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Encyclopedia > Colonization
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Colonisation (or colonization) is the act where life forms move into a distant area where their kind is sparse or not yet existing at all and set up new settlements in the area. Colonisation applies to all life forms in a sense though it is most often used in reference to insects and humans. Insect colonisation varies from species to species though it most often involves a queen setting out from its parent colony and establishing a colony of her own at a suitable location. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... World map of colonialism circa 1945. ... Download high resolution version (1144x1570, 312 KB) Dyson vacuum cleaner, model DC07. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Symphypleona - globular springtails Subclass Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) Subclass Dicondylia Monura - extinct Thysanura (common bristletails) Subclass Pterygota Diaphanopteroidea - extinct Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Blattodea (cockroaches) Mantodea (mantids) Isoptera (termites) Zoraptera Grylloblattodea Dermaptera (earwigs) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ...


Human colonisation is not to be confused with colonialism or imperialism, as colonisation is a broader category, encompassing all large-scale immigrations of an established population to a 'new' location, and expansion of their civilization into this area. This process may or may not victimise an indigenous population (depending first on whether there is any indigenous population to victimise). World map of colonialism circa 1945. ... A cartoon portraying the British Empire as an octopus, reaching into foreign lands A cartoon showing the U.S. growing up and growing girth. ...

Contents


Historical Colonisations

Clasical Period

In ancient times, maritime nations such as Greece often established colonies. These appear to be more benign, emphasizing uninhabited land, and farming it. In classical times, land suitable for farming was often claimed by migratory "barbarian tribes" that lived by hunting and gathering. To ancient civilized people, the land simply appeared vacant.


Another great colonisation of ancient times was that of the Romans. The Roman Empire conquered a large part of western Europe, north Africa and west Asia. Though in North Africa and west Asia they were often conquering civilized peoples as they moved north into Europe they often encountered little more then rural tribes with very little in the way of cities. In these areas, waves of Roman colonisation often followed the conquest of the area. The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus). ... Western Europe is distinguished from Eastern Europe by differences of history and culture rather than by geography. ... North Africa is a region generally considered to include: Algeria Egypt Libya Mauritania Morocco Sudan Tunisia Western Sahara The Azores, Canary Islands, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Madeira are sometimes considered to be a part of North Africa. ... A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ...


Many of the current great cities of Europe began as Roman colonies such as the German city Köln (better known in its French form Cologne) which was originally called Colonia Claudia by the Romans and the British capital city of London which the Romans began as Londinium. Cologne skyline at night. ... Cologne skyline at night with river Rhine in the foreground and famous Cologne Cathedral on the right. ... The clock tower of the Palace of Westminster, which contains Big Ben London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ...


Middle Ages

The decline and collapse of the Roman Empire saw (and was partly caused by) the large scale movement of people in eastern Europe and Asia. This is largely seen as beginning with nomadic horsemen from asia moving into the richer pasture land to the west and so forcing the people there to move further west and so on until eventually the Franks and their ilk were forced to invade the Roman Empire beginning the Dark Ages. The dark ages saw the large scale movement of peoples establishing new colonies all over western Europe, the events of this time saw the development of many of the modern day nations of Europe such as the Huns colonizing Hungary, the Franks in France and Germany and the Anglo-Saxons in England. Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange) and other former communist regimes (light orange). ... The Franks or the Frankish people were one of several west Germanic tribes who entered the late Roman Empire from Frisia as foederati and established a lasting realm (sometimes referred to as Francia) in an area that covers most of modern-day France and the region of Franconia in Germany... The Dark Ages (or Dark Age) is a metaphor with multiple meanings and connotations. ... The Dark Ages (or Dark Age) is a metaphor with multiple meanings and connotations. ... Hun is a term that refers specifically to a group of Central Asian nomads of East Asia, who appear in Europe in the 4th century. ... The Franks or the Frankish people were one of several west Germanic tribes who entered the late Roman Empire from Frisia as foederati and established a lasting realm (sometimes referred to as Francia) in an area that covers most of modern-day France and the region of Franconia in Germany... A map showing the general locations of the major Anglo-Saxon kingdoms The Anglo-Saxons were originally a collection of differing Germanic tribes from Angeln—a peninsula in the southern part of Schleswig, protruding into the Baltic Sea, and what is now Lower Saxony, in the north-west coast of... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ...


Another great colonising people were the Vikings of Scandinavia. The Vikings are best known as raiders, setting out from their original homes in Denmark, southern Norway and southern Sweden to pillage the coastlines of northern Europe and it is as this they mostly began however as time went by the Vikings moved more onto trade rather then raiding and established colonies again many of which exist as cities today e.g. York, Novogrod and Dublin. It was also the Vikings who first discovered Iceland establishing colonies here before moving onto Greenland where they briefly held colonies before the world's climate took a turn for the worse forcing them out. There is even very strong evidence that the vikings launched a unsuccessful attempt at colonizing a area known as Vinland which is often placed on Newfoundland or the surrounding coastline of Canada. The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... Scandinavia, Fennoscandia, and the Kola Peninsula. ... York is a city in northern England, at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss. ... For other cities named Novgorod see Novgorod (disambiguation). ... Dublin (Irish: Baile Átha Cliath),is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Ireland, located near the midpoint of Irelands east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and at the centre of the Dublin region. ... Vinland (pronounced Winland) was the name given to part of North America by the Icelandic Norseman Leif Eiríksson, about year 1000. ... Newfoundland (French: Terre-Neuve; Irish: Talamh an Éisc; Latin: Terra Nova) Newfoundland (originally, Terra Nova) was very likely named by the Portuguese João Vaz Corte-Real in 1472, which would make it the oldest European name in North America. ...


'Colonial Era'

1492 marked the discovery of the Americas by modern Europeans and it was not long after this that Castile began the conquest of South America and the Caribbean. However, western colonisation has its roots in portuguese trips, these portuguese went from Lisbon to the Cape of Good Hope before reaching India in 1498. Events January 2 - Boabdil, the last Moorish King of Granada, surrenders his city to the army of Ferdinand and Isabella after a lengthy siege. ... Map of the Americas by Jonghe, c. ... A former kingdom of Spain, Castile comprises the two regions of Old Castile in north-western Spain, and New Castile in the centre of the country. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... ... District Lisbon Mayor   - Party Pedro Santana Lopes PSD Area 84. ... The Cape of Good Hope headland seen from the north The Cape of Good Hope is a headland in South Africa, near Cape Town, traditionally— and incorrectly — regarded as marking the turning point between the Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Ocean. ... Events Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama visits Quelimane and Moçambique in southeastern Africa. ...


Originally there was very little colonisation other then the soldiers and adventurers who had came to these areas seeking wealth (many of whom returned to Europe as rich men) however as time went by and the natives began to die out via the new disease pool of Europe and oppression by cruel landlords leaving a lot of vacant space open for colonisation by Europeans. Despite this the Spanish mode of colonization still mostly consisted of young men who found native wives leading to the creation of a hybrid native/European culture.


The 17th century saw other European nations beginning to colonize the Americas (mainly the Netherlands, France and England however many other nations attempted colonies) and these Europeans largely saw conventional movements of families into new lands. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ...


The desire for labour in the Americas by the various European nations also led to the booming of the African slave trade leading to black 'colonisation' of the Americas- today this is especially apparent in the Caribbean where the largest ethnic group is of African descent. Africa is the worlds second-largest continent and second most populous after Asia. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The age of Imperialism in the 19th century saw much colonisation by the European powers in Australasia and Africa. A cartoon portraying the British Empire as an octopus, reaching into foreign lands Imperialism is a policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Australasia Australasia is the area that includes Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, and the many smaller islands in the vicinity, most of which are the eastern part of Indonesia. ... Africa is the worlds second-largest continent and second most populous after Asia. ...


Modern colonisation

Modern immigration may be referred to as a new type of colonisation, depending on the extent to which immigrants seek to preserve and extend the habits of the civilisation they have left, rather than adopting those of the civilization now inhabited. Many countries have legal regimes established with the goal of preventing this.


Expatriates

In some cases, expatriate communities do set up permanently in target countries, which is a 'truer' colonisation, though in many cases (especially when not gathered into a community) expatriates do not necessearily seek to 'expand their native civilisation', but rather to integrate into the population of the new civilisation. An expatriate (in abbreviated form expat) is someone temporarily or permanently in a country and culture other than that of their upbringing and/or legal residence. ... Integration may be any of the following: Usually integration is the construction of an object, a theory, etc. ...


Guest workers

Many nations also have large numbers of guest workers. Though they have little power - the guest worker or contractor can be removed at any time for any reason, in most countries - they remain "colonists" in the strict sense of biology. Many human colonists came to colonies as slaves, so the legal power to leave or remain may not be the issue so much as the actual presence of the people in the new country. A foreign worker (cf expatriate), is a person who works in a country other than the one of which he or she is a citizen. ...


Managers

The IMF, World Bank, and commodity markets are often cited as being responsible for a new kind of colonizing in which managers, professionals, and marketers may move around from place to place but populations remain in place, helpless to resist movements of valuable goods and capital. The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing global financial system‘s current trade account balances of member states. ... Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means... Chicago Board of Trade Commodity market Commodity markets are markets where raw or primary products are exchanged. ...


Some consider this use of the term to refer more to forms of colonialism than to actual colonization, as peoples don't move permanently, but only a small number of people move to a target region temporarily, take what they want, deal for more, and leave. This is more akin to tourism, looting or raiding than it is to actual colonization. World map of colonialism circa 1945. ... A tourist boat travels the River Seine in Paris, France Beaches make popular tourist resorts Tourist redirects here; for the album by Athlete, see Tourist (album) Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. ... Looting is the inconsiderate taking of valuables triggered by a change in authority or the absence thereof. ... Raid or RAID has several meanings: Redundant array of independent disks Raid bug spray The French elite police unit, Recherche Assistance Intervention Dissuasion A sudden, forcible entry by police A military operation or attack, air raid e. ...


"Coca-Cola colonisation"

This term is used for the erosion of a country's indigenous culture and its replacement with corporate mass-culture, usually taken to be American in origin (see cultural imperialism). This is more metaphorical usage as people need not move, only cultural signals of various kinds. Cultural imperialism is the practice of promoting the culture or language of one nation in another. ...


Ocean colonization

The hypothetical permanent habitation of locations in Earth's oceans is called ocean colonisation. Related ideas such as the floating city are much less hypothetical - funds are presently being sought to build several large ships that would have permanent populations of up to 50,000 people each. Ocean (from Okeanos, a Greek god of sea and water; Greek ωκεανός) covers almost three quarters (71%) of the surface of the Earth, and nearly half of the worlds marine waters are over 3000 m deep. ... Ocean colonization is the theoretical practice of building structures to allow humans to live permanently in areas of Earth covered in water; whether floating on the surface of the ocean, secured to the ocean floor, or somewhere in between. ... Theoretical settlements that use bouyancy to remain in the atmospheres of planets or moons because there is a problem with allowing them to sit on the ground. ...


Space colonisation

In science fiction, space colonization is sometimes more benign. Humans find an uninhabited planet, and inhabit it. In more recent science fiction, they may create inhabitable space (by terraforming or constructing a space habitat) and call that a "colony." Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Artists conception of a space habitat called the Stanford torus, by Don Davis Space colonization, also called space settlement and space humanization, is the hypothetical permanent autonomous (self-sufficient) human habitation of locations outside Earth. ... Artists conception of a terraformed Mars in three stages of development. ...


On the other hand, if the planet is already inhabited, much less benign consequences ensue: indeed, some science fiction authors have used the colonisation of alien planets by humans, or the colonisation of Earth by aliens, to explore the real-world issues surrounding the phenomenon. Such works include those of Mary Doria Russell, Arrow and Children of God. Earth, also known as the Earth, Terra, and (mostly in the 19th century) Tellus, is the third-closest planet to the Sun. ... Mary Doria Russell (born 1950) is an American author of science fiction. ...


Space colonisation seems to have become more plausible in today's age, as the process of terraforming could theoretically be used to create a breathable atmosphere. Artists conception of a terraformed Mars in three stages of development. ...


Galactic colonisation

The ultimate expression of this view is the Kardashev scale which assumes that a single dominant intelligent species is fated to take over all energy on one planet, then one star, then a whole galaxy full of stars. Kardashev scale projections ranging from 1900 to 2100. ...


However, this is not neccessarily so if in time other species would be discovered during a galactic expansion which would also require the need for sharing the galactic space with other species.


See also

World map of colonialism circa 1945. ... Colonization is a computer game by Brian Reynolds and Sid Meier released by Microprose in 1994. ... // Ancient Colonization North Africa in particular experienced colonization from Europe and Asia Minor in the early historical period. ... Neocolonialism is a term used by Marxist as well as non-Marxist groups and individuals to describe operations at the international level during the era when colonial empires, created by the European powers from the 16th to the 19th century, are no longer in existence. ... The term New Imperialism refers to the policy and ideology of imperial colonial expansion adopted by Europes powers and later the United States and Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries; approximately from the Franco-Prussian War to World War I (c. ...

External links

  • Colonization-Decolonization-Recolonization

  Results from FactBites:
 
American Colonization Society (Prints and Photographs Reading Room, Library of Congress) (359 words)
The American Colonization Society, organized in 1817 to resettle African Americans in West Africa, presented its records to the Library of Congress in 1913, 1964, and 1965.
While spanning the period 1792 to 1964, the majority of the society's correspondence, reports, and financial and business papers date from the years 1823 to 1912.
Correspondence covers such subjects as administrative matters, the status of slaves and freedman in antebellum America, and the society's role in founding and colonizing Liberia and supporting Liberian education.
colonization. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (882 words)
Colonization may be state policy, or it may be a private project sponsored by chartered corporations or by associations and individuals.
Before colonization can be effected, the indigenous population must be subdued and assimilated or converted to the culture of the colonists; otherwise, a modus vivendi must be established by the imposition of a treaty or an alliance.
Modern colonization, frequently preceded by an era in which missionaries and traders were active, was largely exploitative, but it did not in the long run prove directly lucrative to the colonial power, because it involved a heavy drain on the treasury of the home government.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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