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Encyclopedia > Colony and Dominion of Virginia
A map of the Colony of Virginia.
A map of the Colony of Virginia.

The Colony of Virginia was the English colony in North America that existed briefly during the 16th century, and then continuously from 1607 until the American Revolution. The colony then became the Commonwealth of Virginia in 1776, one of the original thirteen states of the United States. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x627, 219 KB) This is a map of the Colony of Virginia that I made. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x627, 219 KB) This is a map of the Colony of Virginia that I made. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the anthem of the United Kingdom is God Save the Queen. See also Proposed English National Anthems. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies that... State nickname: Old Dominion Other U.S. States Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Governor Mark R. Warner Official languages English Area 110,862 km² (35th)  - Land 102,642 km²  - Water 8,220 km² (7. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ...


Named for Queen Elizabeth I, who never married, the Virginia Colony was nicknamed "The Old Dominion" by King Charles II for its perceived loyalty to the English monarchy during the English Civil War. Elizabeth I redirects here. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. ...

Contents

History

The name "Virginia" is the oldest designation for English claims in North America, and refers to the "Virgin Queen," Elizabeth I, who ruled England prior to the period of its establishment. Initially, the term applied to the entire eastern coast of North America originally claimed by France, from the 34th parallel (near Cape Fear) north to the 48th parallel, including the shorelines of Acadia and a large portion of inland Canada. Although Francis I of France had previous claims to this territory via Giovanni da Verrazzano (it was to be named "Francesca" or New France), the French ultimately chose to concentrate on lands to the north sighted by John Cabot, leaving this region to the English to colonize.[citation needed] To the south along the Atlantic Coast of North America, Spain attempted to establish settlements as far north as South Carolina and even once on the Chesapeake Bay on the Virginia Peninsula, the ill-fated Ajacan Mission, but was only successful in what is now Florida, where they established St. Augustine in 1565. The phrase Virgin Queen could refer to Elizabeth I of England, Queen of England from 1558 to 1603, she never married, thus was a virgin queen. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the anthem of the United Kingdom is God Save the Queen. See also Proposed English National Anthems. ... This article is about the geographical feature on the coast of North Carolina. ... The national flag of Acadia, adopted in 1884. ... Francis I (François Ier in French) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... Giovanni da Verrazzano (c. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Giovanni Caboto (c. ... The Virginia Peninsula is a peninsula in southeast Virginia, bounded by the York River, James River, Hampton Roads and Chesapeake Bay. ... The Ajacan Mission was a failed attempt in the 16th century by Spanish Jesuit priests to settle and bring Christianize the Native Americans on the Virginia Peninsula in the New World. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Nickname: Location in St. ...


Settlements at Roanoke Island

Main article: Roanoke Colony

In 1584, Sir Walter Raleigh sent his first mission to the island of Roanoke (in present-day North Carolina) to settle. This was the first English settlement, although it is generally not accepted as the first permanent English settlement. A map of the Roanoke area, by John White The Roanoke Colony on Roanoke Island in Dare County in present-day North Carolina was an enterprise financed and organized by Sir Walter Raleigh in the late 16th century to establish a permanent English settlement in the Virginia Colony. ... Not to be confused with Walter Raleigh (professor). ... Roanoke Island is an island in Dare County near the coast of North Carolina, United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ...


In 1587, Raleigh sent another group to again attempt to establish a permanent settlement. The first English child born in the New World was named Virginia Dare. The expedition leader, John White returned to England for supplies that same year, but was forced to stay there because of the war between England and Spain. When he finally returned in 1591, he found the colony abandoned. The houses were intact, but the colonists had completely disappeared. There are a number of theories, but the facts regarding their fate remains a continuing mystery into the 21st century. Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... Virginia Dare (born August 18, 1587) was the first child born in the Americas to English parents, Eleanor (or Ellinor/Elyonor) and Ananias Dare. ... A sketch by John White of Indians at Roanoke. ...


This group of colonists whose fate is unknown has come to be known as the "Lost Colony". Dare County was named in honor of the baby Virginia Dare, who was among those whose fate is unknown. A map of the Roanoke area, by John White The Roanoke Colony on Roanoke Island in Dare County in present-day North Carolina was an enterprise financed and organized by Sir Walter Raleigh in the late 16th century to establish a permanent English settlement in the Virginia Colony. ... Dare County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ...


Virginia Company: Plymouth and London branches

Following the death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603, King James I ascended to the throne. England was financially pressed following years of war with Spain. To raise funds to explore the New World, to bring back gold and other riches and seek the Northwest Passage to the Middle East and India, he granted a proprietary charter to two competing branches of the Virginia Company, which were supported by investors. These were the Plymouth Company and the London Company. Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603 ) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... Northwest Passage routes For other uses, see Northwest Passage (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... The 1606 grants by James I to the London and Plymouth companies. ... The 1606 grants by James I to the London and Plymouth companies. ... Virginia Company of London Seal The London Company (also called the Charter of the Virginia Company of London) was an English joint stock company established by royal charter by James I on April 10, 1606 with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America. ...


By the terms of the charter, the Plymouth Company was permitted to establish a colony of 100 miles square between the 38th parallel and the 45th parallel (roughly between Chesapeake Bay and the current U.S.-Canada border). The London Company was permitted to establish between the 34th parallel and the 41st parallel (approximately between Cape Fear and Long Island Sound), and also owned a large portion of Atlantic and Inland Canada. In the area of overlap, the two companies were not permitted to establish colonies within one hundred miles of each other. The Chesapeake Bay - Landsat photo The Chesapeake Bay where the Susquehanna River empties into it. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... This article is about the geographical feature on the coast of North Carolina. ... New York City waterways: 1. ...


During 1606, each company organized expeditions to establish settlements within the area of their rights.


Popham Colony

Main article: Popham Colony

In August 1606, the first Plymouth Company ship, Richard, sailed for the New World. However, it was intercepted and captured by the Spanish near Florida in November 1606, and never reached Virginia. The next attempt was more successful. About 120 colonists left Plymouth on May 31, 1607 in two ships. Colony leader George Popham sailed aboard the Gift of God, while second-in-command Ralegh Gilbert traveled on the Mary and John, whose captain was Robert Davies. Captain Davies maintained a diary which is one of the modern sources of information about the Popham Colony. The site of the 1607 Popham Colony in present-day Maine is shown by Po on the map. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... , Plymouth (Cornish: ) is a city of 243,795 inhabitants (2001 census) in the south-west of England, or alternatively the West Country, and is situated within the traditional and ceremonial county of Devon at the mouths of the rivers Plym and Tamar and at the head of one of the... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1607 (MDCVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Arriving in August 1607, these Plymouth Company colonists established their settlement, known as the Popham Colony, in the present-day town of Phippsburg, Maine near the mouth of the Kennebec River. They intended to trade precious metals, spices, furs, and show that the local forests could be used to build English ships. Half of the colonists returned to England in the fall of 1607 aboard the Gift of God; the other half stayed through the winter, spring, and summer, during which time they built a 30-ton ship, a pinnace they named Virginia. Late that summer, all the remaining colonists returned to England aboard the Virginia and the Mary and John. The short-lived colony had lasted about a year. Although not permanent, it was the first English colony in the region that would eventually become known as New England. The exact site of the Popham Colony had long been lost until its rediscovery in 1994. IN the colony, people loved to eat meat, but had trouble preserving it in harsh winters. Lemon was the answer. The site of the 1607 Popham Colony in present-day Maine is shown by Po on the map. ... Phippsburg is a town located in Sagadahoc County, Maine. ... The course of the Kennebec River The Kennebec River is a river, 150 mi (240 km) long, in the state of Maine in the northeastern United States. ... A precious metal is a rare metallic element of high, durable economic value. ... External links Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Spice Food Bacteria-Spice Survey Shows Why Some Cultures Like It Hot Citat: ...Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything). ... For alternative meanings, see Fur (disambiguation). ... A pinnace is a light boat, propelled by sails or oars, formerly used as a tender for guiding merchant and war vessels. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ...


Jamestown Settlement

Main article: Jamestown, Virginia

The London Company hired Captain Christopher Newport to head its expedition. In December 1606, he set sail from England with his flagship, the Susan Constant, and two smaller ships, the Godspeed, and the Discovery, with 144 men and boys, 40 of whom died while at sea. After an unusually long voyage of 144 days, they arrived at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, and came ashore at the point where the southern side of the bay meets the Atlantic Ocean, an event which has come to be called the "First Landing". They erected a cross, and named the point of land Cape Henry, in honor of Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of King James. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Christopher Newport (c. ... A flagship is the ship used by the commanding officer of a group of naval ships. ... Susan Constant was the largest of three ships of the English East India Company led by Captain Christopher Newport on the voyage which resulted in the founding of Jamestown in the new Colony of Virginia in 1607. ... Godspeed may refer to: Godspeed - a term used to express respect and good will when addressing someone, typically someone about to go on a journey or a daring endeavor. ... Discovery was a 70-ton fly-boat of the English East India Company, launched before 1602. ... The Chesapeake Bay - Landsat photo The Chesapeake Bay where the Susquehanna River empties into it. ... Cape Henry is a cape on the Atlantic shore of Virginia. ... Henry Stuart, Prince of Wales Henry Frederick Stuart, Prince of Wales (February 19, 1594 - November 6, 1612) was the eldest son of King James VI of Scotland/James I of England and Anne of Denmark. ...


Their instructions were to select a location inland along a waterway where they would be less vulnerable to the Spanish or other Europeans also seeking to establish colonies. They sailed westward into the Bay and reached the mouth of Hampton Roads, stopping at a location now known as Old Point Comfort. Keeping the shoreline to their right, they then ventured up the largest river, which they named the James, for their king. After exploring at least as far upriver as the confluence of the Appomattox River at present-day Hopewell, they returned downstream to Jamestown Island, which offered a favorable defensive position against enemy ships and deep water anchorage adjacent to the land. Within 2 weeks, they had constructed their first fort, and named their settlement Jamestown. This view from space in July 1996 shows portions of each of the Seven Cities of Hampton Roads which generally surround the harbor area of Hampton Roads, which framed by the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel visible to the east (right), the Virginia Peninsula subregion to the north (top), and the... Old Point Comfort is a point of land located in the independent city of Hampton at the extreme tip of the Virginia Peninsula at the mouth of Hampton Roads in the United States. ... The James River at Cartersville The James River in the U.S. state of Virginia is 547. ... The Appomattox River at Matoaca, Virginia The Appomattox River is a tributary of the James River, approximately 137 mi (220 km), in central and eastern Virginia in the United States. ... Waterfront at City Point, Virginia (now Hopewell) in 1865 Hopewell is an independent city in the state of Virginia. ... Jamestown was a village on an island in the James River in Virginia, about 45 miles southeast of where Richmond, Virginia, is now. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In addition to securing gold and other precious minerals to send back to the waiting investors in England, the survival plan for the Jamestown colonists depended upon regular supplies from England and trade with the Native Americans. The location they selected was largely cutoff from the mainland, and offered little game for hunting, no fresh drinking water, and very limited ground for farming. Captain Newport returned to England twice, delivering the First Supply and the Second Supply missions during 1608, and leaving the Discovery for the use of the colonists. However, death from disease and conflicts with the Natives Americans took a fearsome toll of the colonists. Despite attempts at mining minerals, growing silk, and exporting the native Virginia tobacco, no profitable exports had been identified, and it was unclear whether the settlement would survive financially. Chief Quanah Parker of the Quahadi Comanche Native Americans in the United States (also Indians, American Indians, First Americans, Indigenous Peoples, Aboriginal Peoples, Aboriginal Americans, Amerindians, Amerinds, or Original Americans) are those indigenous peoples within the territory which is now encompassed by the continental United States, and their descendants in...

The 1609 charter for the Virginia colony "from sea to sea"

In 1609, with the abandonment of the Plymouth Company settlement, the London Company's Virginia charter was adjusted to include the territory north of the 34th parallel and south of the 39th parallel, with its original coastal grant extended "from sea to sea". This helped renew the interest of investors, and additional funds enabled an expanded effort, known as the Third Supply. Image File history File links Wpdms_virginia_company_plymouth_council. ... Image File history File links Wpdms_virginia_company_plymouth_council. ... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... The Third Supply was the first truly successful wave of colonization, in the first British settlement in the Americas; Jamestown, Virginia. ...


For the Third Supply, the London Company had a new ship built. The Sea Venture was specifically designed for emigration of additional colonists and transporting supplies. It became the flagship the Admiral of the convoy, Sir George Somers. The Third Supply was the largest to date, with 8 other ships joining the Sea Venture. The new Captain of the Sea Venture was mission's Vice-Admiral, Christopher Newport. Hundreds of new colonists were aboard the ships. However, weather was to drastically impact the mission. The coat of arms of Bermuda features a representation of the wreck of the Sea Venture The Sea Venture was a 17th-century English sailing ship, the wrecking of which in Bermuda is widely thought to have been the inspiration for Shakespeares The Tempest. ... A flagship is the ship used by the commanding officer of a group of naval ships. ... Admiral Sir George Somers (1554-1610) was a British naval hero. ...


Bermuda: The Somers Isles

Main article: Bermuda

A few days out of London, the 9 ships of the Third Supply mission encountered a massive hurricane in the Atlantic Ocean. They became separated during the three days the storm lasted. Admiral Somers had the new Sea Venture, carrying most of the supplies of the mission, deliberately driven aground onto the reefs of Bermuda to avoid sinking. However, while there was no loss of life, the ship was wrecked beyond repair, stranding its survivors on the uninhabited archipelago, to which they laid claim for England. The Mergui Archipelago An archipelago is a landform which consists of a chain or cluster of islands. ...


The survivors at Bermuda eventually built two smaller ships and most of them continued on to Jamestown, leaving a few on Bermuda to secure the claim. The Company's possession of Bermuda was made official in 1612, when the third and final charter extended the boundaries of 'Virginia' far enough out to sea to encompass Bermuda, which was also known, for a time, as Virgineola. Bermuda has since been known officially also as The Somers Isles (in commemoration of Admiral Sir George Somers, head of the Third Supply Mission). Admiral Sir George Somers (1554-1610) was a British naval hero. ...


However, upon their arrival at Jamestown, the survivors of the Sea Venture discovered that the 10 month delay had greatly aggravated other adverse conditions. Seven of the other ships had arrived carrying more colonists, but little in the way of food and supplies. Combined with a drought, and hostile relations with the Native Americans, the loss of the supplies which had been aboard the Sea Venture had resulted in the Starving Time in late 1609 to May 1610, during which over 80% of the colonists perished. The survivors from Bermuda had brought few supplies and food with them, and it appeared to all that Jamestown must be abandoned and it would be necessary to return to England. Chief Quanah Parker of the Quahadi Comanche Native Americans in the United States (also Indians, American Indians, First Americans, Indigenous Peoples, Aboriginal Peoples, Aboriginal Americans, Amerindians, Amerinds, or Original Americans) are those indigenous peoples within the territory which is now encompassed by the continental United States, and their descendants in... The Starving Time at Jamestown in the Virginia Colony occurred during the winter of 1609–10. ...


A timely arrival: Lord Delaware

Samuel Argall was the captain of one of the seven ships of the Third Supply which had arrived at Jamestown in 1609 after becoming separated from the Sea Venture, whose fate was unknown. Depositing his passengers and limited supplies, he had returned to England with word of the plight of the colonists at Jamestown. The King had authorized another leader, Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, later better known as "Lord Delaware", to have greater powers, and the London Company had organized another Supply mission. They set sail from London on April 1, 1610. Sir Samuel Argall (1572? - 1626?) was an English adventurer and naval officer. ... Thomas West, 3rd (or 12th) Baron De La Warr (July 9, 1577 - June 7, 1618), was the Englishman for whom the state, river, and American Indian tribe called Delaware (in the United States) were named. ...


Just after the survivors of the Starving Time and those who had joined them from Bermuda had abandoned Jamestown, the ships of the new supply mission sailed up the James River with food, supplies, a doctor, and more colonists. Lord Delaware was determined that the colony was to survive, and intercepted the deprting ships about 10 miles downstream of Jamestown. Among these individuals who had briefly abandoned Jamestown was a Sea Venture survivor who had lost his wife and son during the journey. He was a businessman from London who had some untried seeds for new, sweeter strains of tobacco with him, as well as some untried marketing ideas. His name was John Rolfe, and it was to turn out that he held the key to the Colony's economic success. This article is about the Virginia colonist. ...


By 1612, Rolfe's new strains of tobacco had been successfully cultivated and exported. Finally, a cash crop to export had been identified, and plantations and new outposts sprung up, initially both upriver and downriver along the navigable portion of the James River, and thereafter along the other rivers and waterways of the area. The settlement at Jamestown could finally be considered permanently established. Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in genus Nicotiana. ... In agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is grown for money. ... // This article is about crop plantations. ... The James River at Cartersville The James River in the U.S. state of Virginia is 547. ...

For more details on this topic, see John Rolfe.

This article is about the Virginia colonist. ...

New England

Main article: New England

In 1620, a successor to the Plymouth Company sent colonists to the New World aboard the Mayflower. Known as pilgrims, they successfully established a settlement in what became Massachusetts. The portion of what had been Virginia north of the 40th parallel became known as New England, according to books written by Captain John Smith, who had made a voyage there. This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor by William Halsall (1882) The Mayflower was the famous ship that transported the Pilgrims from Plymouth, England, to Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts (United States), in 1620. ... Pilgrims is the name commonly applied to early settlers of the Plymouth Colony in present-day Plymouth, Massachusetts. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Statue at Jamestown VA, photo Aug 2007 Sir John Smith (1580–June 21, 1631), was an English soldier, sailor, and author. ...


In 1624, the Virginia Company's charter was revoked by King James I and the Virginia Colony was transferred to royal authority as a crown colony. Events January 24 - Alfonso Mendez, appointed by Pope Gregory XV as Prelate of Ethiopia, arrives at Massawa from Goa. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ...


Other colonies

Subsequent charters for the Maryland Colony in 1632 and the Carolina Colony in 1665 further reduced the Virginia Colony to coastal borders it held until the American Revolution. The Province of Maryland was one of the 13 colonies that went on to establish the United States. ... The Carolina Colony grants of 1663 and 1665 The Province of Carolina was a North American English colony that existed from 1663 to 1729, when it was divided into the Provinces of North and South Carolina. ... Year 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies that...


Names and nicknames for Virginia

Charles II gave Virginia the title of "Old Dominion" in gratitude of Virginia's loyalty to the crown during the English Civil War; Virginia maintains "Old Dominion" as its state nickname. Accordingly, the University of Virginia's athletic teams are known as "Cavaliers." Another nickname is the "Mother of Presidents," since many of the past presidents were born in Virginia, such as Thomas Jefferson, who also wrote the first draft of the Declaration of Independence. Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. ... This is a list of U.S. state nicknames: both official and traditional (official state nicknames in bold). ... Prince Rupert an archetypical cavalier For other uses, see Cavalier (disambiguation). ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... // The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies were independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ...

See also

// [edit] Native Americans Virginia Indian chief in engraving after John White watercolor The portion of the New World designated Virginia in honor of the Virgin Queen (Elizabeth I) in the late 16th century had been inhabited by many groups of Native Americans for at least 3,000 years, based upon... This is a list of colonial governors of Virginia. ... Lost counties, cities and towns of Virginia are those which formerly existed in the English Colony of Virginia or the Commonwealth of Virginia after it became a state. ... The Southern Colonies were the Province of North Carolina, Province of South Carolina, and Province of Georgia. ...

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