... The family of the Frangipani, meaning Breadbreakers, was a powerful Roman patrician clan in the Middle Ages. ...


Severe damage was inflicted on the Colosseum by the great earthquake of 1349, causing the outer south side to collapse. Much of the tumbled stone was reused to build palaces, churches, hospitals and other buildings elsewhere in Rome. A religious order moved into the northern third of the Colosseum in the mid-14th century and continued to inhabit it until as late as the early 19th century. The interior of the amphitheatre was extensively stripped of stone, which was reused elsewhere, or (in the case of the marble facade) was burned to make quicklime.[2] The bronze clamps which held the stonework together were pried or hacked out of the walls, leaving numerous pockmarks which still scar the building today. // Events January 9 - The Jewish population of Basel, Switzerland is rounded up and incinerated, believed by the residents to be the cause of the ongoing bubonic plague. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as lime or quicklime, is a widely used chemical compound. ...


Modern

Interior of the Colosseum, Rome. Thomas Cole, 1832. Note the Stations of the Cross around the arena and the extensive vegetation, both removed later in the 19th century.
Interior of the Colosseum, Rome. Thomas Cole, 1832. Note the Stations of the Cross around the arena and the extensive vegetation, both removed later in the 19th century.

During the 16th and 17th century, Church officials sought a productive role for the vast derelict hulk of the Colosseum. Pope Sixtus V (15851590) planned to turn the building into a wool factory to provide employment for Rome's prostitutes, though this proposal fell through with his premature death.[4] In 1671 Cardinal Altieri authorized its use for bullfights; a public outcry caused the idea to be hastily abandoned. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x549, 206 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thomas Cole Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x549, 206 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thomas Cole Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Thomas Cole, ca. ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The 12th Station of the Cross - Jesus dies on the Cross. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Pope Sixtus V (December 13, 1521 – August 27, 1590), born Felice Peretti, was Pope from 1585 to 1590. ... 1585 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. ... Bold text{| align=right cellpadding=3 id=toc style=margin-left: 15px; |- | align=center colspan=2 | Years: 1587 1588 1589 - 1590 - 1591 1592 1593 |-vdsf gno[gldw[pvkijxaiamknn csogfhbvdowkhbfkqhjkhrjkhwgfhbjkpnkfokfgok3pkpk9pjhkt9erktyujkip9kijker9thhrkg9hkitr9gtkih9t0ykltk[u0jo0iey9uhyit90ertyhige9rity9riyh9ujirtyuhjnh-4e9tyigh9thiuy0h8tyh34tu8uy8u8u8u8rtu5y8ru8thu0tru0ut0rhutuh0trhu0hseogtrhr8uyhju8t89er9te9r8fy8shit ass dick bitch fuck | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1560s 1570s 1580s - 1590s - 1600s 1610s 1620s |- | align=center | Centuries... Events May 9 - Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. ... Spanish toreo, corrida de toros or tauromaquia; Portuguese corrida de touros or tauromaquia) is a blood sport that involves, most of the times, professional performers (matadores) who execute various formal moves with the goal of appearing graceful and confident, while masterful over the bull itself; these maneuvers are performed at...


In 1749, Pope Benedict XIV endorsed as official Church policy the view that the Colosseum was a sacred site where early Christians had been martyred. He forbade the use of the Colosseum as a quarry and consecrated the building to the Passion of Christ and installed Stations of the Cross, declaring it sanctified by the blood of the Christian martyrs who perished there (see Christians and the Colosseum). Later popes initiated various stabilization and restoration projects, removing the extensive vegetation which had overgrown the structure and threatened to damage it further. The facade was reinforced with triangular brick wedges in 1807 and 1827, and the interior was repaired in 1831, 1846 and in the 1930s. The arena substructure was partly excavated in 18101814 and 1874 and was fully exposed under Mussolini in the 1930s.[2] Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... Benedict XIV, born Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini (Bologna, March 31, 1675 – May 3, 1758 in Rome), was Pope from 17 August 1740 to 3 May 1758. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ... The 12th Station of the Cross - Jesus dies on the Cross. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ...


The Colosseum is today one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions, receiving millions of visitors annually. The effects of pollution and general deterioration over time prompted a major restoration programme carried out between 1993 and 2000, at a cost of 40 billion Italian lira ($19.3m / €20.6m at 2000 prices). In recent years it has become a symbol of the international campaign against capital punishment, which was abolished in Italy in 1948. Several anti–death penalty demonstrations took place in front of the Colosseum in 2000. Since that time, as a gesture against the death penalty, the local authorities of Rome change the color of the Colosseum's night time illumination from white to gold whenever a person condemned to the death penalty anywhere in the world gets their sentence commuted or is released.[5] 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ISO 4217 Code ITL User(s) Italy, San Marino, Vatican City, but not Campione dItalia Inflation 2. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Due to the ruined state of the interior, it is impractical to use the Colosseum to host large events; only a few hundred spectators can be accommodated in temporary seating. However, much larger concerts have been held just outside, using the Colosseum as a backdrop. Performers who have played at the Colosseum in recent years have included Ray Charles (May 2002),[6] Paul McCartney (May 2003)[7] and Elton John (September 2005).[8] Ray Charles was the stage name of Ray Charles Robinson (September 23, 1930 – June 10, 2004). ... Sir James Paul McCartney MBE (born June 18, 1942) is an iconic Grammy Award-winning English singer, songwriter and multi-instrumentalist who first gained worldwide fame as one of the founding members of The Beatles. ... Sir Elton Hercules John, CBE[1][2] (born Reginald Kenneth Dwight on 25 March 1947) is a multiple Grammy- and Academy Award-winning English pop/rock singer, composer and pianist. ...


Name

The Colosseum's name has long been believed to be derived from a colossal statue of Nero nearby.[1] This statue was later remodeled by Nero's successors into the likeness of Helios (Sol) or Apollo, the sun god, by adding the appropriate solar crown. Nero's head was also replaced several times and substituted with the heads of succeeding emperors. Despite its pagan links, the statue remained standing well into the medieval era and was credited with magical powers. It came to be seen as an iconic symbol of the permanence of Rome. The Emperor Nero had a colossal statue of himself erected in the vestibule of the Domus Aurea. ... Helios in his chariot In Greek mythology the sun was personified as Helios or Helius (Greek Ἥλιος / ἥλιος). Homer often calls him Titan and Hyperion. ... Lycian Apollo, early Imperial Roman copy of a fourth century Greek original (Louvre Museum) In Greek and Roman mythology, Apollo (Ancient Greek , Apóllōn; or , Apellōn), the ideal of the kouros (a beardless youth), was the archer-god of medicine and healing, light, truth, archery and also a...


In the 8th century, the Venerable Bede (c. 672–735) wrote a famous epigram celebrating the symbolic significance of the statue: Quandiu stabit coliseus, stabit et Roma; quando cadit coliseus, cadet et Roma; quando cadet Roma, cadet et mundus ("as long as the Colossus stands, so shall Rome; when the Colossus falls, Rome shall fall; when Rome falls, so falls the world").[9] This is often mistranslated to refer to the Colosseum rather than the Colossus (as in, for instance, Byron's poem Childe Harold's Pilgrimage). However, at the time that Bede wrote, the masculine noun coliseus was applied to the statue rather than to what was still known as the Flavian amphitheatre. (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Bede, commonly known as the Venerable Bede, (c. ... The poet George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron is often referred to simply as Byron. ... Childe Harolds Pilgrimage by J.M.W. Turner, 1823. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ...


The Colossus did eventually fall, having probably been pulled down to reuse its bronze. By the year 1000 the name "Colosseum" (a neuter noun) had been coined to refer to the amphitheatre. The statue itself was largely forgotten and only its base survives, situated between the Colosseum and the nearby Temple of Roma and Venus.[2] Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... The Temple apsis by night. ...


The name was further corrupted to Coliseum during the Middle Ages. Both names are frequently used in modern English, but Flavian Amphitheatre is generally unknown. In Italy, the amphitheatre is still known as il colosseo, and other Romance languages have come to use similar forms such as le colisée (French), el coliseo (Spanish) and o coliseu (Portuguese). The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ...


Physical description

Exterior

The exterior of the Colosseum, showing the partially intact outer wall (left) and the mostly intact inner wall (center and right).
The exterior of the Colosseum, showing the partially intact outer wall (left) and the mostly intact inner wall (center and right).

The Colosseum measures 48 metres (157 ft / 165 Roman feet) high, 189 metres (615 ft / 640 Roman feet) long, and 156 metres (510 ft / 528 Roman feet) wide, with a base area of 6 acres. Unlike earlier amphitheatres, it was an entirely free-standing structure, constructed on flat ground rather than being built into an existing hillside or natural depression. Its outer wall originally measured 545 metres (1,788 ft / 1,835 Roman feet) and is estimated to have required over 100,000 cubic meters (3,531,466 ft³) of travertine stone held together by 300 tons of iron clamps.[2] However, it has suffered extensive damage over the centuries, with large segments having collapsed following earthquakes. The north side of the perimeter wall is still standing; the distinctive triangular brick wedges at each end are modern additions, having been constructed in the early 19th century to shore up the wall. The remainder of the present-day exterior of the Colosseum is in fact the original interior wall. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Travertine A carving in travertine The rock travertine is a natural chemical precipitate of carbonate minerals; typically aragonite, but often recrystallized to or primary calcite; which is deposited from the water of mineral springs (especially hot springs) or streams saturated with calcium carbonate. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The surviving part of the outer wall's monumental façade comprises three stories of superimposed arcades surmounted by a podium on which stands a tall attic, both of which are pierced by windows interspersed at regular intervals. The arcades are framed by half-columns of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders, while the attic is decorated with Corinthian pilasters.[10] Each of the arches in the second- and third-floor arcades framed statues, probably honoring divinities and other figures from Classical mythology. Arcade can mean several things: Arcade (architecture) - A passage or walkway, often including retailers. ... A podium is a platform that is used to raise something to a short distance above its surroundings. ... A typical attic. ... The uncompleted Doric temple at Segesta, Sicily, has been waiting for finishing of its surfaces since 430–420 BC The Doric order was one of the three orders or organizational systems of Ancient Greek or classical architecture; the other two orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian. ... Architects first real look at the Greek Ionic order: Julien David LeRoy, Les ruines plus beaux des monuments de la Grèce Paris, 1758 (Plate XX) The Ionic order forms one of the three orders or organizational systems of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and... The Corinthian order as used for the portico of the Pantheon, Rome provided a prominent model for Renaissance and later architects, through the medium of engravings. ... In architecture, pilasters comprise slightly-projecting pseudo-columns built into or onto a wall, with capitals and bases. ... Classical or Greco-Roman mythology usually refers to the mythology, and the associated polytheistic rituals and practices, of Classical Antiquity. ...

Original façade of the Colosseum.
Original façade of the Colosseum.

Two hundred and forty mast corbels were positioned around the top of the attic. They originally supported a retractable awning, known as the velarium, that kept the sun and rain off spectators. This consisted of a canvas-covered, net-like structure made of ropes, with a hole in the center.[1] It covered two-thirds of the arena, and sloped down towards the center to catch the wind and provide a breeze for the audience. Sailors, specially enlisted from the Roman naval headquarters at Misenum and housed in the nearby Castra Misenatium, were used to work the velarium.[11] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1632 KB) Description: Angled shot of the Colosseum in Rome with a very small moon in frame Medium: Color photograph Location: Rome, Italy Date: August 18, 2002 Author: Jimmy Walker [1] Source: jaymce Flickr gallery [2] Camera: Canon PowerShot S110... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1632 KB) Description: Angled shot of the Colosseum in Rome with a very small moon in frame Medium: Color photograph Location: Rome, Italy Date: August 18, 2002 Author: Jimmy Walker [1] Source: jaymce Flickr gallery [2] Camera: Canon PowerShot S110... Elaborately decorated classical-style stone corbels support balconies on a building in Indianapolis. ... A colorful awning accentuates these two bright green doors An awning is a secondary covering attached to the exterior wall of a building. ... A Velarium (curtain), was a type of awning used in Roman times. ... Misemen is the site of an ancient port in Campania, in southern Italy. ... A Velarium (curtain), was a type of awning used in Roman times. ...


The Colosseum's huge crowd capacity made it essential that the venue could be filled or evacuated quickly. Its architects adopted solutions very similar to those used in modern stadiums to deal with the same problem. The amphitheatre was ringed by eighty entrances at ground level, 76 of which were used by ordinary spectators.[1] Each entrance and exit was numbered, as was each staircase. The northern main entrance was reserved for the Roman Emperor and his aides, whilst the other three axial entrances were most likely used by the elite. All four axial entrances were richly decorated with painted stucco reliefs, of which fragments survive. Many of the original outer entrances have disappeared with the collapse of the perimeter wall, but entrances XXIII to LIV still survive.[2] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Stucco is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water which is applied wet, and hardens when it dries. ...


Spectators were given tickets in the form of numbered pottery shards, which directed them to the appropriate section and row. They accessed their seats via vomitoria (singular vomitorium), passageways that opened into a tier of seats from below or behind. These quickly dispersed people into their seats and, upon conclusion of the event or in an emergency evacuation, could permit their exit within only a few minutes. The name vomitoria derived from the Latin word for a rapid discharge, from which English derives the word vomit. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ...


Interior seating

Side view of Colosseum seating.
Side view of Colosseum seating.

According to the Codex-Calendar of 354, the Colosseum could accommodate 87,000 people, although modern estimates put the figure at around 50,000. They were seated in a tiered arrangement that reflected the rigidly stratified nature of Roman society. Special boxes were provided at the north and south ends respectively for the Emperor and the Vestal Virgins, providing the best views of the arena. Flanking them at the same level was a broad platform or podium for the senatorial class, who were allowed to bring their own chairs. The names of some 5th century senators can still be seen carved into the stonework, presumably reserving areas for their use. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1423x1221, 45 KB) [edit] Summary Colosseum seating profile with Latin legends. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1423x1221, 45 KB) [edit] Summary Colosseum seating profile with Latin legends. ... A vestal Virgin, engraving by Sir Frederick Leighton, ca 1890: Leightons artistic sense has won over his passion for historical accuracy in showing the veil over the Vestals head at sacrifices, the suffibulum, as translucent, instead of fine white wool In Ancient Rome, the Vestal Virgins were the... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 - 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...


The tier above the senators, known as the maenianum primum, was occupied by the non-senatorial noble class or knights (equites). The next level up, the maenianum secundum, was originally reserved for ordinary Roman citizens (plebians) and was divided into two sections. The lower part (the immum) was for wealthy citizens, while the upper part (the summum) was for poor citizens. Specific sectors were provided for other social groups: for instance, boys with their tutors, soldiers on leave, foreign dignitaries, scribes, heralds, priests and so on. Stone (and later marble) seating was provided for the citizens and nobles, who presumably would have brought their own cushions with them. Inscriptions identified the areas reserved for specific groups. An equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites - also known as a vir egregius, lit. ... In Ancient Rome, the plebs was the general body of Roman citizens, distinct from the privileged class of the patricians. ...


Another level, the maenianum secundum in legneis, was added at the very top of the building during the reign of Domitian. This comprised a gallery for the common poor, slaves and women. It would have been either standing room only, or would have had very steep wooden benches. Some groups were banned altogether from the Colosseum, notably gravediggers, actors and former gladiators.[2] Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... Slave redirects here. ...


Each tier was divided into sections (maeniana) by curved passages and low walls (praecinctiones or baltei), and were subdivided into cunei, or wedges, by the steps and aisles from the vomitoria. Each row (gradus) of seats was numbered, permitting each individual seat to be exactly designated by its gradus, cuneus, and number.[12]


Arena and hypogeum

The Colosseum arena, showing the hypogeum. The wooden walkway is a modern structure.
The Colosseum arena, showing the hypogeum. The wooden walkway is a modern structure.
Detail of the hypogeum

The arena itself was 83 metres by 48 metres (272 ft by 157 ft / 280 by 163 Roman feet).[2] It comprised a wooden floor covered by sand (the Latin word for sand is harena or arena), covering an elaborate underground structure called the hypogeum (literally meaning "underground"). Little now remains of the original arena floor, but the hypogeum is still clearly visible. It consisted of a two-level subterranean network of tunnels and cages beneath the arena where gladiators and animals were held before contests began. Eighty vertical shafts provided instant access to the arena for caged animals and scenery pieces concealed underneath; larger hinged platforms, called hegmata, provided access for elephants and the like. It was restructured on numerous occasions; at least twelve different phases of construction can be seen.[2] Image File history File links Kolosseumbannen. ... Image File history File links Kolosseumbannen. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1130x764, 232 KB)I, Thelb4 (talk Â· contribs), took this image of the Colosseum. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1130x764, 232 KB)I, Thelb4 (talk Â· contribs), took this image of the Colosseum. ...


The hypogeum was connected by underground tunnels to a number of points outside the Colosseum. Animals and performers were brought through the tunnel from nearby stables, with the gladiators' barracks at the Ludus Magnus to the east also being connected by tunnels. Separate tunnels were provided for the Emperor and the Vestal Virgins to permit them to enter and exit the Colosseum without needing to pass through the crowds.[2] View of Colosseo from the site Recovered blueprints Current ruins The Ludus Magnus or The Great Gladiatorial Training School is the largest of the gladiatorial arenas in Rome which was built by the emperor Domitian (81-96 AD) in the valley between the Esquilino and the Celio, an area already...


Substantial quantities of machinery also existed in the hypogeum. Elevators and pulleys raised and lowered scenery and props, as well as lifting caged animals to the surface for release. There is evidence for the existence of major hydraulic mechanisms[2] and according to ancient accounts, it was possible to flood the arena rapidly, presumably via a connection to a nearby aqueduct. Hydraulics is a branch of science and engineering concerned with the use of liquids to perform mechanical tasks. ...


Supporting buildings

The Colosseum and its activities supported a substantial industry in the area. In addition to the amphitheatre itself, many other buildings nearby were linked to the games. Immediately to the east is the remains of the Ludus Magnus, a training school for gladiators. This was connected to the Colosseum by an underground passage, to allow easy access for the gladiators. The Ludus Magnus had its own miniature training arena, which was itself a popular attraction for Roman spectators. Other training schools were in the same area, including the Ludus Matutinus (Morning School), where fighters of animals were trained, plus the Dacian and Gallic Schools. View of Colosseo from the site Recovered blueprints Current ruins The Ludus Magnus or The Great Gladiatorial Training School is the largest of the gladiatorial arenas in Rome which was built by the emperor Domitian (81-96 AD) in the valley between the Esquilino and the Celio, an area already...


Also nearby were the Armamentarium, comprising an armory to store weapons; the Summum Choragium, where machinery was stored; the Sanitarium, which had facilities to treat wounded gladiators; and the Spoliarium, where bodies of dead gladiators were stripped of their armor and disposed of.


Around the perimeter of the Colosseum, at a distance of 18 m (59 ft) from the perimeter, was a series of tall stone posts, with five remaining on the eastern side. Various explanations have been advanced for their presence; they may have been a religious boundary, or an outer boundary for ticket checks, or an anchor for the velarium or awning.[2] A Velarium (curtain), was a type of awning used in Roman times. ...


Usage

Pollice Verso ("Thumbs Down") by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1872
Pollice Verso ("Thumbs Down") by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1872

The Colosseum was used to host gladiatorial shows as well as a variety of other events. The shows, called munera, were always given by individuals rather than the state. They had a strong religious element but were also demonstration of power and family prestige, and were immensely popular with the population. Another popular type of show was the animal hunt, or venatio. This utilised a great variety of wild beasts, mainly imported from Africa, and included creatures such as rhinoceros, hippos, elephants, giraffes, lions, panthers, leopards, crocodiles and ostriches. Battles and hunts were often staged amid elaborate sets with movable trees and buildings. Such events were occasionally on a huge scale; Trajan is said to have celebrated his victories in Dacia in 107 with contests involving 11,000 animals and 10,000 gladiators over the course of 123 days. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This page lists direct English translations of common Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. ... Pollice Verso by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1872, is the immediate source of the thumbs down gesture in popular culture. ... Pollice Verso (With a Turned Thumb), an 1872 painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme, is a well known history painters researched conception of a gladiatorial combat. ... Another form of entertainment in Roman amphitheaters involved the hunting and slaying of wild animals, call the venatio, or hunt. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Black Rhino from Howletts Wild Animal Park For other uses, see Rhinoceros (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), from the Greek ‘ιπποπόταμος (hippopotamos, hippos meaning horse and potamos meaning river), is a large, mostly plant-eating African mammal, one of only two extant, and three or four recently extinct, species in the family Hippopotamidae. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... Binomial name Giraffa camelopardalis Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest of all land-living animal species. ... Binomial name Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758) Distribution of Lions in Africa Synonyms Felis leo (Linnaeus, 1758) The lion (Panthera leo) is a mammal of the family Felidae and one of four big cats in the genus Panthera. ... Binomial name Panthera pardus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis pardus Linnaeus, 1758 The Leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the four big cats of the genus Panthera. ... Binomial name Panthera pardus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis pardus Linnaeus, 1758 The Leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the four big cats of the genus Panthera. ... Genera Mecistops Crocodylus Osteolaemus See full taxonomy. ... Binomial name Struthio camelus Carolus Linnaeus, 1758 The present-day distribution of Ostriches. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... For other uses, see number 107. ...


During the early days of the Colosseum, ancient writers recorded that the building was used for naumachiae (more properly known as navalia proelia) or simulated sea battles. Accounts of the inaugural games held by Titus in AD 80 describe it being filled with water for a display of specially trained swimming horses and bulls. There is also an account of a re-enactment of a famous sea battle between the Corcyrean (Corfiot) Greeks and the Corinthians. This has been the subject of some debate among historians; although providing the water would not have been a problem, it is unclear how the arena could have been waterproofed, nor would there have been enough space in the arena for the warships to move around. It has been suggested that the reports either have the location wrong, or that the Colosseum originally featured a wide floodable channel down its central axis (which would later have been replaced by the hypogeum).[2] A modern naumachia held in the Civic Arena of Milan in 1807 The naumachia (in Latin naumachia, from the Ancient Greek ναυμαχία/naumachía, literally naval combat) in the Ancient Roman world referred to both the re-enactment of naval battles and the basin (or more broadly, the complex) in which... Pontikonisi island in the background with the Vlaheraina Monastery in the foreground. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ...


Sylvae or recreations of natural scenes were also held in the arena. Painters, technicians and architects would construct a simulation of a forest with real trees and bushes planted in the arena's floor. Animals would be introduced to populate the scene for the delight of the crowd. Such scenes might be used simply to display a natural environment for the urban population, or could otherwise be used as the backdrop for hunts or dramas depicting episodes from mythology. They were also occasionally used for executions in which the hero of the story — played by a condemned person — was killed in one of various gruesome but mythologically authentic ways, such as being mauled by beasts or burned to death.


Today

The Colosseum today is now a major tourist attraction in Rome with thousands of tourists each year paying to view the interior arena. There is now a museum dedicated to Eros located in the upper floor of the outer wall of the building. Part of the arena floor has been re-floored. Look up eros, Eros, EROS in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Christians and the Colosseum

Martyrdom of Saint Ignatius of Antioch, often erroneously said to have taken place in the Colosseum. Note how the saint is framed by a stylized depiction of the Colosseum.

The Colosseum has long been regarded as having been the scene of numerous martyrdoms of early Christians. However, this belief appears to have arisen only around the 16th century. Roman and early medieval accounts refer to Christians being martyred in various vaguely described locations in Rome (in the amphitheatre, in the arena etc) but without specifying which; there were, in fact, numerous stadia, amphitheatres and circuses in Rome. Saint Telemachus, for instance, is often said to have died in the Colosseum, but Theodoret's account of his death merely states that it happened "in the stadium" (eis to stadio). Similarly, the death of Saint Ignatius of Antioch is recorded as having been in "the arena", without specifying which arena. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus)(c. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Saint Telemachus, a fifth-century monk who lived in a monastery in Asia or modern day Turkey, who is said to have felt God calling him to Rome. ... Theodoret (393 – c. ... Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus)(c. ...


In the Middle Ages, the Colosseum was clearly not regarded as a sacred site. Its use as a fortress and then a quarry demonstrates how little spiritual importance was attached to it, at a time when sites associated with martyrs were highly venerated. It was not included in the itineraries compiled for the use of pilgrims nor in works such as the 12th century Mirabilia Urbis Romae ("Marvels of the City of Rome"), which claims the Circus Flaminius — but not the Colosseum — as the site of martyrdoms. Part of the structure was inhabited by a Christian order, but apparently not for any particular religious reason. (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Mirabilia Urbis Romae (Marvels of the City of Rome) is a much-copied medieval Latin text that served generations of pilgrims and tourists as a guide to the city of Rome. ... The Circus Flaminius was a race-track in Ancient Rome. ...


It appears to have been only in the 16th and 17th centuries that the Colosseum came to be regarded as a Christian site. Pope Pius V (1566-1572) is said to have recommended that pilgrims gather sand from the arena of the Colosseum to serve as a relic, on the grounds that it was impregnated with the blood of martyrs. This seems to have been a minority view until it was popularised nearly a century later by Fioravante Martinelli, who listed the Colosseum at the head of a list of places sacred to the martyrs in his 1653 book Roma ex ethnica sacra. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Saint Pius V, né Antonio Ghislieri, from 1518 called Michele Ghislieri (January 17, 1504 – May 1, 1572) was pope from 1566 to 1572 and is a saint of the Catholic Church. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ...


Martinelli's book evidently had an effect on public opinion; in response to Cardinal Altieri's proposal some years later to turn the Colosseum into a bullring, Carlo Tomassi published a pamphlet in protest against what he regarded as an act of desecration. The ensuing controversy persuaded Pope Clement X to close the Colosseum's external arcades and declare it a sanctuary, though quarrying continued for some time to come. Pope Clement X (July 13, 1590 – July 22, 1676), born Emilio Bonaventura Altieri, was Pope from April 29, 1670 to July 22, 1676. ...


At the instance of St. Leonard of Port Maurice, Pope Benedict XIV (1740-1758) forbade the quarrying of the Colosseum and erected Stations of the Cross around the arena, which remained until February 1874. St. Benedict Joseph Labre spent the later years of his life within the walls of the Colosseum, living on alms, prior to his death in 1783. Several 19th century popes funded repair and restoration work on the Colosseum, and it still retains a Christian connection today. Crosses stand in several points around the arena and every Good Friday the Pope leads a procession to the amphitheatre in memory of Christian martyrs.[9] Saint Leonard is both a personal name and a placename: as a placename Saint Leonard, New Brunswick, Canada Saint-Léonard, Québec, a former city absorbed into Montreal, Canada in 2002 Saint-Léonard (borough), a borough of the City of Montreal, what was once Saint-Léonard, Qu... Scholar Pope, Benedict XIV Benedict XIV, né Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini (Bologna, March 31, 1675 - Rome, May 3, 1758) was pope from 1740 to 1758. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... 1758 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The 12th Station of the Cross - Jesus dies on the Cross. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A representation of the sorrowful mendicant, Benedict Joseph Labre. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Good Friday is the Friday before Easter (Easter always falls on a Sunday). ...


Flora

Plants on the inner walls of the Colosseum
Plants on the inner walls of the Colosseum

The Colosseum has a wide and well-documented history of flora ever since Domenico Panaroli made the first catalogue of its plants in 1643. Since then, 684 species have been identified there. The peak was in 1855 (420 species). Attempts were made in 1871 to eradicate the vegetation, due to concerns over the damage that was being caused to the masonry, but much of it has returned.[2] 242 species have been counted today and of the species first identified by Panaroli, 200 remain. Image File history File links Colosseum-flora. ... Image File history File links Colosseum-flora. ... In Botany a Flora (or Floræ) is a collective term for plant life and can also refer to a descriptive catalogue of the plants of any geographical area, geological period, etc. ... Domenico Panaroli (17th century) was a physician and herbalist of Rome. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The variation of plants can be explained by the change of climate in Rome through the centuries. Additionally, bird migration, flower blooming, and the growth of Rome that caused the Colosseum to become embedded within the modern city centre rather than on the outskirts of the ancient city, as well as deliberate transport of species, are also contributing causes. One other romantic reason often given is their seeds being unwittingly transported on the animals brought there from all corners of the empire. Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Many species of birds undertake seasonal journeys of various lengths, a phenomenon known as Bird migration. ...


The Colosseum in popular culture

The Colosseum as digitally recreated for Gladiator

The iconic status of the Colosseum has led it to be featured in numerous films and other items of popular culture: Image File history File links Colosseum_gladiator. ... Image File history File links Colosseum_gladiator. ... Gladiator was a popular movie that appeared in 2000, directed by Ridley Scott, and starring Russell Crowe and Joaquin Phoenix. ...

The Colosseum's fame as an entertainment venue has also led the name to be re-used for modern entertainment facilities, particularly in the United States, where theatres, music halls and large buildings used for sport or exhibitions have commonly been called Colosseums or Coliseums.[13] Cole Albert Porter (June 9, 1891 – October 15, 1964) was an American composer and songwriter from Indiana. ... Youre the Top is a Cole Porter song from the 1934 musical Anything Goes. ... For the song by Guns N Roses, see Anything Goes (song) Anything Goes is a musical with music and lyrics by Cole Porter. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Roman Holiday is a 1953 romantic comedy. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Demetrius and the Gladiators was a 1954 drama film that was a sequel to The Robe. ... Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (August 31, 12 – January 24, 41), more commonly known by his nickname Caligula, was the third Roman Emperor and a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, ruling from 37 to 41. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 20 Million Miles to Earth is an 82-minute 1957 black and white science fiction film scripted by Bob Williams and Christopher Knopf from an original treatment by Charlott Knight. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Way of the Dragon (《猛龍過江》 released as Return of the Dragon in the U.S.) was the third major film of Martial Arts Legend Bruce Lee. ... Bruce Lee (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: Lǐ Xiǎolóng; Cantonese Yale: Léih Síulùhng; November 27, 1940 – July 20, 1973) was a Chinese American martial artist, instructor, and martial arts actor widely regarded as one of the most influential martial artists of the twentieth century. ... Carlos Ray Chuck Norris (born on 10 March 1940) is an American martial artist, action star, Hollywood actor, and recently, an internet phenomenon, who is best known for playing Cordell Walker on Walker, Texas Ranger. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Double Team is a 1997 action movie starring Jean Claude Van Damme and Dennis Rodman. ... Jean-Claude Van Damme (born Jean-Claude Camille François Van Varenberg in Sint-Agatha-Berchem, in the Brussels-Capital Region, on October 18, 1960), is a Belgian-born martial artist and actor who is best known for his large catalogue of action movies. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sir Ridley Scott (born November 30, 1937 in South Shields, England) is an influential Academy Award-nominated English film director and producer. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gladiator was a popular movie that appeared in 2000, directed by Ridley Scott, and starring Russell Crowe and Joaquin Phoenix. ... Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of the field of computer graphics (or more specifically, 3D computer graphics) to special effects. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Tiber River in Rome The Tiber (Italian Tevere, Latin Tiberis), the third-longest river in Italy at 406 km (252 miles) after the Po and the Adige, flows through Rome in its course from Mount Fumaiolo to the Tyrrhenian Sea, which it reaches in two branches that cross the suburbs... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... The Core (2003) is a science fiction disaster film very loosely based on the novel Core by Paul Preuss. ... Music Hall is a form of British theatrical entertainment which reached its peak of popularity between 1850 and 1960. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Roth, Leland M. (1993). Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History and Meaning, First, Boulder, CO: Westview Press. ISBN 0-06-430158-3. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Claridge, Amanda (1998). Rome: An Oxford Archaeological Guide, First, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1998, pp. 276–282. ISBN 0-19-288003-9. 
  3. ^ Cass. Dio lxxviii.25
  4. ^ "Rome." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006.
  5. ^ Young, Gayle. "On Italy's passionate opposition to death penalty", CNN.com, CNN, February 24, 2000. Retrieved on August 2, 2006.
  6. ^ Colosseum stages peace concert, BBC News Online, 12 May 2002.
  7. ^ McCartney rocks the Colosseum, BBC News Online, 12 May 2003
  8. ^ Sir Elton's free gig thrills Rome, BBC News Online, 4 September 2005
  9. ^ a b The Coliseum. The Catholic Encyclopedia. New Advent. Retrieved on August 2, 2006.
  10. ^ Ian Archibald Richmond, Donald Emrys Strong, Janet DeLaine. "Colosseum", The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization. Ed. Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth. Oxford University Press, 1998
  11. ^ Downey, Charles T. (February 09, 2005). The Colosseum Was a Skydome?. Retrieved on August 2, 2006.
  12. ^ Samuel Ball Platner (as completed and revised by Thomas Ashby), A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. Oxford University Press, 1929
  13. ^ "Coliseum". Pocket Fowler's Modern English Usage. Ed. Robert Allen. Oxford University Press, 1999

August 2006 was a month with thirty-one days, like all Augusts, that began on a Tuesday. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Filippo Coarelli (b. ... Morris Keith Hopkins (June 20, 1934–March 8, 2004) was a British historian and sociologist. ... Mary Beard is Professor in Classics at the University of Cambridge and a fellow of Newnham College. ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Coordinates: 41°53′24.61″N, 12°29′32.17″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Colosseum - MSN Encarta (673 words)
The Colosseum was completed by Vespasian’s younger son, Domitian, who succeeded Titus as emperor in 81.
The elliptical arena inside the Colosseum, measuring 280 ft (85 m) long and 53 m (175 ft) wide, was a pit surrounded by a high wall, intended to protect spectators from the wild animals often used in combats held in the arena.
Combats between gladiators in the Colosseum were abolished in ad 404, and the last recorded fight between animals was held there in ad 523.
Colosseum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4601 words)
The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium, in Italian Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo), is a giant amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome.
He forbade the use of the Colosseum as a quarry and consecrated the building to the Passion of Christ and installed Stations of the Cross, declaring it sanctified by the blood of the Christian martyrs who were supposed to have perished there (see Christians and the Colosseum).
Pope Pius V (1566-1572) is said to have recommended that pilgrims gather same from the arena of the Colosseum to serve as a relic, on the grounds that it was impregnated with the blood of martyrs.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m