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Encyclopedia > Colorado War

The Colorado War (18631865) was an armed conflict between the United States and a loose alliance among the Kiowa, Comanche, Arapaho, and Cheyenne tribes of Native Americans (the last two were particularly closely allied). The war was centered on the Eastern Plains of the Colorado Territory and resulted in the elimination of all Native American presence from present-day Colorado and their removal to present-day Oklahoma The war included a particular notorious episode in November 1864 in known as the Sand Creek Massacre. The battle, initially hailed by the U.S. press as a great victory, was later learned to be one of genocidal brutality. The resulting hearings in the United States Congress regarding the malfeasance of the U.S. Army commander John Chivington were a watershed in the white views of the Indian Wars at the close of the American Civil War. In 1868 the U.S. Army, led by George Armstrong Custer, renewed the conflict against the Arapaho and Cheyenne at the Battle of Washita River. 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... The Kiowa are a nation of Native Americans who lived mostly in the plains of west Texas, Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico at the time of the arrival of Europeans. ... Comanche territory. ... Scabby Bull, Arapaho 1806 Arapaho camp, ca. ... The Cheyenne are a Native American nation of the Great Plains. ... An Atsina named Assiniboin Boy Photo by Edward S. Curtis. ... The Eastern Plains of Colorado refers to region of the U.S state of Colorado on the east side of the Rocky Mountains, and east of the population centers of the Front Range. ... The Kansas, Nebraska, Utah, and New Mexico territories in 1860 The Colorado Territory was a historic, organized territory of the United States that existed between 1861 and 1876. ... An Atsina named Assiniboin Boy Photo by Edward S. Curtis. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  - Total   - Width   - Length    - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 8th 104,185 sq mi  269 837 km² 280 miles  451 km 380 miles  612 km 0. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Combatants United States of America Cheyenne Arapaho Commanders John M. Chivington Black Kettle Strength 700 500 Casualties 10 dead, 36 wounded 150 {{{notes}}} The Sand Creek Massacre (also known as the Chivington Massacre) was an infamous incident in the Indian Wars of the United States that occurred on November 29... Congress in Joint Session. ... Colonel John Milton Chivington (1821-1892) was a 19th century United States Army officer noted for his role in the New Mexico Campaign of the American Civil War and in the Colorado War. ... Indian Wars is the name used by historians in the United States to describe a series of conflicts between the United States and Native American peoples (Indians) of North America. ... Combatants United States of America Union Confederate States of America Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties Killed in action: 110,000 Total dead: 360,000 Wounded: 275,200 Killed in action: 94,000 Total dead: 258,000... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... George Armstrong Custer George Armstrong Custer (December 5, 1839–June 25, 1876) was a United States Army cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. ... Combatants United States Cheyenne Commanders George A. Custer Black Kettle† Strength 7th U.S. Cavalry unknown Casualties 23(19 killed in engagement away from the camp, remaining 4 killed in crossfire) 11 warriors, 39 unarmed men and 53 women and children killed. ...


Description

The war was fought over the ability of the Plains tribes to maintain control of the bison migration grounds on the High Plains in the upper valleys of the South Platte, Republican, Smoky Hill and Arkansas River valleys, at the edge of the plains where they meet the Rocky Mountains. In the first Treaty of Fort Laramie (1851), the Cheyenne and Arapaho had agreed to accept as their designated hunting grounds the Eastern Plains between the South Platte and Arkansas Rivers. Species B. bison B. bonasus B. priscus Bison is a taxonomic genus containing six species of large even-toed ungulates within the subfamily Bovinae. ... The Great Plains is the broad expanse of prairie which lies east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States of America and Canada, covering all or parts of the U.S. states of New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota and North Dakota and the... The South Platte River in Denver, Colorado The South Platte River is one of the two principal tributaries of the Platte River and itself a major river of the American West, located in the U.S. states of Colorado and Nebraska. ... The Republican River rises on the high plains of eastern Colorado in the United States. ... The Smoky Hill River is a 560-mile river in Colorado and Kansas. ... The headwaters of the Arkansas near Leadville, Colorado The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi which flows east and southeast through Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma territories and then into the state of Arkansas. ... White Goat Wilderness Area, Alberta, Canada Longs Peak of the Rocky Mountains as depicted on the Colorado state quarter The Rocky Mountains, often called the Rockies, are a broad mountain range in western North America. ... The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 was signed on September 17 between United States treaty commissioners and representatives of the Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Crow, Shoshone, Assiniboine, Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara nations. ...


The area was of little use to white settlers before 1859, when the Colorado Gold Rush brought the first large numbers of settlers to the Colorado Piedmont along the mountains, inundating the designated Native American lands with settlers and prospectors. The new settlers demanded that federal government extinguish the Native American claims,and in the autumn of 1860, federal agents openened negotiations with factions of the two tribes at a council along the Arkansas River. At the council, the Cheyenne and Arapaho agreed to surrender all their former hunting lands except for a triangular reservation, the Sand Creek Reservation, between the Arkansas River and Sand Creek. Moreover, the tribes would be converted from nomadic hunting to a farming lifestyle. The new reservation, instead of being an open hunting territory, would be surveyed and divided among the tribal members, with each member receiving 40 acres (160,000 m²) of land. Moreover, the federal agents promised that each tribe would receive a 30,000 USD subsidy for 15 years, as well as a grist mill, saw mill, and schools. 1859 (MDCCCLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Miners at Pikes Peak The Colorado Gold Rush was the boom in the prospecting and mining of gold in present-day Colorado in the United States that began in 1859 (when the land was still in the Kansas Territory) and lasted throughout the early 1860s. ... The Colorado Piedmont is the geologic term for an area along the base of the foothills of the Front Range in north central Colorado in the United States. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ... Surveyor at work with a leveling instrument. ...


The policy of promoting a peaceful transition to farming, to which the tribes agreed, was thwarted in many cases by mismanagement and malfeasance of the politically-appointed federal agents. One notorious example was Samuel Colley, the federal agent of the Upper Arkansas during the early 1860s, who became known for his misappropriation of tribal goods, which he sold through his son Dexter, a trader. // Events and trends Technology The First Transcontinental Railroad in the United States is built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ...


The conflict occurred during the last two years of the American Civil War. The same units of the Colorado Volunteers of the U.S. Army fought in both this war and as well as spearheaded the Union counterattact in the New Mexico Campaign against the Confederate Army. Combatants United States of America Union Confederate States of America Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties Killed in action: 110,000 Total dead: 360,000 Wounded: 275,200 Killed in action: 94,000 Total dead: 258,000... Map of the division of the states during the Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John P. Slough John M. Chivington Charles L. Pyron William R. Scurry Strength Northern Division, Army of New Mexico 4th, 5th, and 7th Texas Cavalry Regiment, artillery, and a company of independent volunteers Casualties 142 189 The Battle of Glorieta... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: With God As Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (popular) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama February 4, 1861–May 29, 1861 Richmond, Virginia May 29, 1861–April 9, 1865 Danville, Virginia April 3–April 10, 1865 Largest city New Orleans...


The leader of the Cheyenne during this time was Black Kettle. Friday was a leader of the Arapaho centered around the Cache la Poudre River near present-day Laporte. The war was seen by the whites as a counterattack in retaliation for Cheyenne and Arapaho attacks on the Overland Stage routes and emigrant parties along the South Platte. The Plains tribes, prevented from going further west into the mountains by the Utes, regarded it as a last-ditch effort to retain control of a sufficient hunting area of bison and other game.This game was one of the most important to the plains tribes. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Scabby Bull, Arapaho 1806 Arapaho camp, ca. ... Cache La Poudre River as it flows through Fort Collins, Colorado The Cache La Poudre River (sometimes called the Poudre River for short) is a tributary of the South Platte River in the state of Colorado in the United States. ... LaPorte is a census-designated place located in Larimer County, Colorado. ... The Utes (yoots) are an ethnically related group of American Indians now living primarily in Utah and Colorado. ...


History

By the early 1860s, relations between the Sioux and the United States on the northern Great Plains had deteriorated substantially (see Sioux Uprising). Prior to this time, white emigrants passed relatively harmoniously through the area (known scornfully as the Great American Desert) on their way along the California, Mormon, and the Oregon trails. After 1860, the discovery of gold in the Rockies, as well as the growing westward encroachment of homesteaders across the 100th meridian west, led the Sioux and their related tribes to progressively resist further white use of the area. Especially troublesome from their vantage point was the slicing up of the bison herd by the increasingly heavily-used trails, as well as the development of new ones that further sliced the herds. The Colorado War marked the spreading of the trend among the Plains Tribes southward along Rockies, to the area passed by the trails. As a result, the United States Army, by then charged with overseeing the emigration routes, shifted the trails southward along the South Platte across present-day northeastern Colorado, then crossing up to the Laramie Plains (the Overland Trail). // Events and trends Technology The First Transcontinental Railroad in the United States is built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... The Sioux (also: Lakota) are a Native American people. ... The Great Plains is the broad expanse of prairie which lies east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States of America and Canada, covering all or parts of the U.S. states of New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota and North Dakota and the... Chief Taoyateduta, known as Little Crow The Sioux Uprising, also known as the Dakota Conflict or the U.S.-Dakota War of 1862, was an armed conflict between the United States and several eastern bands of the Dakota people (often referred to as the Santee Sioux) that began on August... The Great American Desert was an inaccurate term that described the area west of the Missouri River and east of the Rocky Mountains in the 19th century. ... California Trail The California Trail was a major overland emigrant route across the American West from Missouri to California in the middle 19th century. ... The Mormon Trail or Mormon Pioneer Trail is the 1,300 mile route that members of Latter Day Saint movement traveled from 1846-1857. ... Landscape in Oregon Country, by Charles Marion Russell Map of Oregon Country Oregon Country was a region of western North America that originally consisted of the land north of 42°N latitude, south of 54°40N latitude, and west of the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... Broadly, homesteading is a lifestyle of agrarian self-sufficiency. ... Sign marking the 100th meridian in Cozad, Nebraska The 100th meridian west is a line of longitude passing through North America and the Pacific Ocean. ... The Laramie Plains is an arid highlands (approximately elevation 8000 ft) in south central Wyoming in the United States. ... Overland Route or Overland Trail refers to the following travel routes: The Overland Trail (United States), the roughly parallel routes of the Overland Stage Line and First Transcontinental Railroad The Overland Route (Australia), a shipping route via the Suez Canal This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated...


The Cheyenne and Arapaho had previously yielded a large area of the Eastern Plains in 1861 (largely to make room for the gold rush). The increased traffic in the area resulted in attacks by, most notoriously by the Kiowa, who were regarded as historically one of the most antagonistic tribes to white encroachment of any kind. The Cheyenne and Arapaho, a pair of closely related Algonquian-speaking tribes who migrated westward from the Great Lakes area in the 18th century, were regarded as not as interested in conflict with the whites. They were somewhat caught in the crossfire of the war, but ironically suffered the most notorious losses. The participation of the U.S. Army in the war came to be seen as particularly brutal, forcing the Congress to take an official position condemning the actions of Colonel John Chivington of the Colorado Volunteers. Initial reports in the Rocky Mountain News had hailed Chivington as a great hero. Later more accurate accounts of the battle by survivors on the Cheyenne-Arapaho side reached the U.S. press. The evidence was enough to force Congress to hold hearings on the brutality in the spring of 1865. The Native American version was corroborated by a white Indian agent who survived the battle, whose testimony was printed in the Congressional Review as one of the most critical pieces of such testimony entered into the public record. 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The Kiowa are a nation of Native Americans who lived mostly in the plains of west Texas, Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico at the time of the arrival of Europeans. ... The Algonquian languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes on or near the United States-Canadian border. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Colonel John Milton Chivington (1821-1892) was a 19th century United States Army officer noted for his role in the New Mexico Campaign of the American Civil War and in the Colorado War. ... The Rocky Mountain News is a daily morning tabloid-format newspaper published in Denver, Colorado. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Public records are records, usually criminal, which are generally available. ...


The Arapaho, who were largely nonhostile throughout the war, were forced to give up their last territory within the State of Colorado, as were the Kiowa and Comanche. The tribes were forced to Indian territory in present-day Oklahoma. As a result, the only Native American presence remaining in the state was the Utes, regarding whom the U.S. recognized a claim to all lands west of the continental divide. Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Territory in 1891 Indian Territory, also known as Indian Country, Indian territory or the Indian territories, was the land set aside within the United States for the use of American Indians (Native Americans). The general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834. ... A continental divide is a line of elevated terrain which forms a border between two watersheds such that water falling on one side of the line eventually travels to one ocean or body of water, and water on the other side travels to another, generally on the opposite side of...


U.S. Army operations during the war were conducted largely out of Fort Laramie, the regional headquarters of the Army. In the fall of 1863 the fort was commanded by Lt. Colonel William O. Collins of the 11th Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. His son Caspar Collins (for whom Fort Caspar was named) would later be killed in action against the Sioux nearby along the North Platte River in present-day Wyoming. Upon the initial relocation of the stage and emigrant routes southward to Colorado, relations were relatively peaceful between the U.S. and the intermixed tribes of the Arapaho and Cheyenne (they tended to live in bands of their own tribes, but in mixed proximity of camps of bands of the other). The Arapaho wintered in large villages along the Cache la Poudre River where it emerges from the Laramie Foothills. The mountains just to the west were the firm possession of the Utes, who were descendant of the Uto-Aztecan people who had occupied the area for over a millennium. Grounds of Fort Laramie Fort Laramie, located in present-day Goshen County, Wyoming in the United States, was a significant 19th century trading post and later a military outpost of the United States Army. ... Reconstructed buildings at the site of Fort Caspar Fort Caspar was a military post of the United States Army located in present-day Casper, Wyoming (which is named for the fort). ... The North Platte River The North Platte River is a tributary of the Platte River, approximately 680 mi (1,094 km) long, in the U.S. states of Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska. ... Official language(s) English Capital Largest city Cheyenne Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,872 sq mi  (253,554 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Cache La Poudre River as it flows through Fort Collins, Colorado The Cache La Poudre River (sometimes called the Poudre River for short) is a tributary of the South Platte River in the state of Colorado in the United States. ... The Uto-Aztecan languages are a Native American language family. ...


The Army established Camp Collins, named for the Fort Laramie commander, on the banks of the Poudre near present-day Laporte in early 1864. After a devastating flood in June, the Army relocated their camp southeast to high ground on the Poudre at present-day Fort Collins. The camp was the initially occupied by the 11th Ohio Volunteers, and later by elements of the Kansas Volunteers, both of which were shifted to other duties. The Colorado Volunteers later occupied the post and would see much action in the southeastern areas of the state. The attacks on the stage routes led to a general hostility among the whites in the new Colorado Territory against all Native American presence, no matter how cooperative and benign. Camp Collins (also known as the Fort Collins Military Reservation) was a 19th century outpost of the United States Army in the Colorado Territory. ... Horsetooth Rock, atop Horsetooth Mountain, is often used as a symbol of Fort Collins. ...


References

  • Atlas of Colorado, Kenneth A. Erickson and Albert W. Smith, Colorado Associated University Press (1985).
  • A Colorado History, Carl Ubbeholde, Maxine Benson, Duane A. Smith ISBN 0-87108-923-8, Pruett Publishing, Boulder, Colorado (first edition 1965).

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Colorado Volunteers Civil War (2229 words)
Colorado's first cavalry regiment was formed in November 1862 from the 1st Regiment of Colorado Volunteers (Infantry) and Companies C and D of the 2nd Colorado Infantry.
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Colorado War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1467 words)
The war was centered on the Eastern Plains of the Colorado Territory and resulted in the elimination of all Native American presence from present-day Colorado and their removal to present-day Oklahoma The war included a particular notorious episode in November 1864 in known as the Sand Creek Massacre.
The war was fought over the ability of the Plains tribes to maintain control of the bison migration grounds on the High Plains in the upper valleys of the South Platte, Republican, Smoky Hill and Arkansas River valleys, at the edge of the plains where they meet the Rocky Mountains.
The war was seen by the whites as a counterattack in retaliation for Cheyenne and Arapaho attacks on the Overland Stage routes and emigrant parties along the South Platte.
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